Wastewater Treatment, Research, Publication, Sludge, Nanofiltration, Seawater, Health, Kenya, Water Quality, Malta
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.
Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research
Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.
NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard
The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.
November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts
A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.
Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.
Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa
Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.
Community water-reuse manual published
The WateReuse Association announced on 22 October 2009 a new publication designed to help communities create a sustainable, drought-proof reclaimed water supply, while protecting public health and the environment.
Automatic Italian RO bought by Kenyan resort
A means of getting reverse-osmosis (RO) into sub-Saharan Africa has been provided by Italy's Innova Ltd, which recently delivered its first automatic seawater RO desalination plant with 100 m³/d capacity to a tourist resort in Kenya.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water
The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.
Kenya signs MoU for Mombasa desalination study
The government of Kenya has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for Toyota Tsusho Corporation to carry out a feasibility study for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in the Mombasa district.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy
Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy
Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion
California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.
Desalination health and environment book to be published in June
A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.
First guide to harmful algal blooms launches at IDA World Congress 2017
UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) introduced the world's first guide to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on Tuesday 17 October 2017, at IDA World Congress.
USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse
A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.
PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation
The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.
STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract
Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.
Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding
US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
New contracts announced by H2O Innovation
A 150,000 GPD (568 m³/d) membrane wastewater treatment system for a First Nation community in Manitoba, Canada, is one of new contracts totaling US$ 2.4 million announced on 12 January 2011 by H2O Innovation.
Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco
UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
Best of World Water Day 2017
Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
Global membrane market growth nears 11%
The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.
IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya
Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
US powerplant water emission rules to be tightened, say environmentalists
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to tighten up on water emissions from powerplants, according to a press release from a collection of US environmental groups.
UN gives EIA guidance for desalination
In September 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme released a new guidance document entitled Desalination - Resource and Guidance Manual for Environmental Impact Assessments.
Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China
Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.
Reports: Mombasa awards desalination contract
Mombasa County, Keyna, has awarded a design, build and operate contract for new desalination capacity, reports Daily Nation.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week
A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program
Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.
USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants
Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.
Dow gets NF start in Saudi Arabia at Ha'il
The Dow Chemical Company has been chosen to supply water nanofiltration technology to the Ha'il nanofiltration (NF) plant by the Ministry of Water & Electricity in Saudi Arabia.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
Desalination drives nanofiltration market growth
Desalination is one of the primary forces behind nearly three quarters of a 15% growth forecast in the nanofiltration (NF) market worldwide that will take it above US$ 445 million by 2019 according to market researcher BCC Research.
Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island
A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
Xylem and Mekorot sign technology evaluation accord
Xylem Inc has signed an agreement with WaTech®, the technological development center of Mekorot, Israel's national water company, to evaluate new water technologies and accelerate commercialization of innovative products and services.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running
The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.
Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding
The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.
Researchers share industry prize for fouling research
Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water
The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.
Boron-nitride nanotubes speed desalination, says Australian research
Researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) claim to have discovered a way to speed the desalination of seawater by up to five times using nanotubes made from boron and nitrogen atoms.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
EPA issues second list of endocrine disruptors
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on 17 November 2010 a second list of chemicals for which it intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP).
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine
The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.
FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors
FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
Bluewater Bio bags Bahraini upgrade project
Bluewater Bio of the UK has won a project to upgrade Tubli wastewater treatment plant in Bahrain that will more than double the plant's capacity for water reuse.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract
Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.
Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test
The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
WateReuse has white paper for Obama and US Congress
The WateReuse Association prepared a white paper in December for the US Congress and President-elect Obama's transition team on Providing Safe, Secure and Sustainable Solutions for America's Water Needs.
UK government underpins water works in Iraqi Kurdistan
UK water engineer Biwater has won a $1.2 billion contract from Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), Iraq, to deliver new and upgrade water projects in the region.
Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California
The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
AECOM to design Al Ansab Phase 2 MBR in Oman
Phase 2 of the Al Ansab Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Muscat, Oman, which will be based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, will be designed by AECOM.
De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules
De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.
Suez and Solvay win first contract in China to treat brine with AOP
Suez and Solvay have won their first contract in China to treat brine from a reverse osmosis desalination plant using a jointly developed advanced oxidation process.
STS Apliclor to open new Madrid office
Barcelona-based Severn Trent Services - Apliclor, a leading supplier of water and wastewater solutions in Spain, has announced a range of strategic initiatives to expand the scope and geographic range of its business.
SEDA Spring Symposium brochure available for download
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has a brochure available for its 2013 Spring Symposium to be held at Delray Beach, Florida.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
T Park sets the bar high with advanced desalination plant
Veolia chief executive Antoine Frerot hailed "the sewage stations of the future" on opening T Park in Hong Kong, the world's largest sewage treatment plant, on 26 May.
H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract
A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant
Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.
H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO
The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).
New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade
The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.
PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology
Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).
MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project
An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system
MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site
Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.
National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'
The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.