Wastewater Treatment, Seawater, Water Reuse, Nevada


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SWMOA announces dates for 2013-14

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced additional workshop dates for desalination and water / wastewater treatment membrane operators for 2013 and the date and venue for its 2014 annual symposium.

New AMTA/AWWA convention set for Las Vegas in 2014

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it has reached an interim agreement with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) to renew their combined desalination and water treatment membrane event for 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year

Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.

UK water firm plans two water reuse plants

UK water company South East Water is to develop two water reuse schemes as part of its bid to ensure supply meets demand to 2040. 

MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program

Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.

Chinese visitors for West Basin water-reuse plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water district announced on 26 April 2013 that earlier in the month it had received a visit from a group of public and private administrators from China interested to learn about water recycling facilities and the management experiences of US enterprises in wastewater treatment.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

SWMOA calls for papers for Vegas in February 2011

The South West Membrane Operator Association has scheduled its 2011 Annual Symposium for Las Vegas, Nevada, on 7-9 February 2011.

Reclamation funds reuse in California and New Mexico

Five congressionally authorized water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico, USA, will receive cost-shared funding for planning, design and construction of their projects, following a Bureau of Reclamation announcement on 21 May 2013.

US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes

The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.

Patricia Burke, IDA secretary general

Tianjin selected for 2013 IDA World Desalination Congress

Tianjin, China, is to be the venue for the 2013 World Congress on Desalination & Water Reuse to be held by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

IWA extends deadline for Toronto membrane papers

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of papers for the 7th IWA Specialised Membrane Technology Conference & Exhibition for Water & Wastewater Treatment & Reuse.

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

Miami-Dade's US$ 13 billion plans pull in punters for PPP

Miami-Dade County has become the most attractive public private partnership (PPP) opportunity in the US with players chasing US$ 13 billion in water and wastewater projects according to market analyst Bluefield Research.

H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract

A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.

Water reuse grant applications invited in US

The US Bureau of Reclamation has invited bids for the latest round of grants to be issued under the Title XVI Water Reclamation & Reuse Program, which will provide cost-shared funding for planning, design or construction of authorised projects.

Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse

The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.

Oman water-reuse contract awarded by Haya Water

Oman's Haya Water awarded a RO 26.7 million (US$ 69.6 million) contract on 21 May 2012 to Contractors Union Co to construct the second phase of a water-reuse project in Al Qurum and Madinat Al Ilam areas in Muscat Governorate.

World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse

Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

Saudi poised for sevefold hike in water reuse

Unveiling a white paper highlighting government policy options for addressing water scarcity in Saudi Arabia, GE Power & Water said the kingdom was in a position to up its reuse of wastewater sevenfold to more than 240 million m³/year.

MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile

A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.

Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs

Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility

Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.

Dow project seeks to promote reuse

Dow Water & Process Solutions, is participating in one of ten European Commission-funded projects that aim to stimulate innovation and improve cohesion in Europe's water reuse sector.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

Chinese visitors are shown the MBR plant at Al Ansab.

Chinese delegation visits Oman's Al Ansab MBR plant

A Chinese delegation led by the deputy minister of water resources, Lee Joieeing, visited Oman's Al Ansab submerged membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant in Muscat on 24 October 2011 (featured in D&WR, November/December 2011).

WaterMatch website launched to encourage water reuse

Engineering company CH2M Hill has launched a social networking site that promotes the beneficial reuse of municipal effluent for industrial and agricultural use at the local level.

USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse

A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.

STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract

Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.

Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September

The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.

Acciona WWTP contract in Peru will allow reuse

A € 17 million contract won by Spain's Acciona Agua for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Peru will enable water reuse on local farms.

Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco

UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.



Public meeting set for San Joaquin water reuse EIS

The US Bureau of Reclamation has set a public scoping meeting for 13 May 2014 as part of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process for the proposed North Valley Regional Recycled Water Program (NVRRWP) in California's San Joaquin Valley.

Doosan Hydro wins Al Jubail membrane treatment contract

Florida-based Doosan Hydro Technology has been awarded a US$ 10 million contract by Daelim Industrial Co Ltd for the industrial wastewater treatment and reuse package on the Saudi Elastomers Project (SEP) located in Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Dutch government funding CapDI development for reuse

The development of the Capacitive Deionisation (CapDI) desalination system for wastewater recycling is to be funded specifically for agricultural use by a € 1.2 million order for Voltea BV awarded on 26 May 2011 by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & the Environment (MIE).

