Spain, Energy, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Acciona Agua commissions Fouka desalination in Algeria
The commissioning of the Fouka seawater desalination plant in Algeria, which reached full operational capacity in July, was announced by Acciona Agua on 8 August 2011.
Flowserve wins three Calder orders in Spain
Flowserve Corporation announced on 9 July 2009 that it had received three orders for Calder energy-recovery devices for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination projects in Spain including the Campo de Dalais project, which will receive the recently upgraded DWEER units.
Tordera expansion to use ERI devices
The energy recovery contract for the expansion of the Tordera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant near Barcelona, Spain, has been awarded to Energy Recovery Inc.
ERI supplies Andalucian desalter
Fifty PX-220 energy recovery devices to operate in the first-stage of the reverse osmosis process are to be supplied for the Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination project in Spain by Energy Recovery Inc.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
ERI pressure-exchangers for Spanish desalination plant
The 50,000 m³/d Marina Baja-Mutxamel seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant currently under construction near Alicante, Spain, is to be fitted with PX-260 energy-recovery devices.
Two Spanish desalination plants get ERI PX devices
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is to supply energy recovery-devices for two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants currently under construction along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
Toray wins large RO orders in Bahrain and Spain
Toray Industries Inc announced on 24 December 2009 that it had won a series of orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for desalination plants in Bahrain and Spain.
EIR completed for Foix desalination plant in Spain
The environmental impact report for the Foix desalination project in the Catalunya province of Spain has been completed and submitted to the supervisory committee.
Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders
Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).
Minister visits commissioned Spanish desalination plant
Spain's minister for environment and rural and marine affairs, Rosa Aguilar, visited the 20,000 m³/d Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination plant in Almería province on 20 September 2011 on the occasion of its commissioning.
Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit
Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.
Cadagua consortium's Oman job worth US$ 300 million
More details were released on 13 February 2013 by Ferrovia of Spain about the contract announced in November 2012 for a consortium involving its subsidiary Cadagua for the Al Ghubrah desalination plant in Oman.
Spanish government authorizes land for Moncofa desalination
Reservation of 86,570 m² of public land on Spain's Mediterranean coast for the Moncofa desalination plant was authorized on 28 May 2011 by the Spanish cabinet. The project is being constructed by the government agency Acuamed.
Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination
The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve
Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.
GE commissions MBR plant for Spanish poultry firm
GE has commissioned its first LEAPmbr installation in Spain at a wastewater treatment plant owned by the Spanish poultry processing firm, Procavi SL.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
ERI to supply 75,000 m³/d Venezuelan desalination plant
Spanish EPC contractor Acciona Agua has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA the energy-recovery technology contract for the 75,000 m³/d (20 MGD) Paraguana desalination plant in Venezuela.
Adelaide size may be doubled as Acciona emerges in front
The consortium led by Spain's Acciona Agua was announced as preferred bidder for the Adelaide desalination project on 19 February 2009, as Australian media reported that the capacity of the new plant was to be doubled from 150,000 m³/d to 300,000 m³/d.
ERI wins another Algerian contract
Another large-scale energy-recovery contract for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination in Algeria was announced by Energy Recovery Inc on 11 December 2008.
Veolia venture finishes Spain's Campo Dalias desalination
A joint venture led by Veolia Water Technologies' Spanish operation has completed the 97.2 Ml/d Campo Dalías reverse osmosis desalination plant in the south of Spain.
Acciona to build RO plant for Chile mines
Spain's Acciona Agua has been selected by Grupo CAP to design, build, bring into service and operate for 20 years a seawater desalination plant to service mining operations in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III.
Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation
Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.
Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers
Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
EDS sets Barcelona papers deadline
The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers for its next conference in the Desalination For The Environment which it is holding in Barcelona on 23-26 April 2012 in association with Asociación Española de Desalación y Reutilización.
EDS desalination course dates for 2012 published
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published dates for its series of courses for 2012, which will take place in February, April and June.
Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant
Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.
Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques
Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
EDS publishes desalination courses line-up for 2013
Five courses for the first half of 2013 have been announced by the European Desalination Society (EDS). All except one will be staged in Genoa, Italy.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
STS Apliclor to open new Madrid office
Barcelona-based Severn Trent Services - Apliclor, a leading supplier of water and wastewater solutions in Spain, has announced a range of strategic initiatives to expand the scope and geographic range of its business.
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead
Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).
BEL supplies pressure‑vessels for Al Jubail expansion
Around 1,600 reverse‑osmosis pressure‑vessels are to be supplied by BEL Composite Iberica SL for the SWRO‑4 expansion of the existing Al Jubail desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.
Spanish opposition calls for end to paralysis of giant desalination project
Opposition politicians in Alicante, Spain have called on the country's central government to implement the completion of two, long-delayed reverse osmosis desalination plants to avoid urgent problems in the province amid a current drought.
Acciona lands 100,000 m³/d SWRO plant at Al Jubail
Spain's Acciona Agua in consortium with Saudi Arabia's BinLaden Group has been awarded the contract for the 100,000 m³/d SWRO-4 desalination plant at Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Installed desalination growth slowed in 2011‑2012
Installed desalination capacity around the world rose by only 9% last year to reach 78.4 million m³/d, according to the latest data published by the International Desalination Association (IDA) and Global Water Intelligence (GWI).
