Ultrafiltration, Pacific, UAE, Pacific, greenhouse gas, China


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Iqbal Ahmad

Ahmad takes charge of inge sales for Asia/Pacific

Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane specialist inge GmbH has taken the decision to appoint a dedicated representative to reinforce its local presence in the Asia-Pacific region and boost its regional activities.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

Dow to build RO membrane plant in Huzhou, China

A world-class manufacturing facility for Dow FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for desalination and water reuse is to be built in Huzhou, China, the Dow Chemical Co announced on 7 June 2012.

Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit

Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.

Dow and Haier agree new domestic RO membrane supply

A new collaboration agreement has been finalised between Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS) and Chinese global domestic products provider Haier for continued use of Dow membranes.

Solar power installed soon for Nauru desalination plant

Singapore's Hitachi-Aquatech has awarded a contract to two New Zealand companies for a 131 kWp solar system to power a desalination plant for the Pacific island of Nauru.

Japan funds desalination relief for South Pacific islands

The construction of a 30 m³/d desalination plant has relieved freshwater problems for around 200 inhabitants of Vanuavatu, one of the islands in the southern Lau Group in the South Pacific.

Japan funds desalination for four Fiji islands

The Water Authority of Fiji in the South Pacific announced on 29 May 2013 that four of Fiji's outer islands will now be using desalination plants as an alternative water-supply source.

Israel aids Pacific island with mobile desalinator

Israel's ministry of foreign affairs is supplying a truck-mounted desalination facility to the Marshall islands in the Pacific ocean to help tackle the islands' severe water shortage.

MIAC confirmed as IDA affiliate in China

The Membrane Industry Association of China (MIAC) is the latest affiliate to join the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Quindao desalination event gets IDA support

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced its support for the 2012 Qingdao International Desalination Conference, jointly organized by China Desalination Association (CDA) and other groups, and supported by Asia-Pacific Desalination Association and related countries.

IDE wins Chinese follow-on order for four MED desalination plants

Four additional multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination units, each with a production capacity of 25,000 m³/day of distilled water, are to be supplied for Tianjin SDIC, China's new electricity- generation megaplant, by IDE Technologies of Israel.

Masdar steps up ties with China

Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.

New Grundfos director seeks to double Asia Pacific revenue

Pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has charged newly appointed Asia Pacific regional managing director Okay Barutçu with doubling the company's revenue in the region.

Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance

Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.

Dow UF is sole pretreatment for Chinese cogen plant

China's ShanXi DaTong Co-gen has selected Dow ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for its 300MW heat/electricity cogeneration plant in DaTong in ShanXi province.

ZLD power-station job for Aquatech

Aquatech International Corporation has announced an order from Gemma Power Systems for the Colusa Power Station in Maxwell, California, USA.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

California county mulls tapping into nuclear plant desalination

As part of its plans to combat ongoing severe drought, California's San Luis Obispo County (SLO) is considering the construction of a 10 km pipeline to tap into the spare capacity of a desalination plant currently providing only the needs of a nuclear power plant.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

AMTA/WEF workshop set for Seattle in May

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it will be holding a Technology Transfer Workshop in Seattle, Oregon, in May in cooperation with the Water Environment Federation (WEF).

Tri-Tech to expand large UF/NF plant in China

The City of Ordos in China is to build what will be the largest water treatment plant in the world using ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) when it expands its existing plant to 148,000 m³/d.

Aquatech awarded SWRO plant in Ras Al Kaimah

Aquatech is to build a 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility at Ghalilah for the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

Huangyong paper factory.

Major Chinese UF order for inge watertechnologies

A major order from China for ultrafiltration (UF) equipment was announced on 25 May 2011 by inge watertechnologies AG, which is going to be taken over by BASF later this year.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE

The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.

Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE

Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.

The ultrafiltration system in Abu Dhabi supplied by inge watertechnologies AG will treat 80,000 m³/d.

UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment

Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Norit in Chinese wastewater reuse success

A Norit & GreenTech Engineering consortium has been officially awarded the contract for the design, procurement, installation and start-up of the 180,000 m³/d Qinghe Municipal Wastewater Reuse Project in Beijing, China, Norit announced on 18 December 2009

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Memcor 150,000m³/d UF system for Wuxi, China

Wuxi Water Supply General Company in China's Jiangsu Province has awarded a contract to Siemens Water Technologies to supply a turnkey water treatment solution for Wuxi Zhongqiao Water Supply Co Ltd. Centerpiece of the solution will be a Memcor ultrafiltration membrane system.

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

The new joint venture enterprise led by China National Nuclear Power will be based in Shanghai

China to sell off-the-shelf floating nuclear desalination units

Chinese state-owned China National Nuclear Power (CNNP) has formed a new joint venture company to build floating nuclear power and seawater desalination plants.

