Water Reuse, Desalination, Colombia, Recovery, Desalination, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September
The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.
IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination
Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources
Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Amiad to supply RO prefiltration system in Colombia
Amiad Water Systems has been awarded a US$ 7.7 million contract for the supply and maintenance of a prefiltration solution for reverse osmosis membrane protection at a desalination plant at an oil & gas operation in Colombia.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
Papers deadline stretched for IWA reuse conference
The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of outline papers for the 9th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse.
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now
An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
US water and wastewater may get US$ 11.8 billion boost
Water reuse measures totalling US$ 126 million to be undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation are one of a number of measures included in the US$ 825 billion economic recovery legislation proposed by the House of Representatives Appropriations Committee on 15 January 2009, which is also likely to benefit upcoming desalination projects.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant
A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.
CaribDA to hold water reuse workshop in April
The Caribbean Desalination Association is to hold a Water Reuse Workshop in April 2013.
Desalination / reuse part of large EIB loan to Spain
Desalination plants, water-reuse schemes and connections from them to water networks will be among schemes funded by a € 350 million loan from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to the Spanish government agency Acuamed.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
ALADYR affiliates to International Desalination Association
The Asociación Latinoamericana de Desalación y Reuse del Agua (ALADYR) has become the newest affiliate organization to join the International Desalination Association (IDA), bringing to 15 the number of regional and association IDA affiliates around the world.
Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers
The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
Treatment of process effluent water for reuse in food production
Effluent water reuse in the food industry raises inevitable questions about the risk and reliability of wastewater treatment and recovery processes in meeting the required standards. The author looks at how two food processing facilities adopted process water recovery and reuse shows how the benefits can be a maximized and how the challenges live among the detail. This article first appeared in the November/ December 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.
VSEP system treats Colombian landfill leachate
Calfornia-based New Logic Research (NLR) announced on 8 February 2012 that it had successfully commissioned a landfill leachate treatment system in Colombia using its vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system.
US govt to invest US$ 135 million in water reuse
The US Department of the Interior announced on 15 April 2009 the investment of US$1 billion under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) in America's water infrastructure to create jobs and get the economy moving again. Of this, US$ 135 million is available for grants for water reuse and recycling projects.
Water-reuse funding may be used to counter drought
The US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar on 26 February 2009 called on the Bureau of Reclamation to explore ways in which funds recently appropriated to Reclamation under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act for water reuse and other water projects might be used to help stretch California's water supplies in the coming months.
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project
Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.
San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge
The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
Escondido moves towards indirect potable reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California, USA, could be about to follow neighbour San Diego in setting up an indirect potable water-reuse (IPR) scheme as part of a wastewater facility upgrade costing about US$ 200 million.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
Tata power plant installs cooling water reuse
India's largest power company, Tata Power, has installed a reverse osmosis plant at its Power House #6 power station in Jamshedpur to recover and reuse blow-down water from cooling towers.
B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations
Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp
Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.
Obama government allocates US$ 126 million for water recycling
The new US government led by President Obama is to provide US$ 126 million for water recycling projects, alongside US$ 6 billion for state potable water programmes and many other water funding resources.
Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding
The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.
Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant
Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Energy Recovery chief to quit
Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.
IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.
Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination
PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.
STW joins HFEIS developer to target power/desalination
STW Resources Holding Corp of Texas, USA, announced on 18 September 2013 a mutual strategic relationship with Colorado‑based Tat‑Tech Inc to remediate oil-sands waste, brackish groundwater and seawater via the construction and operation of proprietary systems developed by Tat‑Tech.
North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company
A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
New appointments for D&WR Editorial Board members
Two members of the Editorial Board of Desalination & Water Reuse have taken up new appointments.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
ERI chief calls for less plant downtime
The new CEO of Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), Tom Rooney, in an interview with Desalination & Water Reuse (D&WR) at the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 7 September 2011, revealed that the company was now focusing on the issue of plant utilization.
Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests
The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
EDS and SPE host joint oil/gas desalination workshop
The European Desalination Society is joining the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) to present a joint workshop on Desalination in the Oil and Gas Industry.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Victoria urged to set new reuse and desalination goals
A committee set up by the Victoria state government in Australia has recommended that enforceable water recyling and reuse targets at Melbourne's sewage treatment plants should be raised to 50% by 2012 and 70% by 2015.
Veolia buys rights to ZDD desalination technology
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has acquired worldwide rights to commercialize a new patented zero discharge desalination (ZDD) technology developed at the University of South Carolina by ZDD Inc.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
Piedmont Pacific's Jim Medanich dies at 75
One of the best loved characters of the desalination world passed away on 9 November 2013 - James Medanich, founder and president of Piedmont Pacific Corporation.
Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player
Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Biwater to supply UF and RO systems to California replenishment project
Biwater, UK, has won a contract to design, supply and supervise ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis systems for Southern California's Groundwater Reliability Improvement Program.
Field results in Namibia and Brazil from new solar desalination system
Aimed at rural and coastal zones, a new thermal desalination system with heat recovery has been developed and tested in different countries. The system has a desalination tower with multiple stages and a set of solar thermal collectors. This article presents the field results of two systems tested in Brazil, and the numerical results of a design installation for Namibia. For Namibia, six systems are planned with capacity of 400-500 L/d. In Brazil, two systems with a 35-40 L/d capacity were tested. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit
Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.
Vacuum-driven MD breakthrough promised by memsys
Vacuum-driven membrane distillation (MD) delivers high flux and true multi-effect distillation with very good energy recovery. The process runs at low temperature levels and is fully modular. This article describes the background of the development of the memsys company, membrane distillation, its specific advantages and potential applications, current and planned demonstration plants, and MD s future role in desalination. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Energy Recovery trials its pump-guarding fracking system
Liberty Oilfield Services is to conduct trials of Energy Recovery's Vor Teq hydraulic pumping system for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at US well sites. The system is based on Energy Recovery's PX Pressure Exchanger technology which is deployed in more than 15,000 desalination installations worldwide according to Energy Recovery.
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
The experts' pick of the panels at IDA World Congress 2017
The crack team behind the technical program at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sau Paulo, Brazil, have selected their personal not-be-missed favourite sessions from a packed line-up.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Fluid dynamics secret to pressure-booster record
At the EuroMed conference in Tel Aviv, Israel, in October 2010, those on the FEDCO booth at the exhibition were all wearing big smiles. The reason was the performance achieved by the company s turbocharger energy-recovery device (ERD) for the Jeddah III seawater reverse-osmosis desalination project. A condition of the contract was that the ERD transfer efficiency exceeded 80%, something which had never before been achieved. Not only did the FEDCO machine hit the target, but the company predicts it can go even higher. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
New thinking required to overcome potential water-reuse barriers
From October 2009 through June 2010, Black & Veatch conducted a series of six high-level roundtable discussions around the globe that brought together about 75 industry thought leaders to review the barriers to water reuse and to explore the solutions and processes needed for overcoming them. Overall, participants in the six roundtable discussions agreed that adequate future water supply hinges on intelligent recovery and reuse. But advancing the option of water reuse will require new ways of thinking and new paradigms. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Innovative Intake Designs
The search for additional reductions in the cost of seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination needs new leads now energy recovery has gone about as far as it can go. The authors believe this can be done by improving raw-water quality using innovative intake designs. The use of "filtration" type intakes can have a significant effect on reducing the life-cycle cost of a SWRO plant. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
PUB 'to develop and commercialise' new technology with RfPs worth $23million
Singapore's national water agency PUB has issued requests for proposals (RfPs) in three fields of water technology research, with a budget totalling SGD 30 million ($23 million).