Standard, Water Reuse, Water Quality, Disinfection
ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality
The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.
Randy Truby joins board of Neo-Tech Aqua Solutions
Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection specialist NeoTech Aqua Solutions Inc announced on 10 March 2014 the addition of Randy Truby, a past president of the International Desalination Association, to its board of directors.
WRA/IUVA webcast looks at disinfection in reuse
The WateReuse Association (WRA) and the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) have announced a webcast discussing the various applications of UV technologies for water reuse purposes, including disinfection (inactivation of pathogens) and destruction of chemical constituents.
NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard
The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.
Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%
Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.
Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check
Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.
New membrane and desalination leaders in CH2M Hill changes
A number of leadership changes to the top water team of US engineer CH2M Hill were announced on 5 April 2012, including new leaders for membrane and desalination technology.
Boost for San Angelo water reuse plan
Plans for a water reuse project in San Angelo, Texas, received a boost this week, with local council staff given the green light to take the next step in seeking funding for the project.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
IWA looks at organic matter in treatment and reuse
The International Water Association (IWA) is holding a specialist conference with the Australian Water Association (AWA) in Perth in October 2013 on natural organic matter (NOM), which will look at its effects on water treatment and reuse, and desalination.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Global membrane market growth nears 11%
The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.
South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse
Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.
Xylem bags Singapore UV deal
Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.
IDA Conference Report
Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
ISO set to widen water reuse brief
A proposal to widen current International Standardization Organisation (ISO) work on water reuse for irrigation to include other forms of water reuse was put forward at the beginning of March by three member states, China, Israel and Japan.
USEPA reuse guidelines to be previewed in webcast
A preview of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse will be one of two webcasts presented by the WateReuse Research Federation in September 2012.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
ADB backs US$ 240 million Chinese water-reuse loans
A US$ 240 million loan package was agreed in Beijing on 20 November 2013 to upgrade wastewater treatment plants in China to meet the grade 1A standard, which means the water can be reused for industry cooling and watering city gardens.
District backs out of California's GRIP water-reuse project
One of the three main partners in a US$ 210 million indirect potable water-reuse scheme in California's San Gabriel Valley has walked away from the project.
MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site
Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project
An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system
Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant
The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader
Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio
The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).
Former AWWA VP joins NeoTech UV company
The former general manager of Indio Water Authority in California, Debra Kaye, has been been appointed by NeoTech Aqua Solutions Inc, provider of UV disinfection systems, as vice-president of global municipal technologies.
Parkson moves Middle East work back to USA
Parkson Corp of the USA announced on 15 June 2012 that it is consolidating the operations of its Middle East group into its international division. Parkson says this is to optimize the delivery of its water and wastewater treatment technologies to the rest of its customer base in other parts of the world.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Gradiant spins out subsidiary Gradiant Energy Services
Boston based industrial water solutions specialist Gradiant has formed a new subsidiary, oilfield services company Gradiant Energy Services (GES).
Xylem ultraviolet disinfection systems win California approval
Xylem has won approval for two ultraviolet disinfection systems from the drinking water division of California's water resources control board.
IDA reuse conference calls for abstracts
The International Desalination Association (IDA) on 1 February will open its call for extended abstract submissions to be considered for presentation at its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling: Turning Vision into Reality. The conference will be held on 25-27 September, 2016 in Nice, France.
IDA launches desalination mentoring programme
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has launched a mentoring programme with the aim of helping the next generation of leaders to advance their knowledge and careers. The IDA Mentorship Programme pairs an established industry leader within IDA with a member of IDA's Young Leaders Programme.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
IDA World Congress in California
A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.
Tubular membranes replaced at South Africa coal plant
More than 2,500 tubular reverse-osmosis (TRO) membrane modules have been replaced at a South African coal-to-liquids refinery by Veolia‑owned Membratek in a subcontract.
A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth
One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.
WABAG completes Namibia reclamation plant
Austria-based water engineering group, WABAG, has completed a water reclamation plant in Namibia's capital Windhoek.