Jorge T Aguinaldo

New quartet joins RWL's Aeromix and Nirosoft

RWL Water has recently added four new staff to its group companies Aeromix and Nirosoft.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

ADB backs US$ 240 million Chinese water-reuse loans

A US$ 240 million loan package was agreed in Beijing on 20 November 2013 to upgrade wastewater treatment plants in China to meet the grade 1A standard, which means the water can be reused for industry cooling and watering city gardens.

Giant S African power plant to have maximum water reuse

Maximum water reuse for what will be one of the world's largest coal-fired power plants in South Africa is to be provided by GE under a US$ 40 million contract.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Singapore's Changi wastewater reclamation plant.

Tender later this year for Changi expansion

A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.

Large MBR plant opens in Oman next week

Oman's Haya Water plans next week to officially open the Al Ansab water treatment plant, which has a large membrane bioreactor (MBR) at its heart and is the main part of the Bausher Water Reuse Project.

Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations

More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU

GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.

The Bundamba wastewater reuse plant in Queensland

Virtual tour online for Bundamba AWT

The multi award-winning Bundamba Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, which is already featured in a video available from Koch Membrane Systems, now has its own online virtual tour.

Large wastewater expansion in Qatar to use UF

Indian engineering and construction company Larsen & Toubro announced on 11 May 2010 that its business unit had secured a contract for Doha South Sewage Treatment Works, Qatar, involving ultrafiltration technology.

MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project

An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system

MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site

Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.

WERF guidance on indirect reuse contaminant removal

A new report from the Water Environment Research Foundation in the USA concludes that examining multiple barriers of drinking-water systems can help assure the absence of detectable levels of trace organic compounds in recycled water.

Bay agencies band together for water reuse funding

Water reuse, particularly for irrigation, is getting major attention in the San Francisco Bay area of California, USA. Municipalities and water districts are banding together to obtain federal funding.

Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project

The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

Nuverra/Haliburton accord on produced-water treatment

Nuverra Environmental Solutions Inc, which until mid-May 2013 was known as Heckmann Corporation, announced on 15 July 2013 that it has entered into an agreement with Halliburton to advance the treatment and recycling of produced water to be reused in the hydraulic fracturing process.

IDA reuse conference calls for abstracts

The International Desalination Association (IDA) on 1 February will open its call for extended abstract submissions to be considered for presentation at its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling: Turning Vision into Reality. The conference will be held on 25-27 September, 2016 in Nice, France.

Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player

Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.

Dr Isabel Escobar

Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal

Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Cape Town action on desalination and water reuse

The City of Cape Town, South Africa, is planning to issue a tender for a feasibility study of a "large‐ scale" seawater desalination plant within the next month. The study will determine the most appropriate location and size for such a plant.

Philippine/Japanese consortium buys UU Australia

United Utilities Australia Pty Ltd, which is involved in several membrane-based desalination and water reuse projects in Australia, has been bought by a consortium including Manila Water of the Philippines and Mitubishi Corp and JGC Corporation of Japan.

LiqTech specialises in developing technologies to clean up water and emissions from industrial sites including power plants

LiqTech International hails 'breakthrough' with Finnish industrial reuse contract

New York Stock Exchange-listed LiqTech International has hailed an "international breakthrough" after it won an industrial water reuse contract for a power plant in Finland.

Funds from the US Bureau of Reclamation are targeted to support a total of 23 projects across seven US states

US grants $23.6 million federal funding for reuse and desal projects

The US Bureau of Reclamation has handed sums totalling $23.6 million to seven US states to support water reuse and desalination projects.

US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops

Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.

NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China

Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.

Solar pond and membrane distillation merger in Nevada University

Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermally driven membrane separation process that involves evaporation of volatile constituents (water in desalination applications) through a hydrophobic, microporous membrane. The vacuum-enhanced MD process recently patented by researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno in the United States has now been coupled with some equally interesting research at the university on solar ponds. The configuration is now being studied using a small-scale indoor pond and new capillary MD membranes. While MD has been studied in the past in conjunction with solar ponds, new membranes, new techniques and new auxiliary technologies are improving MD, solar ponds and their synergistic combination. This article was first published in the February/March 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

Guinea desalination project changes hands

Nevada-based Dhanoa Minerals Ltd is to acquire a 75% majority interest in a 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) seawater desalination project in the Republic of Guinea in West Africa.

