Five reports published by WateReuse Research Foundation
The WateReuse Research Foundation on 7 June 2011 announced five reports on the reclamation, recycling, reuse and desalination of water.The reports were:
Evaluate Wetland Systems for Treated Wastewater to Meet Competing Effluent Quality Goals (WRF-05- 006)
The project aimed to develop a design and performance matrix for known pollutants in surface- flow and subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems. The project findings indicate that constructed wetlands can be used to consistently and cost effectively reduce concentrations of conventional pollutants remaining in reclaimed wastewaters and can also further reduce levels of certain wastewater-derived organic compounds.
Guidance on Links between Water Reclamation and Reuse and Regional Growth (WRF-06-016)
Water reclamation and reuse expand in tandem with regional growth, yet the specific links between the two processes are not well understood. This study, focused in Arizona, investigated the mutual influences between water reuse and growth. It found that water reuse remains largely a supply augmentation strategy, given the growth imperative, and only where regulations require groundwater sustainability is reuse viewed as a means to substitute existing uses. Also that perceptions of the desirability of growth influence respondents' views on the acceptability of reclaimed water for various uses. The project also considered the priorities and constraints for reuse and growth faced by water and reclaimed water managers and by decision makers in local and state agencies in Arizona.
Optimization of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) for Water Reuse (WRF 06-012)
The use of indirect potable reuse (IPR) to augment and sustain water supplies is being actively evaluated to confront availability problems. The main goal of this study was to evaluate AOP performance from the perspective of the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward effluent organic matter (EfOM) and the effects on the efficiency of AOPs for micropollutant oxidation. The results from this study indicate that, depending on the specific properties of the EfOM (including molecular mass and polarity), AOP treatment could be optimized by varying conditions that are targeted for a specific water quality. The observed variability in EfOM reactivity also suggests that in some cases the efficacy of an AOP for micropollutant removal may be dependent on the changes to the EfOM.
Combining UV and Chlorination for Reclaimed Water Disinfection (WRF-06-015)
Combining disinfectants has recently attracted increasing attention, because of benefits such as disinfection of a wider range of pathogens, improved reliability through redundancy, reduced disinfection byproducts, and potential cost savings. Because chlorine and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are the most common disinfectants used at wastewater treatment plants, and because each method has specific disinfection and reaction mechanisms, research was undertaken to evaluate the combination of UV with either free chlorine or chloramines for disinfection of recycled water. The results indicate that UV combined with chloramines can achieve median total coliform levels below 2 CFU/100 mL and 5-log poliovirus inactivation; the UV/chlorine-ammonia process also generally provided 5-log MS2 inactivation, but the UV/ammonia-chlorine process provided <4-log MS2 inactivation. Free chlorine was a more effective disinfectant than chloramines. Combined UV/free chlorine provided 5-log inactivation of poliovirus and MS2, and median total coliform levels below 2 CFU/100 mL in most of the bench- and pilot-scale experiments.
Talking about Water: Vocabulary and Images that Support Informed Decisions about Water Recycling and Desalination (WRF 07-003)
This research project investigated how the images and words used to communicate with the public can affect their acceptance of water reclamation and desalination projects. After synthesizing the findings, the research team developed a glossary that can be used in communicating about water projects, including reuse and desalination. In addition, they have developed some recommendations for the water community to improve communication and public acceptance. Appendices of background research information is included on a CD-ROM. The glossary developed by the research team is available as an interactive tool at www.athirstyplanet.com.
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