H2O Innovation updates Piedmont Pacific acquisition

Its recent acquisition of Piedmont Pacific means that Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is now supplying flexible pipe couplings to some of the largest desalination plants under construction in the world.

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

Energy Recovery unveils $5.4 million contract for Middle East 'mega projects'

US supplier Energy Recovery has won $5.4 million of contracts to supply desalination "mega projects" in the Middle East.

Five newcomers voted onto IDA board

Five new faces were elected directly to the board of the International Desalination Association (IDA) for 2013‑15.

Dr Michael Lamminen

Parkson appoints international business director

Water recycling and treatment specialist Parkson Corporation has named Dr Michael Lamminen to a new post of international business director to market the company's lineup of cost-efficient and environmentally-sustainable technology around the world.

Koch MBR system chosen by Chinese city

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes supplied by Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) has been chosen for a wastewater treatment plant operated by Zhangjiagang JinGang Sewage Treatment, a state-owned entity which looks after all municipal plants for the Chinese city of Zhangjiagang.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Aquatech installs Emirates desalination plant

Water and wastewater technology company, Aquatech, has installed a 60 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis-based desalination plant at Ghalilah, in Ras Al Khaimah, the northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield

Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.

Norit to supply UF membranes for Singapore waterworks

Norit Asia Pacific is to supply of X-Flow XIGA™ ultrafiltration (UF) membranes to the Lower Seletar Waterworks project in Singapore to be constructed by Sembawang Engineers & Constructors.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination

Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.

Chinese steel manufacturer chooses KMS UF membranes

Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS) announced on 12 December 2011 that it had been selected to supply ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for a large-scale wastewater recycling system for Yingkou Medium Plate Co Ltd in Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, China.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Aquatech wins China deal with zero liquid discharge

Industrial and infrastructure water purification technology firm, Aquatech, has won a contract to provide water treatment with zero liquid discharge (ZLD) for a coal to liquid fuels (CTL) conversion project in China.

Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report

The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

Membrana filtration curbs corrosion in Disney Shanghai cooling

Membrane manufacturer Polypore has supplied its Membrana ultrafiltration units for Shanghai Disneyland to curb corrosion in the resort's cooling water system.

X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO

Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

The new power and water facility is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at EGA's smelter by 10 per cent

EGA plans $272 million power and water plant at Jebel Ali

Mubadala and Dubal Holding are developing a new power and desalination facility at Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA)'s smelter in Jebel Ali, Dubai.

New IDA board elected

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has elected its 2015-2017 board of directors.

Desalination tops user growth in membrane chemicals

The global market for membrane chemicals was worth US$ 1,013.8 million in 2013 and is expected to show a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.1% to 2020 according to a report by market researcher, Future Market Insights. And desalination was expected to witness the highest end use sector growth of 11.4% between 2014 and 2020.

Grundfos reforms in bid to double Asia Pacific revenues

Danish pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has unveiled an organisational restructure in its Asia Pacific operations where it is looking to "double revenues over the next five years." The reshuffle will "improve customer service, enhance organisational efficiency, and drive the next phase of growth in the Asia Pacific."

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

California adopts new rules for checking desalination applications

California regulators have adopted the states' first rules for the permitting of seawater desalination projects.

Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge

Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020. 

The report, Water Reuse: Drivers, Innovations and Public Perceptions, is available to download from the link below

Industry eyes 30 per cent growth in reuse revenues this year

Industry professionals in desalination and water reuse are strongly optimistic about the outlook for growth in reuse activity in the year ahead, a new survey by Water. desalination + reuse can reveal.

Global desalination pump market to grow 7.7% a year

Market researcher, TechNavio, has forecast growth in the global water desalination pumps market at 7.7% during 2015-2019 with "intelligent" pumps showing an increasing profile.

San Diego gives green light to potable reuse plan

San Diego's city council has given the green light to the construction of a 415Ml/d facility for direct potable reuse of wastewater costing up to US$ 3.5 billion. The reverse osmosis recycling scheme is expected to meet as much as a third of San Diego's daily drinking water requirement by 2035 making it the second largest potable reuse plant in the US.

Membrane market growth to run until 2020

The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

The report, Water Reuse: Drivers, Innovations and Public Perceptions, is available to download from the link below

Top five takeaways on what's shaping water reuse globally

Our survey of Water. desalination + reuse readers was conducted to gauge the industry's perceptions about the factors influencing the growth of water reuse markets globally. We present the top five facts from among the rich set of data collected.

Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding

US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.

