Wastewater Treatment, Singapore, Reverse Osmosis, Flat Sheet, Forward Osmosis, Australia, Algae, Algae


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Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae

Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

Algae biomass membrane order for Denmark's LiqTech

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc has received a purchase order of around US$ 300,000 for a prototype filtration system to be used in an algae biomass project.

Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield

Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Modern Water claims first FO commercial desalination contract

UK-based Modern Water has won what is believed to be the first ever forward-osmosis (FO) commercial contract for desalination, following its award of a UK£ 500,000 (US$ 810,000) contract for a 200 m³/d plant by Oman's Public Authority for Electricity & Water (PAEW).

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China

Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.

RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines

A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.

Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo

Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

The XTB Nanobubble Generator is a patented technology that can reduce energy consumption in water treatment

Nanobubble specialist Moleaer raises capital, seeks people

Moleaer, the California, US-based water technology firm that developed the XTB Nanobubble Generator has raised $6 million to support overseas expansion.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Direct membrane filtration simplifies reuse process

Recent trials have proven that direct membrane filtration of high solids (algae) and disinfection provides a simpler treatment process with substantial cost reduction. In Pillbara, Australia, two plants are being constructed to treat wastewater for recycling aiming for a 4-log removal of bacteria and viruses by filtering alone. Ultraviolet treatment provides the final requirement to reach the required 6-log removal rate. This article gives an overview of the application, and details on the technology and design used. It first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Sembcorp to build Chinese chemical wastewater plant

Sembcorp announced on 19 December 2013 that it would be developing a new industrial wastewater treatment plant in the Caofeidian Chemical Industrial Park in Hebei province, China.

United Envirotech to acquire Singapore membrane-maker

Singapore's United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) is to acquire its own membrane manufacturing capability by spending S$ 293.4 million (US$ 231 million) on a 100% stake in Memstar Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Memstar Technology Ltd, also of Singapore, plus certain assets.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China

A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).

2014 Oman conference to look at HABs and desalination

An international conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) & Desalination is to be held in Muscat, Oman, in April 2014.

Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants

Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).

memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs

A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.

Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech

Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.

Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses

The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.

The Bundamba wastewater reuse plant in Queensland

Virtual tour online for Bundamba AWT

The multi award-winning Bundamba Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, which is already featured in a video available from Koch Membrane Systems, now has its own online virtual tour.

MBR technologies help expand Queensland treatment plant

A sewage treatment plant in Queensland, Australia, will double its capacity to 1,000 m³/d with the help of membrane bioreactor technologies provided by GE.

The algal bloom hit Barka desalination expansion plants 1 and 2 in the Gulf of Oman

Abunayyan resigns as chair of ACWA Power Barka

Mohammad Abdullah Abunayyan has resigned as chairman and board director of ACWA Power Barka in Oman, citing personal reasons.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Algae: a tide of trouble

The water services provider at the industrial port at Sohar in the Oman has learned the hard way, how to combat the seasonal algal wave that can grind vital reverse osmosis desalination and other water treatment to a halt. Despite unprecedented assaults the notorious Red Tide has been tamed. This article first appeared in the May 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore

The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.

Membrane market growth to run until 2020

The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.

Study shows novel heavy-metals-from-wastewater method

Scientists in Singapore and Saudi Arabia have reported a novel method for extracting toxic and valuable heavy metals from wastewater using forward osmosis (FO).

Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China

Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.

Joint venture wins Perth groundwater replenishment contract

Western Australia's Water Corporation has awarded a contract to design, construct, and commission a full-scale advanced water replenishment plant (AWRP) to a joint venture between CH2M Hill,and engineering company Thiess. The project will help secure Perth's drinking water supplies through 2060

Water Corporation/Murdoch U to host 2010 IDA Fellowship Program

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has named the Water Corporation and Murdoch University in Western Australia as joint host agencies for its 2010 Fellowship Award Program.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

Desalination and reuse in Water Leaders' Blue Paper

Key ideas from the Water Leaders Summit at this year's Singapore International Water Week have been captured in the latest Water Week 2011 publications, Blue Paper and Solutions.

Ashwin Gulati (left) of Spiral Water receives the Innovation Award from BlueTech Research chief executive Paul O'Callaghan

Spiral scoops innovation award for its 'disruptive' automatic self-cleaning filter

Spiral Water has picked up an Innovation Award from BlueTech Research for its automatic self-cleaning water filter, a "disruptive" new filter technology according to Spiral chief executive Ashwin Gulati.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water

Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.

Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination

Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.

Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore

A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

Grundfos reforms in bid to double Asia Pacific revenues

Danish pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has unveiled an organisational restructure in its Asia Pacific operations where it is looking to "double revenues over the next five years." The reshuffle will "improve customer service, enhance organisational efficiency, and drive the next phase of growth in the Asia Pacific."