Singapore picks builder for new water reclaim plant
Singapore's water agency, the Public Utilities Board (PUB), has selected a consortium led by Bejing Enterprises Water Group and United Engineers as the preferred bidder for the Changi II plant under PUB's Newater marque.
Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco
UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
Oklahoma passes potable water-reuse implementation bill
The governor of the US state of Oklahoma, Mary Fallin, on 28 May 2014 signed Senate Bill 1187 making it possible for water agencies to implement potable water reuse projects.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
Registration open for WateReuse research conference
Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.
Direct membrane filtration simplifies reuse process
Recent trials have proven that direct membrane filtration of high solids (algae) and disinfection provides a simpler treatment process with substantial cost reduction. In Pillbara, Australia, two plants are being constructed to treat wastewater for recycling aiming for a 4-log removal of bacteria and viruses by filtering alone. Ultraviolet treatment provides the final requirement to reach the required 6-log removal rate. This article gives an overview of the application, and details on the technology and design used. It first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse
The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.
The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape
There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.
Webcast to present industrial water-reuse successes
A webcast taking a look at three industrial water-reuse success stories demonstrating why recycled water is a viable, sustainable, and necessary option is to be presented by the WateReuse Association (WRA) on 14 November 2012.
MBR upgrade for Budapest suburb's wastewater reuse
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) ultrafiltration technology is to be supplied to a suburb of Hungary's capital, Budapest, by GE to expand a wastewater reuse system and improve water quality.
Texas moves towards direct potable reuse
The US state of Texas has taken a step towards direct potable water reuse (DPR) with the Texas Water Development Board awarding a study project to Alan Plummer Associates Inc, consultants based in the state.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
IDA Fellowship Award goes to Holly Johnson Churman
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has awarded its Fellowship Award 2016-17 to Holly Johnson Churman, technology manager at Water Standard.
US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards
Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.
GE-Osmoflo alliance creates powerful Australian presence
A strategic alliance giving Australian desalination and water recycling company Osmoflo access to products produced by water and process giant GE was unveiled at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 6 September 2011.
City seeks to join South Bay reuse system
The City of Sunnyvale in California voted on 6 March 2012 to explore connecting its recycled water system to the South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) system operated by the City of San Jose in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD).
New San Francisco wastewater reuse project relocated
San Francisco's Westside Recycled Water Project, which will reuse up to 4 MGD (15,140 m³/d) of secondary effluent, will no longer be built in the city's historic Golden Gate Park.
Water Standard's revised strategy paying off
In 2008, Water Standard announced itself as a provider of ship-based desalination and water treatment services, primarily for municipalities and industry. But two agreements announced at the end of June 2011 demonstrate how much the company has reshaped its strategy since those early days. The first signing was for a global frame agreement with Shell to develop technology and innovative water-based approaches in support of Shell's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects worldwide. The second was for the company to collaborate with Samsung Heavy Industries of Korea to on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector. D&WR editor Robin Wiseman asked Water Standard's CEO how these latest developments fit the company's strategy. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Major Chinese desalination week in Guangzhou
The China Desalination Association (CDA) is cooperating with the Qingdao International Desalination Center and the China Foreign Trade Exhibition Corp to organize the China (Guangzhou) Water Week on 23‑25 February 2012.
San Diego IPR demo open to public tours
The public can now tour the City of San Diego's Water Purification Demonstration Project, which is evaluating the feasibility of using advanced treatment technology to produce water that can be sent to San Vicente Reservoir and later distributed as potable water.
LA utility tops US water bond risk says report
A report published on 21 October 2010 by Ceres and Water Asset Management alleges that few participants in the US water and electricity bond market -- including investors, bond rating agencies and the utilities themselves -- are accounting for growing water scarcity, legal conflicts and other threats in their analyses.
Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium
The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?
