Ultrafiltration, China, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance
Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.
Dow UF is sole pretreatment for Chinese cogen plant
China's ShanXi DaTong Co-gen has selected Dow ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for its 300MW heat/electricity cogeneration plant in DaTong in ShanXi province.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China
Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.
Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation
Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination
Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.
Memcor 150,000m³/d UF system for Wuxi, China
Wuxi Water Supply General Company in China's Jiangsu Province has awarded a contract to Siemens Water Technologies to supply a turnkey water treatment solution for Wuxi Zhongqiao Water Supply Co Ltd. Centerpiece of the solution will be a Memcor ultrafiltration membrane system.
Tri-Tech to expand large UF/NF plant in China
The City of Ordos in China is to build what will be the largest water treatment plant in the world using ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) when it expands its existing plant to 148,000 m³/d.
Major Chinese UF order for inge watertechnologies
A major order from China for ultrafiltration (UF) equipment was announced on 25 May 2011 by inge watertechnologies AG, which is going to be taken over by BASF later this year.
Dow to build RO membrane plant in Huzhou, China
A world-class manufacturing facility for Dow FilmTec reverse osmosis (RO) elements for desalination and water reuse is to be built in Huzhou, China, the Dow Chemical Co announced on 7 June 2012.
NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China
Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.
Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base
Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day
Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech
A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Befesa chooses ERI again for Qingdao seawater desalination
The 100,000 m³/d Qingdao seawater desalination plant in China is to become the seventh Befesa- built reverse-osmosis plant to use PX isobaric energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant
Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Norit in Chinese wastewater reuse success
A Norit & GreenTech Engineering consortium has been officially awarded the contract for the design, procurement, installation and start-up of the 180,000 m³/d Qinghe Municipal Wastewater Reuse Project in Beijing, China, Norit announced on 18 December 2009
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report
The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant
The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia
Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.
POSCO claims desalination first in Korea
Korean construction company POSCO E&C has completed the construction of what it claims to be the nation's first commercial seawater desalination plant.
New Consolidated JV to build Bahamas UF/RO plant
Seawater desalination water company Consolidated Water Co Ltd, based in the Cayman Islands, announced 23 May 2012 that it has formed a joint venture (JV) with The New Providence Development Company Limited (NPDC) in Nassau, Bahamas.
Pentair X-Flow wins Jubail ultrafiltration order
Pentair X-Flow announced on 4 April 2012 an order from Al Fatah Water & Power to supply its Seaguard ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids to the Jubail Phase 2 seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination project in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination
The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.
X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO
Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
CH2M Hill poised for Kalba desalination mobilization
Civil work on the 3.0 MIGD (13,368 m³/d) Kalba seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates has almost been completed by the Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA).
Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project
Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.
Aquatech wins China deal with zero liquid discharge
Industrial and infrastructure water purification technology firm, Aquatech, has won a contract to provide water treatment with zero liquid discharge (ZLD) for a coal to liquid fuels (CTL) conversion project in China.
Beijing desalinated water supply could reach 1 billion m³/yr
A 3 million m³/d seawater desalination plant to supply the Chinese capital Beijing is being planned by Hong Kong-based Beijing Enterprise Water Group Ltd (BEWG), in addition to a 1 million m³/d plant on which the company is currently working.
Intensive short desalination course from UNESCO-IHE
An intensive short course on Membrane Technology in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment has been announced by UNESCO-IHE).
Chinese seawater desalination membranes by 2015
The Chinese government recently granted Yuan 7.8 million (US$ 1.3 million) to Quindao Hua Xuan Water Company for a seawater desalination equipment production line, China's first, according to a report in China Daily.
Aquatech awarded SWRO plant in Ras Al Kaimah
Aquatech is to build a 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility at Ghalilah for the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.
Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.
Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment
Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC
The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment
Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.
Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment
Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.
Major Chinese desalination week in Guangzhou
The China Desalination Association (CDA) is cooperating with the Qingdao International Desalination Center and the China Foreign Trade Exhibition Corp to organize the China (Guangzhou) Water Week on 23‑25 February 2012.
VWS Westgarth bags Angolan offshore UF/SRP contract
A multimillion dollar contract for design, supply and delivery of an ultrafiltration (UF) system and a sulphate-removal package (SRP) for offshore oilfield exploration in Angola has been won by UK-based VWS Westgarth, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Membrana filtration curbs corrosion in Disney Shanghai cooling
Membrane manufacturer Polypore has supplied its Membrana ultrafiltration units for Shanghai Disneyland to curb corrosion in the resort's cooling water system.
Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.
Malaysian desalination plant in Tianjin will be ZLD
A groundbreaking ceremony took place on 29 May 2014 for an industrial desalination project in Tianjin, China, which is claimed to be the first zero-liquid discharge seawater desalination project in the world.
2014 Oman conference to look at HABs and desalination
An international conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) & Desalination is to be held in Muscat, Oman, in April 2014.
Dow and Haier agree new domestic RO membrane supply
A new collaboration agreement has been finalised between Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS) and Chinese global domestic products provider Haier for continued use of Dow membranes.
Chinese commercialize sea-ice desalination process
A Chinese company could be producing at least 1 billion m³ of fresh water by desalination of sea ice by 2023, according to a report by the official Chinese news agency Xinhua on 14 January 2013.
Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China
Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.
Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010
The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.
Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant
PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.
China desalination chief calls for more state support
The lack of an effective pricing mechanism for water produced by desalination and support for an operable policy is affecting the development of the country's seawater desalination industry, according to Li Linmei, director of the Institute of Seawater Desalination & Multipurpose Utilization in Tianjin, part of the State Oceanic Administration.
Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program
Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.
China names seawater desalination project sites
China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the country's top economic planner, announced on 15 March 2013 the first batch of regions and companies selected to carry out seawater desalination projects.
Chinese website and new director for Modern Water
UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.
Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner
UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.
China could desalinate 2.6 million m³/d by 2015
China aims to increase its seawater desalination capacity to 2.2-2.6 million m³/d by 2015, according to a statement released by the General Office of the State Council, China's cabinet, on the central government's website on 13 February 2012.
EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011
The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.
Beijing desalination project 'aims at 3 million m³/d'
The residents of Beijing, China's capital, could be drinking desalinated seawater within five years, and the source could become a main supply in efforts to deal with the water shortage.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014
The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.
China halfway to 1 million m³/d seawater desalination
China's seawater desalination capacity now stands at 524,000 m³/d, according to Li Baochun, deputy director of the Tianjin Municipal Commission of Science & Technology, quoted in the People's Daily.
Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination
Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.
UF for Turkish steelworks supplied by inge
German ultrafiltration (UF) specialist inge watertechnologies AG has been chosen to provide the filter modules for a large seawater treatment plant that supplies water to a steelworks in the Turkish city of Iskenderun on the Mediterranean.
IDE wins Chinese follow-on order for four MED desalination plants
Four additional multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination units, each with a production capacity of 25,000 m³/day of distilled water, are to be supplied for Tianjin SDIC, China's new electricity- generation megaplant, by IDE Technologies of Israel.
Olympics facilities manager appointed as Tri-Tech VP
Former Siemens engineer, Weidong Bi, who managed membrane-bioreactor and reverse-osmosis plants for the Olympic Games in China, is one of three senior executive appointments announced by Tri-Tech Holding Inc on 3 June 2010.
Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot
Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.
Toray sets up membrane JV in Beijing
A groundbreaking ceremony for a large membrane production facility was held in the industrial development area of Shunyi Airport, Beijing, China, on 24 August 2009.
Toray sets up Chinese manufacturing joint venture
An agreement was reached in late November 2008 between Toray Industries Inc and China Blue Star & BS group to establish a new joint company for water treatment in Beijing.
Algerian worldbeater has UF pretreatment
The President of Algeria, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, presided over the on-site ground-breaking ceremony for what will be the world's largest reverse-osmosis desalination plant with a capacity of 500,000 m³/d in Magtaa in Oran province, western Algeria, on 16 December 2008.
Chinese steel manufacturer chooses KMS UF membranes
Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS) announced on 12 December 2011 that it had been selected to supply ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for a large-scale wastewater recycling system for Yingkou Medium Plate Co Ltd in Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, China.
EDS publishes details of membrane design course
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
China ups daily desalt capacity by a billion cubic metres
China built 112 seawater desalination plants in 2014, with a total output of 927 Ml/d the State Oceanic Administration revealed recently in a report on seawater use during last year.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
China begins construction of US$ 1.1billion desalination plant
China has started construction of a CNY 7 billion (US$ 1.1 billion) seawater reverse osmosis desalination project - part of its bid to quadruple its desalination capacity by 2020.
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
MBR upgrade for Budapest suburb's wastewater reuse
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) ultrafiltration technology is to be supplied to a suburb of Hungary's capital, Budapest, by GE to expand a wastewater reuse system and improve water quality.
KAUST SWRO desalination plant won by AES Arabia
A US$ 14 million contract for a 15,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) Research Park in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to AES Arabia Ltd.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.