California regulators seek less water restriction as Carlsbad kicks in

California regulators have proposed that a 25% state-mandated water conservation target should be eased off on grounds including the start up of major desalination and water reuse programmes.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

Rodrigo Turra

New Chile office and country chief for IDE Technologies

IDE Technologies has opened a new office in Chile and appointed Rodrigo Turra as country sales director.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

IDA energy task force meeting in Abu Dhabi

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will convene the first meeting of its global Energy Task Force in conjunction with the International Water Summit, which takes place on 15-17 January 2013 in Abu Dhabi.

New membrane and desalination leaders in CH2M Hill changes

A number of leadership changes to the top water team of US engineer CH2M Hill were announced on 5 April 2012, including new leaders for membrane and desalination technology.

Rick Stover is executive vice president of Desalitech and an IDA board member

Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"


Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016

Desalination consortium to pass resources on to AMTA

The Affordable Desalination Consortium (ADC), which is wrapping up its program of work this year, is to transfer the resources left after its closure to the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA).

Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test

Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.

Perth desalination expansion could swap for reuse project

The water minister of Western Australia, Bill Marmion, was quoted in the Australian media on 27 May 2011 as saying that the expansion of the Southern Seawater desalination plant may be indefinitely delayed in favour of more water reuse.

Nine projects get Reclamation feasibility funding

The Camp Pendleton desalination project in California is one of nine advanced water treatment and reuse projects in three US states selected for feasibility-study funding by the Bureau of Reclamation.

IDA Tianjin desalination/water-reuse forum set for April

Tianjin Municipal People's Government and the International Desalination Association (IDA) will host the 2011 Desalination and Water Reuse International Forum in Tianjin, China on 6-8 April 2011. Its theme is Sustainable Solutions for the Future.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Hunter Water to look at desalination/reuse again

Desalination and water reuse are back on the table as options for the future water supply of the Hunter Valley area of New South Wales, Australia, following the state government's axing of the Tillegra dam on 28 November 2010.

Papers called for AMTA-SEDA joint conference in Miami

A call has been issued for papers for the joint 2011 American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) annual conference and exposition with the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA).

Second Singapore desalination plant to be launched soon

Singapore will soon be unveiling plans for a second desalination plant, Teo Chee Hean, deputy prime minister and minister for defence, said at the opening ceremony for the Singapore International Water Week on 28 June 2010.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Funds on the way for Long Beach desalination R&D

Federal US funding for the Long Beach desalination and water-reuse development projects in California now only needs President Obama's signature after the Senate on 15 October 2009 approved the final version of the US$ 33.5 billion 2010 Energy & Water Appropriations bill.

 L to R: Heiner Markhoff, GE Water CEO and president, Dr Tony Yan, chairman, National Research Foundation of Singapore, Prof Dr Chorh Chuan, president, NUS.

New Singapore center will develop desalination/reuse solutions

GE and the National University of Singapore (NUS) are investing US$ 100 million in the Singapore Water Technology Center, which will seek new solutions for low-energy seawater desalination, water reclamation and more efficient water reuse.

Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore

The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Doyen of Japanese desalination retiring

Dr Totaro Goto, former managing director of the Water Re-use Desalination Center (WDRC) in Japan and a former member of the D&WR Editorial Board, is to retire from the center at the end of March.

A 500 m³/day MSF/FBE evaporator, Isle of Texel, Netherlands.

MSF/FBE seawater desalination and fouling hypersaline wastewater treatment

The Multi-Stage Flash/Fluidised Bed Evaporator (MSF/FBE) is not strictly a new technology, but the applications suggested in this article are new. It is claimed to halve the costs of distillate production compared with most advanced conventional MSFs and is suggested as a way to expand existing MSF plants. Another application is the wind-powered MSF/FBE for distillate production at remote underdeveloped locations. This article also introduces a Vapour Compression/Fluidised Bed Evaporator (VC/FBE) for the treatment and concentration of saline and severely fouling industrial and mining (waste)water streams. This article first appeared in the August/September 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.


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