Wastewater Treatment, Residential, Sludge, Ceramic, Seawater, Health, Kenya, Water Quality, Malta
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard
The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts
A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.
Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture
Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa
Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.
Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research
Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
Partnership launches ceramic trial
Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA
Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to
demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater
Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.
Automatic Italian RO bought by Kenyan resort
A means of getting reverse-osmosis (RO) into sub-Saharan Africa has been provided by Italy's Innova Ltd, which recently delivered its first automatic seawater RO desalination plant with 100 m³/d capacity to a tourist resort in Kenya.
Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine
The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water
The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Kenya signs MoU for Mombasa desalination study
The government of Kenya has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for Toyota Tsusho Corporation to carry out a feasibility study for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in the Mombasa district.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant
A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.
US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore
Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.
Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes
The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.
Membrane pioneer draws new investment
Water treatment membrane and solutions developer, Water Planet, has received a new Series B round of investment for its development and commercialization of its industrial wastewater treatment technologies.
Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion
California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.
Desalination health and environment book to be published in June
A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.
Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding
US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.
Hurley appointed president/CEO of Parkson
Florida-based Parkson Corporation announced the appointment on 24 April 2012 of Shamus M Hurley as its new president and CEO. Hurley, who served for the last five years as CEO of Kinetico - a leading manufacturer of residential and commercial water treatment systems - replaces Zain Mahmood.
Dow and Haier agree new domestic RO membrane supply
A new collaboration agreement has been finalised between Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS) and Chinese global domestic products provider Haier for continued use of Dow membranes.
US export finance boost for water and energy projects
US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco
UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
California town uses fast-track laws to push through desalination plant
California coastal tourist town Cambria has used the state's fast-track approval scheme for measures to address its drought emergency to build a desalination plant scheduled to go on stream later this month after only six months in preparation.
USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse
A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.
STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract
Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
New contracts announced by H2O Innovation
A 150,000 GPD (568 m³/d) membrane wastewater treatment system for a First Nation community in Manitoba, Canada, is one of new contracts totaling US$ 2.4 million announced on 12 January 2011 by H2O Innovation.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy
Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy
Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant
A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.
IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya
Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week
A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.
NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol
A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).
Global membrane market growth nears 11%
The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.
Reports: Mombasa awards desalination contract
Mombasa County, Keyna, has awarded a design, build and operate contract for new desalination capacity, reports Daily Nation.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
Best of World Water Day 2017
Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.
US powerplant water emission rules to be tightened, say environmentalists
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to tighten up on water emissions from powerplants, according to a press release from a collection of US environmental groups.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development
Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development
MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program
Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.
Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge
The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.
Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China
Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island
A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.
Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.
California district ups desalination and reuse incentive by 36%
Southern California's Metropolitan Water District has increased by 36% the financial
incentive for water agencies to develop and produce recycled water, recovered
groundwater, and desalinated seawater supplies.
Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running
The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions
Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.
German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment
German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation
The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
EPA issues second list of endocrine disruptors
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on 17 November 2010 a second list of chemicals for which it intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP).
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled
A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.
WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water
The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes
An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.
Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects
German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors
FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.
New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade
The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.
Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo
Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.
ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant
Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.
VA Tech Wabag wins industrial reuse plant in Gujarat
Ultrafiltration (UF), reverse-osmosis (RO) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) will all be part of a 32,420 m³/d effluent treatment and recycling plant to be built in India by Chennai-based VA Tech Wabag.
UK government underpins water works in Iraqi Kurdistan
UK water engineer Biwater has won a $1.2 billion contract from Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), Iraq, to deliver new and upgrade water projects in the region.
WABAG completes Namibia reclamation plant
Austria-based water engineering group, WABAG, has completed a water reclamation plant in Namibia's capital Windhoek.
MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project
An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system
MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site
Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'
The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.
Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project
The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.