Agbar subsidiary submits EIS for Chile desalination plant
An environmental impact study (EIS) has been submitted for the construction of a 1,000 L/s (86,400 ³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the coastal town of Chañaral, near the city of Caldera in Chile's Region III.
BEL wins Al Jubail desalination supply contract
Al Fatah Water & Power has selected BEL pressure vessels for the second-phase extension of the seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Jubail City, Saudi Arabia, which will supply water to the numerous industries located around the city.
Aqualia wins SWRO contract in Chile
Spanish company Aqualia has been awarded a contract worth about € 17 million to design and supply seawater reverse-osmosis equipment for a desalination plant in Chile, its first work in that country.
Spain's Inexa to build Arab shipyard desalination plant
Bahrain's Arab Shipbuilding and Repair Yard company (Asry) has awarded a US$ 8.6 million contract to Gulf Marketing House for the completion and upgrading of a reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant at Asry's yard in the Bahrain capital, Manama. Under the build-operate-transfer deal Spanish engineering firm, Inexa, will construct the plant.
Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling
The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.
Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment
Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.
Chennai desalination plant inaugurated at last
India's largest desalination plant, the much-delayed 100,000 m³/d Minjur plant serving Chennai, was inaugurated by Tami Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi on 31 July 2010.
Desalination booming in Tunisia
Desalination in Tunisia took a major step forward in July with the award of the 50,000 m³/d Djerba seawater desalination contract to a consortium including Befesa of Spain, announced on 14 July 2010, and the launch of a tender for the supply of ten brackish-water desalination plants at the end of the month.
Work starting on 2nd Chennai SWRO plant
Work is due to begin in January 2010 on the 100,000 m³/d Nemmeli seawater desalination plant south of Chennai, India. Chennai Metrowater issued work orders in the first week of January for the project.
Aquatech wins SWRO desalination contract in Gujarat
Tata Power has awarded Aquatech International Corporation an EPC contract for a 25,200 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for India's first Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) at Mundra in coastal Gujarat.
Dublin desalination is one option of ten
Dublin City Council invited views on 21 November 2008 on 10 options for augmenting existing water sources for the Dublin region, including desalination of water from the Irish Sea.
Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination
The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.
Abengoa to build power-plant RO project in Chile
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been selected by Chilean energy company AES Gener to develop a reverse-osmosis desalination plant for the Angamos power plant.
Acciona Agua in bidding for Sydney desalination lease
Acciona Agua of Spain is part of one of at least three consortia bidding for leases on the Sydney seawater desalination plant in Australia.
Catalunya's president opens Barcelona desalination plant
The € 230 million El Prat de Llobregat desalination, which will supply Barcelona with 200,000 m³/d of potable water, was officially opened on 22 July 2009 by the president of the Generalitat de Catalunya, José Montilla, and Environment Minister Elena Espinosa.
Seven Seas completing Caribbean hat-trick of plants
Florida-based Seven Seas Water Corp has recently commissioned the second and largest in a series of three desalination plants in the Caribbean - the 4.6 MGD (17,400 m³/d) Point Fortin plant in Trinidad.
Chennai desalination plant 'will finish in 2009'
The 100,000 m³/d Minjur desalination plant in Chennai, India, will be completed this year, the state government stated on 27 June 2009, despite a warning related to the implementing consortium from the Fitch financial ratings agency.
State visit signing for Adelaide desalination expansion
The AdelaideAqua consortium, led by Spain's Acciona Agua, has received a contract from the state government of South Australia to double the production capacity of the Port Stanvac (Adelaide) desalination plant.
EDS lists desalination courses for 2013
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has released a complete list of its courses for 2013. EDS has been giving training certificates since 2003 to over 400 participants from all over the world.
Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.
Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants
Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).
Befesa wins RO pilot plant in Tarragona
Spanish company Befesa Agua has won a construction contract for a reverse-osmosis (RO) pilot desalination plant to be built next to the L'Ampolla water treatment plant in Tarragona, Spain.
Carlsbad desalination plant set to start construction soon
The Carlsbad desalination plant jumped two of its final hurdles towards starting construction this week when it was backed by the courts and the local water quality board (WQB).
Financing and legal hurdles still ahead for Carlsbad desalination
The labyrinthine complexities of the desalination permitting process in California were further illustrated this week with the latest twists in the Carlsbad seawater desalination plant saga.
Redondo Beach go-ahead for desalination demonstration plant
The California Coastal Commission approved on 9 April 2009 a seawater desalination project to be undertaken by the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD) at Redondo Beach.
Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Innovative Intake Designs
The search for additional reductions in the cost of seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination needs new leads now energy recovery has gone about as far as it can go. The authors believe this can be done by improving raw-water quality using innovative intake designs. The use of "filtration" type intakes can have a significant effect on reducing the life-cycle cost of a SWRO plant. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations
Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.
South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future
The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.
Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test
Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant
The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant
The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.
3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju
The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.