Water Reuse, Monitoring, Health, Water Quality, Malta


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NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.

The IDA International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018 will feature two days of plenary, panel and technical sessions

IDA unveils lineup of speakers for water reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has secured a stellar lineup of keynote speakers for its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018, led by Spain's secretary of state for the environment, Maria Garcia Rodriguez.

IDA is seeking original work for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling

IDA issues final call for papers for upcoming reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a final call for abstracts for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling, 24 to 27 June, in Valencia, Spain.

Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium

The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test

The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water

The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation

The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.

Sydney's desalination plant

Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water

The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year

Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.

California considering CEC monitoring in water reuse

The California State Water Resources Control Board is to consider adding monitoring of constituents of emerging concern (CECs) to its requirements for recycled water at its board meeting on 16 October 2012.

IDA reuse conference calls for abstracts

The International Desalination Association (IDA) on 1 February will open its call for extended abstract submissions to be considered for presentation at its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling: Turning Vision into Reality. The conference will be held on 25-27 September, 2016 in Nice, France.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program

Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.

Community water-reuse manual published

The WateReuse Association announced on 22 October 2009 a new publication designed to help communities create a sustainable, drought-proof reclaimed water supply, while protecting public health and the environment.

San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue

San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.

San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge

The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.

Water-reuse bill to be debated in California assembly

A bill to completely revise California's water-reuse legislation was passed for its third reading on 25 May 2012 and will come up on the floor of the state assembly this week.

WateReuse has white paper for Obama and US Congress

The WateReuse Association prepared a white paper in December for the US Congress and President-elect Obama's transition team on Providing Safe, Secure and Sustainable Solutions for America's Water Needs.

Reclaiming the grass at Pebble Beach golf course

Tertiary treatment of wastewater has had a technology upgrade to improve play at Pebble Beach golf course, which recently hosted the US Open Championship. The problem was high sodium and total dissolved solids concentrations, and difficulties with reusing wastewater during low flows. Microfiltration followed by RO was selected to meet the water quality criteria. The project has improved the health of the turf grass and eliminated the need for supplemental flushing of the greens, saving up to 470,000 m /year of potable water. This article first appeared in the August/September 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published

The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Florida legislates in favor of water reuse expansion

The state legislature of Florida, USA, on 2 May 2014 passed a bill (SB 536), which directs the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), in coordination with stakeholders, to conduct a comprehensive study and submit a report on the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater and excess surface water in Florida.

Minton to lead WRRF research programs

Julie Minton has been appointed director of research programs by the WateReuse Research Foundation (WRRF), which conducts and promotes applied research on water reuse and desalination.

Global membrane market growth nears 11%

The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

Brussels seeks options on how to up water reuse

A European Union (EU) public consultation on "policy options to optimise water reuse in the EU" is approaching its close as the bloc seeks to exploit a "significant potential for further development of water reuse" among member states.

Nine projects get Reclamation feasibility funding

The Camp Pendleton desalination project in California is one of nine advanced water treatment and reuse projects in three US states selected for feasibility-study funding by the Bureau of Reclamation.

Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise

Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.

RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group

Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."

Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor

ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.

The island of Gozo, part of Malta, currently relies on groundwater extraction for its water supply

Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island

A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.

Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

The report, Water Reuse: Drivers, Innovations and Public Perceptions, is available to download from the link below

Top five takeaways on what's shaping water reuse globally

Our survey of Water. desalination + reuse readers was conducted to gauge the industry's perceptions about the factors influencing the growth of water reuse markets globally. We present the top five facts from among the rich set of data collected.

Abstracts invited for WateReuse symposium in Dallas

The WateReuse Association (WRA) has issued a call for presentations and posters for its 29th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held on 7-10 September 2014 in Dallas, Texas, USA.

MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile

A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.

New membrane and desalination leaders in CH2M Hill changes

A number of leadership changes to the top water team of US engineer CH2M Hill were announced on 5 April 2012, including new leaders for membrane and desalination technology.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution

A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

Major Chinese desalination week in Guangzhou

The China Desalination Association (CDA) is cooperating with the Qingdao International Desalination Center and the China Foreign Trade Exhibition Corp to organize the China (Guangzhou) Water Week on 23‑25 February 2012.

Oklahoma passes potable water-reuse implementation bill

The governor of the US state of Oklahoma, Mary Fallin, on 28 May 2014 signed Senate Bill 1187 making it possible for water agencies to implement potable water reuse projects.

ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality

The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

Modern Water appoints US monitoring sales VP

UK-based Modern Water plc has appointed a vice president of sales, Americas, for its Monitoring division. This appointment will strengthen the geographical reach of the division and will drive Modern Water's sales activity in North, Central and South America.

Webcast to present industrial water-reuse successes

A webcast taking a look at three industrial water-reuse success stories demonstrating why recycled water is a viable, sustainable, and necessary option is to be presented by the WateReuse Association (WRA) on 14 November 2012.

MBR upgrade for Budapest suburb's wastewater reuse

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) ultrafiltration technology is to be supplied to a suburb of Hungary's capital, Budapest, by GE to expand a wastewater reuse system and improve water quality.

Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California

The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

Deadline soon for InDA Congress abstracts

Abstracts for the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Congress - InDACON 2011 - must reach the association by 1 December 2010.

CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use

Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

Texas moves towards direct potable reuse

The US state of Texas has taken a step towards direct potable water reuse (DPR) with the Texas Water Development Board awarding a study project to Alan Plummer Associates Inc, consultants based in the state.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars

Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.

Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse

The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse will make a return visit to Dubai in 2019

IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.

Qala village is at the eastern most point of Gozo Island, close to the main Maltese archipelago

Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project

The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.

Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages

Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

Australia's CSIRO demonstrations indirect stormwater reuse

Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have bottled recycled stormwater as pure drinking water titled "Recharge", CSIRO announced on 17 September 2009.

Dow to supply membranes for new Perth plant

Dow Water & Process Solutions is to supply FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (SSDP) outside Perth, Australia.

High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater

California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.

World Water Day 2017 was the occasion for many new initiatives from desal, reuse, and water industry specialists

Best of World Water Day 2017

Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Ras Al Khaimah Municipality discovered water impurities and unsafe water bottles across nine desalination stations

Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing

Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

Researchers share industry prize for fouling research

Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.

Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding

US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

Dr Corrado Sommariva

Sommariva secures International Desalination Association presidency

Dr Corrado Sommariva, managing director of ILF Consultants Middle East, was elected president of the International Desalination Association on 5 September 2011, the first day of the IDA's World Congress in Perth, Australia.

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants

Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.

'The industry's tendency to evaluate technology on capital cost, as opposed to total lifecycle cost, impedes the application of new technologies,' Joe Gifford, Nanostone

Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development

Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

The new manual, Harmful Algal Blooms and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring, and Management, synthesizes knowledge from multiple case studies

First guide to harmful algal blooms launches at IDA World Congress 2017

UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) introduced the world's first guide to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on Tuesday 17 October 2017, at IDA World Congress.


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