Fillmore saves water and costs with innovative design and contract
When a plant wins a number of regional and national awards, it must have something the rest of the world should take note of. This is the case with the Fillmore wastewater treatment plant, which picked up another award on 9 March 2011, this time a Project Merit award in the 2010 Environmental Business Journal Business Achievement Awards. The secret is state-of-the-art technology, including an MBR plant, UV disinfection and drip irrigation, married to a form of contract that benefitted the city, the contractor and the engineer. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
City of Sydney seeks water recycling masterplan
The City of Sydney is seeking tenders to develop a decentralised water masterplan to produce more 10 % of the Australian city's water supply from local sources.
Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion
Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
New appointments for D&WR Editorial Board members
Two members of the Editorial Board of Desalination & Water Reuse have taken up new appointments.
High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater
California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.
Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California
The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Australia's first groundwater replenishment trial launched
Western Australia's water minister, Graham Jacobs, launched Australia's first Groundwater Replenishment Trial on 30 November 2010, which research indicates may be cheaper than desalination.
Deadline soon for InDA Congress abstracts
Abstracts for the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Congress - InDACON 2011 - must reach the association by 1 December 2010.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Water industry investment fund secures $300 million institutional backing
Resonance Industrial Water Infrastructure, an investment fund focusing on water projects, has raised $300 million from institutional investors in the UK, US and the Nordics.
San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park
San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.
Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE
Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.
Chinese MBR reuse plant to be built by BTO contract
A membrane bioreactor wastewater reuse plant is to be built by Tri-Tech Holding Inc under a $2 million build-transfer-operate (BTO) contract for the Dongli Economic Development Area in Tianjin Municipality in northern China.
Siemens wins OC membrane system contract
A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.
Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap
The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.
Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars
Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.
Australia's CSIRO demonstrations indirect stormwater reuse
Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have bottled recycled stormwater as pure drinking water titled "Recharge", CSIRO announced on 17 September 2009.
Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial
Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.
IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan
This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water
Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
Ozone improves ceramic membrane use for wastewater reclamation
Ceramic membranes have been used in the industrial production of beer, wine and cheese. One of the reasons for this use is the narrow pore size distribution, where careful separation of different size compounds can be achieved. Outside of Japan, the use of ceramic membranes has been almost non-existent for municipal drinking-water systems. The slow adoption of this technology is largely the result of a perception by many that the costs are significantly higher. While the capital costs may be higher, the whole life cycle costs may not be, due to extended membrane life and more reliable operation. Most water reuse today takes the form of indirect potable reuse. These schemes frequently consist of several steps including physical and chemical disinfection and advanced oxidation. They have the disadvantage of high cost and often poor membrane fluxes due to the nature of the wastewater being treated. The study outlined in this article is preliminary, but shows that ozone in conjunction with ceramic membranes for water-reuse applications has many advantages when disinfection and advanced oxidation is required. As opposed to polymeric membrane systems that cannot tolerate ozone, ceramic membranes in conjunction with ozone can achieve multiple key objectives in one step. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules
De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee
Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
Xylem treatment boosts Chesapeake water quality project
Water technology firm, Xylem, has won a contract to provide advanced treatment to an existing wastewater treatment plant in the city of Frederick, Maryland and play a key role in an initiative focused on improving water quality in the Chesapeake Bay.
Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant
Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.
IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance
The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.
Leveraging nanotechnology for next generation seawater desalination
NanoH2O advanced membranes for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination represent a new material that enhances current polymer-based membranes with the benefits of nanotechnology. These nanocomposite RO membranes represent a step-change in productivity through improved permeability while maintaining requisite salt and contaminant rejection. Since the original publication of this concept, further development and optimization of this membrane technology for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has resulted in an enhanced flux of more than double that of a 22.7 m /d (6,000 gpd) commercial baseline with 99.7% salt rejection. Recent seawater field testing of an industry-standard spiral-wound element module including the TFN material combined with a fabric support base topped with a microporous polysulfone layer has supported current laboratory research findings. This article appeared in the May/June issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine