Wastewater Reuse, Seawater, Middle East, Safety
Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations
More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.
Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant
Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.
CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March
Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.
High-flow cartridges provide safety filter solution for RO
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in membrane technology in China. It has been widely used in many fields, including seawater desalination, power plants, metallurgic, petrochemical, and municipal and wastewater reuse. This article looks at the use of safety filters for RO systems and how a high-flow filter can avoid build-up of microorganisms and consequent frequent filter change. A paper factory project provides a case study. Significant advantages including high flow-rate and long service-time help Horizon's RZ filter cartridge to occupy an important position in safety filtration for the membrane water-treatment market in China. It displays superior applicability to those large-scale and super large-scale plants operated in recent years. At the same time, RZ filter cartridges have shown fine performance when handling raw water with complicated quality or large fluctuations. Compared with regular cartridges, RZ filter cartridges provide an excellent solution to safety filtration of membrane water treatment because of their longer service life, smaller investment and lower change-out cost. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation
The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.
GE reasserts policy proposals for water reuse
Engineering giant, GE, has again urged policymakers to consider four major policy options for water recycling and reuse first unveiled at Water Arabia 2015 in February this year.
CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India
Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.
Australia urged to recycle more water for urban supplies
Greater use of recycled water in Australia's water supplies was called for on 29 November 2010 by James Cameron, acting CEO of the National Water Commission (NWC).
SEDA workshop to look at membrane pilot testing
The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) is to hold a workshop in Florida in April on Pilot Testing of Integrated Membrane Systems.
Aquatech awarded a 10,000 m³/d MED plant in Egypt
Aquatech is to design and supply a multiple-effect distillation (MED) seawater desalination system for the Abu Qir Thermal Power Plant near Alexandria, Egypt.
CaribDA calls for 2014 conference papers
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has issued a call for papers for its Biennial Conference & Exposition in June 2014.
Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group
Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Antiscalant removes need for acid in wastewater RO
Field trials of a new scale-inhibiting chemical for use with reverse-osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse plants show that, at a low dose rate, it can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times, obviating the need for using dangerous and costly acid. Current design practices for large effluent reuse projects are focused on a combination of removing phosphate by precipitation prior to the RO plant and acid dosing to reduce pH to 6.0 and hence increase calcium phosphate solubility to prevent fouling. Conventional antiscalants are ineffective at high phosphate and high recovery rates, and the only other option has been to dose large quantities of acid to reduce feed pH to below 6.2. Reducing the pH from 7.5 to 6.0 on a 2,700 m /day plant would require 0.5 to 1 ton of 95% sulphuric acid per day. Handling this quantity of acid is an environmental, health, safety and logistical problem that many plant operators would like to move away from. The results from the field trials show that using a highly active threshold inhibiting antiscalant such as Genesys PHO at a low dose rate of 2 -5 mg/L can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers
Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.
Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE
Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.
"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee
Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.
SWCC lets systems contract for RO training room
Cyprus-incorporated Hyperion Systems Engineering announced on 16 September 2013 that it would supply a generic operator training simulator (OTS) system for the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia.
Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant
The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.
Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project
Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'
A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).
ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion
Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.
First Middle East desalination job for Abengoa
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been contracted by ACWA Power International Company to to build a 10 MIGD (45,000 m³/d) desalination plant in Barka, Oman.
Details published of AMTA/SCMA Texas workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has released details of the technology transfer workshop it is holding in Texas in September in conjunction with the South Central Membrane Association.
RO plant commissioned for US military base
A reverse-osmosis (RO) drinking-water plant supplied by ThermoEnergy Corporation to a major US military base at an undisclosed location in the Africa/Middle East region was commissioned in early December 2011.
New Singapore center will develop desalination/reuse solutions
GE and the National University of Singapore (NUS) are investing US$ 100 million in the Singapore Water Technology Center, which will seek new solutions for low-energy seawater desalination, water reclamation and more efficient water reuse.
UCLA water summit will look at desalination/reuse
Seawater desalination and wastewater reuse will be key topics at a one-day summit on the Future of Water in Southern California to be held by the University of California, Los Angeles, on 27 January 2012.
South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse
Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.
Sasakura eyes large Middle East desalination units
Sasakura Engineering Co is teaming up with fellow Japanese company Itochu Corp to enter the business of large-scale desalination plants in the Middle East.
Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants
Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.
Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards
Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).
Hyflux forecasts end to Middle East desalination doldrums
Following its recent landing of its first major Middle Eastern municipal water contract in five years, Singapore water treatment firm Hyflux said it anticipated demand in the region to accelerate.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
IDE to supply desalination for Teck copper mine
IDE is to design and supply a modular desalination plant for Teck Resources' Quebrada Blanca copper mine extension project in northern Chile.