Osmoflo is producing drinking water for the population of Ebeye, Marshall Islands

Osmoflo cuts the ribbon on Ebeye, Marshall Islands desalination plant

Osmoflo's Ebeye, Marshall Islands desalination plant officially opened on 10 October 2017, following successful commissioning and performance testing.

The new IDA board directors take up their post at IDA World Congress 2017 in Brazil

IDA unveils new board of directors

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has named its new board of directors for 2017 to 2019.

MD plant using generator heat starts on Maldive island

The world's first desalination unit using waste heat from a power generator with membrane distillation has started up on Guhli island in the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.

Honolulu's water reclamation plant reduces the amount of effluent pumped into the Pacific Ocean

Honolulu extends Veolia's contract on water reuse plant

Honolulu Board of Water Supply (HBWS) has extended its contract with Veolia to operate Honoluiuli Water Reclamation Facility until 2038.

H2O Innovation completes Piedmont Pacific purchase

Canada's H2O Innovation Inc announced on 5 December 2013 completion of the previously announced acquisition of all of the issued and outstanding common stock shares of Piedmont Pacific Corporation of Oakland, California, for a total consideration of approximately Can$ 4.0 million (US$ 3.8 million).

(from left) PUB assistant chief executive Harry Seah, PUB chief executive Ng Joo Hee, Danish ambassador to Singapore Dorte Bech Vizard, Grundfos managing director Asia Pacific Kim Jensen, and Grundfos head of innovation Gao Xin

PUB and Grundfos deepen water research partnership

Singapore's national water utility PUB and global pumps firm Grundfos, of Denmark, have unveiled a strategic partnership that is developing new capabilities in water quality monitoring, among other initiatives.

H2O Innovation to buy Piedmont Pacific

Canada's H2O Innovation Inc announced on 25 November 2013 the signing of an agreement to purchase all of the issued and outstanding common stock shares of Piedmont Pacific Corporation, the Oakland-based flexible pipe couplings manufacturer, for a total consideration of approximately Can$ 4.0 million (US$ 3.8 million).

Piedmont Pacific's Jim Medanich dies at 75

One of the best loved characters of the desalination world passed away on 9 November 2013 - James Medanich, founder and president of Piedmont Pacific Corporation.

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

Chuquicamata copper mine in Chile is among those owned and operated by BHP Billiton

BHP and Coldeco push forward Chilean desal projects

Two major desalination projects to support the copper mining industry in Chile are moving ahead, reports Reuters.

Nomination date nears for IDA's Young Leaders committee

Time is running short for nominations to the Program Committee of the International Desalination Association's Young Leaders Program.

(From left) Mike Dixon, IDA director; Dr Val Frenkel, Greeley and Hansen; Shannon McCarthy, IDA secretary general; and Miguel Angel Sanz, IDA president

IDA awards recognise Aqualia, Dow, and Dr Frenkel

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has presented awards for excellence in water reuse at the IDA International Water Reuse and Recycling conference in Valencia, Spain.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in Copiapó, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

Key Issues for Seawater Desalination in California: Cost and Financing

The Pacific Institute published a controversial paper, Desalination, With A Grain Of Salt, in June 2006, assessing seawater desalination in California. Report author Heather Cooley updated her work in an article in Desalination & Water Reuse(August/September 2007), while Nikolay Voutchkov, then associated with the Carlsbad project, wrote a response to the report in D&WR (November/December 2007). Six years later, Cooley has returned to the subject, with another report, published towards the end of 2012 by the Pacific Institute. This article first appeared in the February/March 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Suez shake-up leaves Debon in charge of Degrémont

French desalination and water/wastewater contractor Degrémont is part of a reshuffle within parent company Suez Environnement that divides all operating activities under four deputy CEOs.

Amiad to supply RO prefiltration system in Colombia

Amiad Water Systems has been awarded a US$ 7.7 million contract for the supply and maintenance of a prefiltration solution for reverse osmosis membrane protection at a desalination plant at an oil & gas operation in Colombia.

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

More moves on Monterey desalination proposals

The final report on the choice of seawater desalination plants proposed for the Monterey Peninsula in California was presented to the Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Authority on 18 December 2012 by its consultant, Separation Processes Inc.

BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination

Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.

Veolia to build drinking water network in Sri Lanka

Veolia has won a E156 million ($164 million) contract to design and build a water treatment and conveyance network supplying potable water to 350,000 people in the Greater Matale region of Sri Lanka.

Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

Pacific Institute report lists California desalination plans

The Pacific Institute (PI) has published a list of all the currently proposed seawater desalination plants in California, USA, as a precursor to a new desalination report in 2013.

New moves in Monterey desalination debate

The City of Pacific Grove's council has voted to approve a preliminary agreement to take the lead on one of the two alternatives to the principal proposal for a regional desalination project by California American Water (Cal Am).


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