Abigroup to build Kooragang wastewater reuse plant

Construction of the Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme (KIWS) in New South Wales, Australia, is to be carried out by Abigroup under an Aus$ 40 million (US$ 40 million) contract.

Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June

A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.

Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO

Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

Adelaide's desalination plant - built because of government subsidy?

Australia has overinvested in desalination says government report

Australia has overinvested in desalination in recent years, says a draft report from the Australian Productivity Commission, published on 13 April 2011. One alternative it recommends is indirect potable reuse.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

Left to right: City of Rockingham Mayor Barry Sammels with Parliamentary Secretary for Regional Development Gary Gray and Murdoch University Professor John Yovich at Murdoch's pilot desalination plant in Rockingham.

Australia's desalination centre sited at Murdoch University

Australia's new National Centre of Excellence in Desalination is to be hosted by Murdoch University's Rockingham campus as a result of a Aus$ 20 million (US$ 15.5 million) award from the federal government.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

Mott MacDonald absorbs Australasian water specialist

The Mott MacDonald consultancy group has taken in AWT, a specialist water technology and consulting company based in New Zealand and Australia.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development

A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."

Singapore's Changi wastewater reclamation plant.

Tender later this year for Changi expansion

A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.

Australia's MAK Water buys Clearmake for expansion

Australian reverse-osmosis desalination manufacturer MAK Industrial Water Systems has acquired Queensland-based Clearmake Water Treatment & Recycling Solutions as part of a national expansion strategy across Australia.

Al Ansab STP Phase 1

AECOM to design Al Ansab Phase 2 MBR in Oman

Phase 2 of the Al Ansab Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Muscat, Oman, which will be based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, will be designed by AECOM.

Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

Desalination worries for Hyflux in Libya

Singapore-based contractor Hyflux is "closely monitoring" the situation in Libya, where it is due to start work shortly on a 40,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis facility under a contract awarded in November 2010 by the General People's Committee for Utilities (the Ministry of Utilities in Libya).

Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya

A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.

Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.

NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore

Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.

The new partnerships reflect the theme of SIWW 2017, ‘Forging Alliances Amongst Global Water Utility Leaders’

PUB partners with SWCC and Water Corporation on shared challenges

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has formed two new knowledge sharing partnerships with key international water utilities through memorandums of understanding (MOUs) signed at Singapore International Water Week, 8 to 12 July 2017.

Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial

Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.

Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests

The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.

Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya

Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.

Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

Changi NEWater Phase 1 RO delivered in 7 months

The first phase (40%) of the reverse-osmosis (RO) trains for Singapore's Changi NEWater treatment plant have been delivered within 7 months into the contract, sub-contractor Biwater announced on 5 December 2008.

Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance

Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant

A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.

IDA announces final academy details for Singapore

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced details of its inaugural set of courses and faculty for the new IDA Desalination Academy, which will officially be launched in conjunction with the 2012 Singapore International Water Week.

US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination

Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant

Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.

New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report

By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.

TWO process to recover sodium sulphate from ion-exchange

California-based Catalyx Inc has signed a build-own-operate contract with RG Global Lifestyles Inc, which owns Catalyx Fluid Systems (CFS), for a brine dehydration system to facilitate recovery of sodium sulfate from ion-exchange regenerant brine.

Forward-osmosis patent filed by QuantumSphere

Another forward-osmosis process has taken a step forward. QuantumSphere Inc filed for a US patent on 14 January 2009 for its water purification process, which, it claims, serves as a more energy-efficient alternative to desalination methods now commonly used.

Singapore desalination pressure-vessel contract for ROPV

Pressure-vessel producer ROPV announced on 12 September 2011 that Hyflux had awarded the company a contract to supply pressure vessels to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant, Singapore's second and largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.

Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant

A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.

DWEER ERDs chosen for Singapore desalination plant

Singapore's new 318,200 m³/d Tuaspring seawater desalination plant will use DWEER™ devices to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream of the reverse-osmosis process.

Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal

A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

GE forms salt-extraction consortium in Australia

An agreement which brings together GE, Penrice Soda Holdings Ltd, Australia's only manufacturer of soda ash and sodium bicarbonate, and Australian coal-seam gas (CSG) producer QGC Pty Ltd was announced on 24 October 2011.

Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project

The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.

NCED Australia opens operator training registration

The National Centre of Excellence in Desalination Australia has opened registration for its operator training in desalination and water treatment in 2013.

Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

Osmoflo wins US$ 15m wastewater reuse contract

Water and wastewater firm, Osmoflo, has won a US$ 15 million contract for the design, construction and commissioning of a wastewater treatment plant in northern Western Australia to produce reclaimed water for use in irrigation.


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