Chinese Desalination Society joins unconventional-water seminar
A national seminar on Unconventional Water-Use Technology is to be held in Urumqi in Xinjiang province, China, from 5-9 August 2009 to discuss sea- and brackish-water desalination and use of flood water.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Adelaide plant delayed by four months
The Adelaide desalination plant is four months behind schedule, South Australia's minister for water, Paul Caica, announced on 28 August 2010.
Orange County loses widely respected lab director
Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.
Xylem wins US$7.3 million Bahrain wastewater upgrade deal
Switzerland-based water technology company Xylem has signed a US$7.3 million contract with Bahrain's Ministry of Works to upgrade a wastewater treatment facility in the Bahrain capital Manama.
Osmoflo wins US$ 15m wastewater reuse contract
Water and wastewater firm, Osmoflo, has won a US$ 15 million contract for the design,
construction and commissioning of a wastewater treatment plant in northern Western
Australia to produce reclaimed water for use in irrigation.
Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant
A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.
Texas city council votes on wastewater reuse study award
Reclaimed wastewater could provide 6-7 MGD (22,700‑26,500 m³/d) of additional water supply for the city of San Angelo, Texas, USA, according to a submission to be considered by the city council on 6 May 2014.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Twelve sewer-mining wastewater-reuse plants in Sydney
The government of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has awarded a water-recycling licence to Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to build a recycled water plant at the Aus$ 500 million (US$ 490 million) Darling Quarter development.
November deadline for Singapore papers
Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.
Desalination for Peace motif for record-breaking EuroMed conference
"I believe that desalination is a key issue in peace," said Uri Shani, chairman of Israel's Water Authority, at the opening ceremony of the EuroMed 2010 - Desalination for Clean Water & Energy Conference in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 4 October 2010.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
Dow project seeks to promote reuse
Dow Water & Process Solutions, is participating in one of ten European Commission-funded projects that aim to stimulate innovation and improve cohesion in Europe's water reuse sector.
Wastewater reuse plant nears completion in Hegang, China
United Envirotech of Singapore expects to complete construction of a 30,000 m³/d wastewater reuse facility for China's Hegang municipal government by the end of December 2010.
San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park
San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.
Giant SMBR wastewater reuse plant passes proving test
One of the largest submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) wastewater treatment plants in the world, ACWA MBR's flagship Al Ansab plant in Muscat, Oman, has successfully gone through its proving process.
Nitto Denko and Mitsubishi win Singapore MBR order
Microfiltration (MF) membranes for Singapore's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant at the Jurong Water Reclamation Plant are to be supplied by Nitto Denko/Hydranautics and Mitsubishi Rayon Co.
Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE
Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.
Levant Desalination Association sets conference for late September
The Levant Desalination Association (LDA) has announced that its first conference will be on 28- 29 September 2010, a week before the European Desalination Society's event in neighbouring Israel.
GE signs up for Indian industry wastewater reuse partnership
GE and Ramky Enviro Engineers, the Indian environment and waste management organization, have signed emergency water and industrial wastewater treatment agreements specifically designed to address India's industrial wastewater treatment and recycling needs.
NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore
Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.
MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project
An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system
Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant
The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy
An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.
MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site
Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.
Norit in Chinese wastewater reuse success
A Norit & GreenTech Engineering consortium has been officially awarded the contract for the design, procurement, installation and start-up of the 180,000 m³/d Qinghe Municipal Wastewater Reuse Project in Beijing, China, Norit announced on 18 December 2009
Chinese MBR reuse plant to be built by BTO contract
A membrane bioreactor wastewater reuse plant is to be built by Tri-Tech Holding Inc under a $2 million build-transfer-operate (BTO) contract for the Dongli Economic Development Area in Tianjin Municipality in northern China.
Desalitech to supply wastewater reuse system to steel mill
Desalitech is to supply an advanced wastewater recovery system to Mid American Steel and Wire, a leading supplier in the US wire and rod industry.
Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge
Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020.
Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial
Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.
Consortium wins US$ 73.5 million reuse contract near Melbourne
A consortium of Kellogg Brown & Root, John Holland and Montgomery Watson Harza has been awarded the contract to design and construct the Aus$ 90 million (US$ 73.5 million) Northern Water Plant in Geelong, south-west of Melbourne, Australia.
CDM and Miahona in Saudi water partnership
US consultant CDM and Miahona (Our Water), a subsidiary of ACWA Power Development, have announced a new partnership to execute water projects in Saudi Arabia. The partnership will manage engineering and consulting for water sector projects, including providing studies, designs, construction management, operations, and management consulting services.
Bureau barred from further water reclamation funding
The US Department of the Interior will not authorise any further Title XVI water reuse projects to receive support from the Bureau of Reclamation "at this time", Michael L Connor, commissioner of the bureau told the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the US House of Representatives' Natural Resources Committee on 21 July 2009.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
Alliance bids sought for W Australia water-reuse plant
Western Australia's Water Corporation has invited proposals from suitably experienced organizations to form an alliance with the water supplier to design and build the Beenyup Advanced Water Recycling Plant at Craigie.
Victoria urged to set new reuse and desalination goals
A committee set up by the Victoria state government in Australia has recommended that enforceable water recyling and reuse targets at Melbourne's sewage treatment plants should be raised to 50% by 2012 and 70% by 2015.
Doosan completes Luggage Point wastewater reuse job
Doosan Hydro Technology announced on 3 June 2009 that it had completed its work on the Luggage Point Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project.
NASA approves space-station wastewater reuse
In a giant leap for wastewater reuse, NASA, the US federal space agency, gave the green light on 20 May 2009 to the Expedition 19 astronauts aboard the International Space Station to drink reused wastewater from the station's new recycling system.
Veolia given Sydney wastewater reuse licence
New South Wales premier Nathan Rees announced on 7 May 2009 that Veolia Water has been issued the first licence under the Water Industry Competition Act 2006 to construct, maintain and operate a new recycled water plant at Fairfield, Sydney Australia, as part of the Rosehill Recycling Scheme.
Florida's wastewater reuse capacity up 52% since 2000
Wastewater reuse capacity in Florida has grown 52% since 2000, reaching 6,600 Ml/d in 2014 placing the state at the forefront of US wastewater reuse adoption according to market analyst Bluefield Research.
AQWATEC opens onsite MBR wastewater reuse plant
The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Advanced Water Treatment Center (AQWATEC) has opened a pilot-scale wastewater reuse facility in February 2009 on the US school's campus in Golden.
Boca Raton wastewater reuse system to be extended
The city of Boca Raton in Florida, USA, is to expand its In-City Reclamation Irrigation System (IRIS) from 7-8 MGD (26,500-30,000 m³/d) to 17.5 MGD (66,000 m³/d) during the next five years. Bidding is currently under way.
Israel to join top ten water stressed by 2040
The US-based World Resources Institute has forecast that Israel will be among the world's ten most water stressed regions by 2040. Almost half of those regions will be in the Middle East according to recent report by the institute.
Golf club barred from water reuse funding
The US state of Washington has included a water reclamation scheme for the city of Pullman in its 2009-11 budget, but has stipulated that none of the US$ 16 million funding can be used to extend the service to a golf course to be used by Washington State University (WSU), Governor Chris Gregoire announced in December 2008.
Melbourne reuse to add to desalination
Melbourne Water will open a 100,000 m³/d wastewater reuse plant in 2012 to add to the supply from its upcoming 150,000 m³/d desalination plant.
ISO set to widen water reuse brief
A proposal to widen current International Standardization Organisation (ISO) work on water reuse for irrigation to include other forms of water reuse was put forward at the beginning of March by three member states, China, Israel and Japan.
Israel/Canada pact to promote wastewater reuse
Israel and Canada are to work together on wastewater reuse following a ministerial meeting on 9 December 2012 in Jerusalem.
MBR upgrade for Budapest suburb's wastewater reuse
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) ultrafiltration technology is to be supplied to a suburb of Hungary's capital, Budapest, by GE to expand a wastewater reuse system and improve water quality.
Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst
Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.
China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge
China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.
Large wastewater reuse scheme planned for part of Delhi
Reuse of 40 MIGD (182,000 m³/d) of wastewater for direct non-potable or indirect potable uses will be provided for 3-4 million people in Delhi, India, under a partnership led by consultant CH2M Hill.
X-Flow UF modules to treat Saudi hospital wastewater
Pentair X-Flow's Airlift MBR Megablock ultrafiltration (UF) system is treat 8,000 m³/d of hospital wastewater at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan
Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Abigroup to build Kooragang wastewater reuse plant
Construction of the Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme (KIWS) in New South Wales, Australia, is to be carried out by Abigroup under an Aus$ 40 million (US$ 40 million) contract.
New San Francisco wastewater reuse project relocated
San Francisco's Westside Recycled Water Project, which will reuse up to 4 MGD (15,140 m³/d) of secondary effluent, will no longer be built in the city's historic Golden Gate Park.
Australia failing to meet wastewater reuse targets
Australia is falling well behind in the targets it has set itself for wastewater reuse, according to a study carried out for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities by Marsden Jacob Associates (MJA).
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse
A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.