Singapore, Spain, Energy, Retrofit, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit
Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.
Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Flowserve wins three Calder orders in Spain
Flowserve Corporation announced on 9 July 2009 that it had received three orders for Calder energy-recovery devices for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination projects in Spain including the Campo de Dalais project, which will receive the recently upgraded DWEER units.
Desalination worries for Hyflux in Libya
Singapore-based contractor Hyflux is "closely monitoring" the situation in Libya, where it is due to start work shortly on a 40,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis facility under a contract awarded in November 2010 by the General People's Committee for Utilities (the Ministry of Utilities in Libya).
DWEER ERDs chosen for Singapore desalination plant
Singapore's new 318,200 m³/d Tuaspring seawater desalination plant will use DWEER™ devices to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream of the reverse-osmosis process.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues
India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.
Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders
Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).
Singapore desalination pressure-vessel contract for ROPV
Pressure-vessel producer ROPV announced on 12 September 2011 that Hyflux had awarded the company a contract to supply pressure vessels to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant, Singapore's second and largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.
Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant
A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.
Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal
A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.
Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant
PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.
First IDA Young Leaders tour completed
The International Desalination Association (IDA) Young Leaders Program (YLP) recently concluded its first global Educational Tour, reaching out to more than 2,000 potential future desalters in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the USA.
Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance
Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya
A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.
Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.
Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
IDA announces final academy details for Singapore
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced details of its inaugural set of courses and faculty for the new IDA Desalination Academy, which will officially be launched in conjunction with the 2012 Singapore International Water Week.
ERI to supply 75,000 m³/d Venezuelan desalination plant
Spanish EPC contractor Acciona Agua has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA the energy-recovery technology contract for the 75,000 m³/d (20 MGD) Paraguana desalination plant in Venezuela.
Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant
Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant
A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.
NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore
Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.
Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant
A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.
Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'
Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".
Powerplant costs raise Singapore desalination bill
Singapore's water supply agency, PUB, has approved an increase in the cost of the 318,000 m³/d Tuaspring desalination project asked for by contractor Hyflux Ltd.
Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua
Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts
A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.
November deadline for Singapore papers
Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week
A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
Papers invited for Singapore Water Week
Papers have been invited by 15 November 2009 for the 3-day conference during 29 June - 1 July 2010 that is one of the flagship events for the Singapore International Water Week.
Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test
The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.
Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination
Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.
Black & Veatch picks up deals in Hong Kong and Singapore
Consultant, Black & Veatch, has won contracts to provide key roles in two planned desalination projects in Hong Kong and Singapore. Both projects, according to Black & Veatch, will set new design and energy-use benchmarks for water treatment plants.
Emirates Singapore venture poised for bond issue
Emirates SembCorp Water and Power - the joint venture, behind the Fujairah 1 independent water and power plant - is considering issuing a project bond to refinance its debt.
Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial
Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.
Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests
The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.
Hitachi signs Indian desalination water purchase accord
Japan's Hitachi announced on 13 January 2013 that its consortium with Hyflux of Singapore had concluded a water purchase agreement with Dahej SEZ Ltd (DSL), the management company of the Dahej Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Gujarat, India, for water from its proposed desalination plant in the SEZ.
Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya
Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.
Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore
The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.
New Singapore center will develop desalination/reuse solutions
GE and the National University of Singapore (NUS) are investing US$ 100 million in the Singapore Water Technology Center, which will seek new solutions for low-energy seawater desalination, water reclamation and more efficient water reuse.
Xylem bags Singapore UV deal
Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.
Changi NEWater Phase 1 RO delivered in 7 months
The first phase (40%) of the reverse-osmosis (RO) trains for Singapore's Changi NEWater treatment plant have been delivered within 7 months into the contract, sub-contractor Biwater announced on 5 December 2008.
IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week
The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.
US$0.36/m³ price for Singapore's second desalination plant
Tuaspring Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Singapore's Hyflux, signed a 25-year Water Purchase Agreement (WPA) with Singapore's national water agency on 6 April 2011 for the country's second and largest desalination plant.
Acciona Agua commissions Fouka desalination in Algeria
The commissioning of the Fouka seawater desalination plant in Algeria, which reached full operational capacity in July, was announced by Acciona Agua on 8 August 2011.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
ERI pressure-exchangers for Spanish desalination plant
The 50,000 m³/d Marina Baja-Mutxamel seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant currently under construction near Alicante, Spain, is to be fitted with PX-260 energy-recovery devices.
Two Spanish desalination plants get ERI PX devices
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is to supply energy recovery-devices for two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants currently under construction along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
Next IDA Academy course set for Singapore water week
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has chosen Operational Aspects of Reverse Osmosis (RO) & Membrane Plants and Mega Projects to be the topics of the next two-day course for the IDA Desalination Academy.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Hyflux aims to start Dahej desalination EPC work by July
Singapore's Hyflux, which has just posted a 28% year-on-year fall in profits, says that the group aims to achieve the financial close for its Dahej seawater desalination project in India in the first half of 2014.
Tordera expansion to use ERI devices
The energy recovery contract for the expansion of the Tordera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant near Barcelona, Spain, has been awarded to Energy Recovery Inc.
ERI supplies Andalucian desalter
Fifty PX-220 energy recovery devices to operate in the first-stage of the reverse osmosis process are to be supplied for the Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination project in Spain by Energy Recovery Inc.
Hitachi and Hyflux in Indian desalination agreement
A co-developer agreement for a seawater desalination project in Gujarat state, India, was announced on 22 March 2012 by a consortium of Hitachi Ltd and Itochu Corporation of Japan with Hyflux Ltd of Singapore.
Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae
Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.
PX energy-recovery units selected for Palmachim expansion
Energy Recovery Inc announced on 9 September 2009 that its PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) devices have been selected for use in the expansion of the 115,000 m³/d Palmachim desalination plant, one of the largest seawater reverse osmosis plants in Israel.
Nitto Denko and Mitsubishi win Singapore MBR order
Microfiltration (MF) membranes for Singapore's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant at the Jurong Water Reclamation Plant are to be supplied by Nitto Denko/Hydranautics and Mitsubishi Rayon Co.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Hydrochem chooses DWEERs for Oman's Salalah desalination
DWEER energy-recovery systems will be used in the Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (Salalah IWPP) in Oman to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream in the desalination process.
Rotec's flow reversal scoops Rising Star Award at TechXchange
Flow reversal firm Rotec has won the Rising Star Award at TechXchange at Singapore International Water Week 2018.
PEI wins giant Magtaa energy-recovery contract
Hyflux Ltd has selected HTCAT TurboChargers from Pump Engineering Inc (PEI) as the energy-recovery technology for the 500,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant at Magtaa on the Mediterranean coast of Algeria.
Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards
Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria
The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.
Sembcorp to develop SWRO desalination plant in Abu Dhabi
Singapore's Sembcorp Utilities has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) in the UAE to develop and build a new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility with potable water production capacity of around 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Bridging loans sought for Singapore desalination plant
Singapore-based EPC contractor Hyflux Ltd is negotiating with its financiers to find up to Sing$ 800 million (US$ 650 million) in bridging loans to fund construction of Singapore's Tuaspring desalination plant and a 400 MW gas-fired power plant, according to IFRAsia on 31 May 2011.
GE and memsys in joint MD development accord
Singapore-based membrane distillation (MD) specialist memsys clearwater Pte Ltd has entered into an agreement with GE to jointly develop the technology for the fast-growing oil and gas market.
FEDCO moves Singapore office to PUB's WaterHub
Following its continued growth in Asia, Michigan-based Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Singapore office to the WaterHub location of PUB, the national water agency.
IDA announces scholarship program winners
Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
WRI publishes country chart of water-stress exposure
A ranked list of countries showing their exposure to water-stress was released on 12 December 2012 by the World Resources Institute (WRI).
Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China
A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.
Plastics group ponders suppliers for 100 Ml/d desalination project
Taiwan-based Formosa Plastics Group is considering several major international suppliers for its NT$ 5 billion (US$ 150 million) project to build Taiwan's first large-scale desalination plant. The 100 Ml/d facility will be constructed on the site of one of Formosa's naphtha crackers at Mailiao, Yunlin County to alleviate the impact on the naphtha plant of forecast droughts.
Eight bidders for Singapore's second desalination plant
Eight companies/consortia had expressed interest in Singapore's second and largest desalination plant when the tender for the project closed on 23 October 2010.
Cadagua consortium's Oman job worth US$ 300 million
More details were released on 13 February 2013 by Ferrovia of Spain about the contract announced in November 2012 for a consortium involving its subsidiary Cadagua for the Al Ghubrah desalination plant in Oman.
Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination
The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.
Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve
Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.
Minister visits commissioned Spanish desalination plant
Spain's minister for environment and rural and marine affairs, Rosa Aguilar, visited the 20,000 m³/d Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination plant in Almería province on 20 September 2011 on the occasion of its commissioning.
ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant
Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.
Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses
The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.
Spanish government authorizes land for Moncofa desalination
Reservation of 86,570 m² of public land on Spain's Mediterranean coast for the Moncofa desalination plant was authorized on 28 May 2011 by the Spanish cabinet. The project is being constructed by the government agency Acuamed.
Ahmad takes charge of inge sales for Asia/Pacific
Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane specialist inge GmbH has taken the decision to appoint a dedicated representative to reinforce its local presence in the Asia-Pacific region and boost its regional activities.
PWT signs three new overseas distributors
Three new distributors in Malaysia, Singapore and South Africa have been signed up by Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the business unit of Canada's H2O Innovation Inc.
PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology
Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).
Toray wins large RO orders in Bahrain and Spain
Toray Industries Inc announced on 24 December 2009 that it had won a series of orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for desalination plants in Bahrain and Spain.
EIR completed for Foix desalination plant in Spain
The environmental impact report for the Foix desalination project in the Catalunya province of Spain has been completed and submitted to the supervisory committee.
Singapore to build fourth desalination plant
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has tendered for the provision of consultancy services for a desalination plant in Marina East - the country's fourth.
Second Singapore desalination plant to be launched soon
Singapore will soon be unveiling plans for a second desalination plant, Teo Chee Hean, deputy prime minister and minister for defence, said at the opening ceremony for the Singapore International Water Week on 28 June 2010.
Desalination and reuse in Water Leaders' Blue Paper
Key ideas from the Water Leaders Summit at this year's Singapore International Water Week have been captured in the latest Water Week 2011 publications, Blue Paper and Solutions.
Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal
Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.