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Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

EDS publishes June solar desalination course program

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published the program for its three-day intensive course on Desalination With Solar Energy to be held in Almeria, Spain, on 11‑13 June 2014.

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

EDS promotes learning on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society is promoting two sets of courses looking at desalination using renewable energies.

EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

Almogordo trial for commercial-size solar desalination still

Indiana-based Suns River is nearing completion of a commercial-sized solar still at the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in Almogordo, New Mexico, USA, following the issue of a patent on its process (US #8,088,257) on 3 January 2012.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Abengoa signs world first large renewable desalination plant deal

Saudi-based water treatment specialist, Advanced Water Technologies (AWT) has appointed Spanish conglomerate, Abengoa, as its partner in the development of the world's first, large-scale desalination plant to be powered by solar energy.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course

The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.

Solar and wind power can help to reduce the cost of energy over the long-term, says Padmanathan

Solar and wind give competitive edge, says Acwa Power

Greater reliance on solar and wind power will support Acwa Power's future growth, president and chief executive Paddy Padmanathan has said.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

Avantium has acquired Liquid Light's portfolio of patents for producing chemicals and materials from CO2

Avantium acquires 'extensive patent portfolio' of Liquid Light

Chemical technology company Avantium has acquired the assets of Liquid Light, a developer of proprietary process technologies that make chemicals from carbon dioxide (CO2).

UK/Saudi initiative targets low-cost carbon neutral desalination using solar dome

NEOM has signed an agreement with UK-based Solar Water Plc to build the first ever "solar dome" desalination plants in NEOM, northwest Saudi Arabia. The pilot project claims it will revolutionise the water desalination process.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants

Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).

EDS launches 2014 desalination courses with Rome event

The European Desalination Society (EDS) kicks off a list of six events in its series of Master Courses with a three-day course in Rome, Italy, on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design on 3‑5 March 2014.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

EDS lists desalination courses for 2013

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has released a complete list of its courses for 2013. EDS has been giving training certificates since 2003 to over 400 participants from all over the world.

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

EDS publishes desalination courses line-up for 2013

Five courses for the first half of 2013 have been announced by the European Desalination Society (EDS). All except one will be staged in Genoa, Italy.

EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events

The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Fundación Chile's demonstration plant at the opening ceremony

Chilean solar desalination demo precurses pilot project

A demonstration solar-powered desalination plant was installed in mid‑March 2013 in Arica, Chile, by Fundación Chile, in advance of a pilot project for irrigation purposes.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

EDS publishes dates for 2013 courses

The European Desalination Society has published dates for two courses in the first half of 2013.

Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost

The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.

Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?

Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR delayed until fall

The environmental impact report (EIR) for the proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) desalination plant (scwd²) for Santa Cruz, California, will not now be published until fall 2012.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

Egyptian solar desalination

The Egyptian Gazette reported on 22 September 2011 that Egypt's scientists have developed a solar-power based technology to reduce the cost of water desalination from LE 10 (US$ 1.67) to LE 4 ($0 67) per cubic metre.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Samoa first to draw from Japanese solar/desalination fund

Samoa on 17 June 2011 became the first country to access a Japanese fund set up for solar power generation and seawater desalination or a combination of both.

Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says

The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.

The Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant

URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project

The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.

Community-level solar RO plant (250 L/h capacity)

India's BARC develops small solar RO and UF units

Domestic and community-level reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units have been developed for producing safe drinking water by Saly T Panicker at the Desalination Division of India's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

El Paso to explore solar power for desalination plant

The City of El Paso Public Service Board voted on 10 February 2010 to explore the possibility of using solar power at the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant in Texas, USA.

Solar mobile desalination plant inaugurated in Egypt

The Egyptian State Information Service reported that a mobile water desalination plant powered by solar energy was inaugurated in Marsa Matrouh governorate on 18 April 2014.

Solar power installed soon for Nauru desalination plant

Singapore's Hitachi-Aquatech has awarded a contract to two New Zealand companies for a 131 kWp solar system to power a desalination plant for the Pacific island of Nauru.

Masdar green desalination competition kicks off

All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

Australian island rigs up solar powered desalination

Rottnest Island, off the Western Australian coast, is constructing a solar power source for the island's population including its desalination plant.

Saudi solar desalination push nears end of Phase 1

The first of three phases of the King Abdullah Initiative for Solar Water Desalination is expected to be operational by the end of this year, according to reports from Saudi Arabia.

MEDRC announces solar desalination course

The Middle East Desalination Research Center is to hold a course on Solar Desalination in October 2013 at its Muscat, Oman, training facility.

Desalitech wins zero liquid deal in China

Desalitech has won a deal to supply a high-efficiency, ultrapure water treatment system for Novelis' aluminium production facility in Changzhou, China to help comply with a regulatory requirement for zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) in applicable process wastewaters. 

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

IDA president calls for new thinking on sustainability

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, described the transition to sustainability as "one of the most important paradigm shifts of the modern era," when he addressed the International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi on 21 January 2013.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

MD developer seeking US powerplant partners

Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.

