Singapore, Ceramic, Materials, Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore
Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.
Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes
An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant
A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.
Partnership launches ceramic trial
Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA
Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to
demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
IDA announces final academy details for Singapore
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced details of its inaugural set of courses and faculty for the new IDA Desalination Academy, which will officially be launched in conjunction with the 2012 Singapore International Water Week.
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture
Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.
Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae
Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment
German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.
November deadline for Singapore papers
Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.
Papers invited for Singapore Water Week
Papers have been invited by 15 November 2009 for the 3-day conference during 29 June - 1 July 2010 that is one of the flagship events for the Singapore International Water Week.
Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test
The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.
Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues
India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts
A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week
A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.
NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore
Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.
Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial
Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.
Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests
The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.
Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant
A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.
Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya
Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.
Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant
A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.
Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant
Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
Changi NEWater Phase 1 RO delivered in 7 months
The first phase (40%) of the reverse-osmosis (RO) trains for Singapore's Changi NEWater treatment plant have been delivered within 7 months into the contract, sub-contractor Biwater announced on 5 December 2008.
Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.
Singapore desalination pressure-vessel contract for ROPV
Pressure-vessel producer ROPV announced on 12 September 2011 that Hyflux had awarded the company a contract to supply pressure vessels to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant, Singapore's second and largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.
Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes
The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.
Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge
The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.
DWEER ERDs chosen for Singapore desalination plant
Singapore's new 318,200 m³/d Tuaspring seawater desalination plant will use DWEER™ devices to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream of the reverse-osmosis process.
Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal
A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.
Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance
Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
Desalination worries for Hyflux in Libya
Singapore-based contractor Hyflux is "closely monitoring" the situation in Libya, where it is due to start work shortly on a 40,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis facility under a contract awarded in November 2010 by the General People's Committee for Utilities (the Ministry of Utilities in Libya).
Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya
A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.
Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.
Nitto Denko and Mitsubishi win Singapore MBR order
Microfiltration (MF) membranes for Singapore's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant at the Jurong Water Reclamation Plant are to be supplied by Nitto Denko/Hydranautics and Mitsubishi Rayon Co.
Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant
A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Powerplant costs raise Singapore desalination bill
Singapore's water supply agency, PUB, has approved an increase in the cost of the 318,000 m³/d Tuaspring desalination project asked for by contractor Hyflux Ltd.
IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled
A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.
Xylem bags Singapore UV deal
Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.
Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses
The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.
Emirates Singapore venture poised for bond issue
Emirates SembCorp Water and Power - the joint venture, behind the Fujairah 1 independent water and power plant - is considering issuing a project bond to refinance its debt.
Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects
German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.
IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions
Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.
Ahmad takes charge of inge sales for Asia/Pacific
Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane specialist inge GmbH has taken the decision to appoint a dedicated representative to reinforce its local presence in the Asia-Pacific region and boost its regional activities.
US$0.36/m³ price for Singapore's second desalination plant
Tuaspring Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Singapore's Hyflux, signed a 25-year Water Purchase Agreement (WPA) with Singapore's national water agency on 6 April 2011 for the country's second and largest desalination plant.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant
PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.
Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore
The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'
Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".
Next IDA Academy course set for Singapore water week
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has chosen Operational Aspects of Reverse Osmosis (RO) & Membrane Plants and Mega Projects to be the topics of the next two-day course for the IDA Desalination Academy.
PWT signs three new overseas distributors
Three new distributors in Malaysia, Singapore and South Africa have been signed up by Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the business unit of Canada's H2O Innovation Inc.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Membrane pioneer draws new investment
Water treatment membrane and solutions developer, Water Planet, has received a new Series B round of investment for its development and commercialization of its industrial wastewater treatment technologies.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua
Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.
Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November
A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.
Singapore pledges S$200 million for water research
Singapore's National Research Foundation is pledging S$200 million ($148 million) for the water industry through its research, innovation and enterprise (RIE) 2020 plan.
H2O Innovation wins North American contracts worth US$ 3.6 million
H2O Innovation has bagged four new contracts worth a total of US$ 3.6 million with two each in the US and Canada. These new deals, the company reported, will maintain its sales backlog for water treatment projects at US$ 38.6 million excluding its Professional Water Technologies, Piedmont and H2O Innovation Maple businesses.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Singapore trial proves ceramic-ozone synergy
Since September 2011, PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has been testing a new ceramic membrane treatment technology as a filter for removal of suspended matter and biological pathogens. After 18 months of testing, PUB is now exploring whether ceramic membrane filtration can be included as an option in the design to upgrade Choa Chu Kang Waterworks . This article first appeared in the May/June 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Hyflux collaborates with Japanese bank
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd has signed a memorandum of understanding with Japan's Mizuho Corporate Bank to collaborate in the global water business.
Singapore to build fourth desalination plant
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has tendered for the provision of consultancy services for a desalination plant in Marina East - the country's fourth.
Tender later this year for Changi expansion
A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.
IDA announces scholarship program winners
Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
First IDA Young Leaders tour completed
The International Desalination Association (IDA) Young Leaders Program (YLP) recently concluded its first global Educational Tour, reaching out to more than 2,000 potential future desalters in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the USA.
Singapore picks builder for new water reclaim plant
Singapore's water agency, the Public Utilities Board (PUB), has selected a consortium led by Bejing Enterprises Water Group and United Engineers as the preferred bidder for the Changi II plant under PUB's Newater marque.
Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech
Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.
Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal
Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.
Eight bidders for Singapore's second desalination plant
Eight companies/consortia had expressed interest in Singapore's second and largest desalination plant when the tender for the project closed on 23 October 2010.
ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant
Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Black & Veatch picks up deals in Hong Kong and Singapore
Consultant, Black & Veatch, has won contracts to provide key roles in two planned desalination projects in Hong Kong and Singapore. Both projects, according to Black & Veatch, will set new design and energy-use benchmarks for water treatment plants.
Second Singapore desalination plant to be launched soon
Singapore will soon be unveiling plans for a second desalination plant, Teo Chee Hean, deputy prime minister and minister for defence, said at the opening ceremony for the Singapore International Water Week on 28 June 2010.
Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination
Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.
Hitachi signs Indian desalination water purchase accord
Japan's Hitachi announced on 13 January 2013 that its consortium with Hyflux of Singapore had concluded a water purchase agreement with Dahej SEZ Ltd (DSL), the management company of the Dahej Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Gujarat, India, for water from its proposed desalination plant in the SEZ.
Singapore Water Week convention programme published
The advance programme for the Singapore Water Week convention is now available for download on the event website.
Hyflux to build Singapore's largest MBR plant
Singapore's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant is to be built by Hyflux Ltd under a Sing$ 35.8 million (US$ 25.4 million) contract announced on 23 February 2010.
JGC and Hyflux to collaborate on water and desalination projects
Hydrocarbon engineering company JGC Corporation of Japan and NewSpring Utility Pte Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Singapore-based membrane technology company Hyflux Ltd, signed a joint venture agreement on 22 December 2009 to develop greenfield water projects including desalination in China.
Singapore signals more water co-operation with the Dutch
The Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) and PUB, the national water agency of Singapore, signed a letter of intent on 22 October 2009 to boost collaborations undertaken by businesses and research institutions in the fields of science, technology and innovations in Singapore's water sector.