Plataforma Solar de Almeria

Online registration open for EDS solar desalination course

Online registration is now available for the European Desalination Society's course on Desalination with Solar Energy in Almeria, Spain, on 18-20 April 2012, which can be combined with the EDS conference in Barcelona on 23-26 April.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Acuamed desalination plants to use renewable energy

All the desalination plants owned by Acuamed, the Spanish water supplier, as well as distribution networks and company offices, will be run on renewable energy, the company announced on 22 December 2009.

South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future

The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.

Fredrik Östbye has a brief to effect a digital transformation at Grundfos

Pumps-as-a-service: the future beckons

On 1 May 2017, Fredrik Ostbye, a Swedish entrepreneur with a track record of digital product development, joined the 72-year old Danish pumps manufacturer Grundfos in the newly created role of group vice president and head of digital transformation.

The adsorption desalination facility is on the outskirts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabai's capital city

Adsorption desalination plant opens in Saudi Arabia

A new adsorption water desalination and cooling plant has opened in Solar Village near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Gianni Chianetta (left), head of international affairs at the Global Solar Council, and IDA past president Emilio Gabrielli seal the collaboration on solar desalination

IDA partners with Global Solar Council to promote solar desalination

The International Desalination Association (IDA) and Global Solar Council have pledged to promote desalination technologies powered by solar energy.

IDA to be knowledge partner at the International Water Summit for third year in a row

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has been appointed as a 'knowledge partner' for the International Water Summit for the third consecutive year.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

Another patent for Aquaporin in China

Danish company Aquaporin A/S has received a Notification of Allowance from the Chinese government's State Intellectual Property Office for its patent application titled Methods for Production of Salinity Power.

New distributors and EU compliance for PWT

Membrane chemicals supplier Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the US arm of Canada's H2O Innovation, recently signed agreements with two new distributors in Brazil and Argentina, increasing its presence in South America.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

EDS desalination course dates for 2012 published

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published dates for its series of courses for 2012, which will take place in February, April and June.

Water Corporation cooperates on wave-energy desalination

Western Australia's Water Corporation has signed a cooperation agreement to support the wave-powered seawater desalination pilot project proposed by Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd.

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.

Australian wave-energy desalination pilot to get funding

Australia's Carnegie Wave Energy announced on 28 February 2013 that it had received a government grant of Aus$ 1.27 million (US$ 1.30 million) to support a wave-powered seawater desalination demonstration project.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

Top 10 most read stories of 2016

It was a big year for desalination and water reuse, with two major businesses up for sale, and mega plants grabbing the headlines. We present our top 10 most read stories of 2016.

Dow's new range is designed for hard-to-treat industrial waters

Dow brings out new line designed for tough industrial waters

Dow Water & Process Solutions has added a new product line, Dow Filmtec Fortlife, to its reverse osmosis and nano filtration portfolio.

Grenada builds solar powered pair of desalination plants

Grenada is constructing solar power arrays to generate electricity for a pair of planned reverse osmosis desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

Abengoa takes stake in Beijing-based GreenTech

Spanish desalination and energy contractor Abengoa has acquired 25% of the Beijing-based water company GreenTech.

Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in Copiapó, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

Water industry leader Carlos Cosin has launched new venture Almar Water Solutions

New water company Almar Water Solutions launched by former Abengoa CEO

Almar Water Solutions, a new water infrastructure development company led by former Abengoa chief executive Carlos Cosin, was launched at World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, January 2017.

Engineers check the systems at Dow's research and development centre in Tarragona, Spain

Dow to pilot petrochemical wastewater treatment at its ethylene cracker facility

Dow Water & Process Solutions is planning to demonstrate a new treatment solution for petrochemical wastewater at its site in Tarragona, Spain, from next year.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

Cambria desalination will bring environmental benefit

The US Army Corps of Engineers announced on 28 April 2009 that it will receive US$ 2.5 million in funding through the new American Recovery & Reinvestment Act to develop the Cambria desalination project north-west of San Luis Obispo in California.

Desalination must pay more attention to solar energy

The day is coming when membrane technologies for hitherto unthinkable purposes, such as rural water supply in Africa, will be competitive with the ever more difficult search for conventional supplies. The key element is energy, and these authors argue that renewable energy from the sun is not being given enough attention by governments, developers and consultants. To date, considerable research into renewable desalination has been done, but the potential benefits of using renewable energy systems do not seem to have been completely recognized and explored. However, governments, developers and consultants have to understand that the future of the desalination process will be closely connected to the integration of renewable energy systems. This article first appeared in the February/March issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Dr Ritschel wants people who write tenders to consider supporting solar powered technology

Masdar's Dr Ritschel: "We identified a problem - tenders"

We launched The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance at COP21, the United Nations' climate change conference in Paris, December 2015. In the first week of existence we already had 100 members. So many industry partners, governments, and stakeholders immediately wanted to join, it was unbelievable.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.


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