Seawater, Sewerage, Russia


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Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem

A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield

Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Norit X-Flow Aquaflex membranes

Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes

One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Desalination plants part of Palestine agreement

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a statement on 4 February 2011 agreeing to improvements in water, sewerage and electricity in Palestinian areas, following a meeting with Tony Blair, representative of the "Quartet" (USA, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union).

Russians award Aqua-Chem SWRO contract

The Russian government has ordered the second phase of a 10,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system from Matrix, a division of Aqua-Chem Inc of Florida, USA.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

Ex-USSR water minister promotes desalination for Crimea

Desalination of water from the Azov Sea could be one of the best sources for a water supply to Crimea, recently annexed by the Russian Federation, according to Polad Polad-zade, former USSR minister of water resources and deputy president of the Union of Watermen & Irrigators.

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

Oman water-reuse contract awarded by Haya Water

Oman's Haya Water awarded a RO 26.7 million (US$ 69.6 million) contract on 21 May 2012 to Contractors Union Co to construct the second phase of a water-reuse project in Al Qurum and Madinat Al Ilam areas in Muscat Governorate.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse

OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Suez supports a biological treatment system for water reuse at the Bashneft oil refinery, Russia

Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'

Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Sanjeev Sharma

Sharma leads IDE's marketing in Indian region

Sanjeev Sharma has been appointed head of marketing for desalination company IDE Technologies Ltd in the Indian region.

Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan

Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.

Grundfos headquarters in Bjerringbro, Denmark, is the base for a global pumps business

Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market

Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.

IDE Technologies will supply RO technology to support industry on the Taman Peninsular, Russia

IDE Technologies sells RO system to Russia's Oteko

IDE Technologies is to provide a reverse osmosis desalination system to Russian oil transporter Oteko for a plant on the shores of the Black Sea.

The coastal region of Bushehr, in the Persian Gulf, is in the south west of Iran

Iran poised to finance nuclear plants with co-located desalination

Iran has begun constructing two nuclear power plants, to be co-located with desalination facilities of 200 million m3/d, reports Iranian government news agency, Islamic Republic News Agency.

Funding go-ahead for Chennai desalter

A 100,000m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was approved on 2 January 2009 for the Indian city of Chennai by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

Chennai desalination plant inaugurated at last

India's largest desalination plant, the much-delayed 100,000 m³/d Minjur plant serving Chennai, was inaugurated by Tami Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi on 31 July 2010.

Caribbean successes for Seven Seas Water

The US Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority (WAPA) voted on 24 May 2010 to outsource all its desalination water supply to Seven Seas Water Corporation in a move intended to cut its water production costs in half.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

The signing of the Maldives contract

Biwater to build six SWRO plants in Maldives

Six seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants with a total capacity of 3,000 m³/d are to built built in the Southern Province of the Maldive Islands by Biwater International Limited.

Chennai desalination plant 'will finish in 2009'

The 100,000 m³/d Minjur desalination plant in Chennai, India, will be completed this year, the state government stated on 27 June 2009, despite a warning related to the implementing consortium from the Fitch financial ratings agency.

The Blue Hills SWRO plant

ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion

High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Consultants sought for Chennai III desalination plant

Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) has called for tenders for consultancy services for a third seawater desalination plant for the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.

Hawkes Bay desalter on the move again

The Hawkes Bay desalination project in Pakistan took a step forward on 15 January 2009, when Sindh chief minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah presided over a meeting regarding the desalination plant for Karachi at the Chief Minister's House.

Grenada government tries again with RO desalination

The report on the Grenada government's website on 21 May 2014 that it was building reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique might not be quite as good as it sounds.

CaribDA board backs Trinidad conference

The board of the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced in December its full support for a regional desalination and water reuse conference in Trinidad & Tobago in May 2010.

Chennai is the capital city of Tamil Nadu state, in southeastern India, on the Bay of Bengal

JICA to loan $283 million for Chennai's fourth desalination plant

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to loan JPY 30 billion ($283 million) to build a seawater desalination plant in Chennai, India.

Over-crowding on the island of Male has driven the Maldivian government to develop new island Hulhumale

Hitachi wins $8.8 million desalination project in the Maldives

Hitachi Aqua-Tech Engineering and Hitachi Capital Asia have won a water supply contract from Male Water & Sewerage Company in the Maldives.

The plant will supply drinking water to inhabitants in the north of Eleuthera island, Bahamas

GE Water to build desalination facility on Eleuthera island, Bahamas

GE Water is to build, own, and operate (BOO) a seawater reverse osmosis plant on the island of Eleuthera, in the Bahamas, on a 15 years contract.

The latest desalination project in Nemmeli, Tamil Nadu state, aims to build the third such plant to serve the population of the Chennai metropolitan area

Madras High Court lifts bar on Nemmeli project tender

The Madras High Court has lifted its hold on the Nemmeli desalination plant tender, clearing the path for the project to move ahead.

Chennai III consultant to be chosen this month

India's Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board will choose a consultant in July 2011 to prepare a detailed project report for a 200,000 m³/d desalination plant at Pattipulam, a few kilometres away from the 100,000 m³/d Nemmeli desalination plant due for completion in December.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Bangalore strategic plan contract goes to CH2M

India's Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) has selected CH2M to develop a strategic plan for the city of Bengaluru to assist in its water and wastewater infrastructure needs to 2050.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Xylem trials pumps with Australia's Unitywater

Water technology company, Xylem, has been working with one of Australia's largest water services and sewerage services providers to reduce significantly energy consumption and eliminate blockages at a number of its wastewater pump stations.

Miami-Dade's US$ 13 billion plans pull in punters for PPP

Miami-Dade County has become the most attractive public private partnership (PPP) opportunity in the US with players chasing US$ 13 billion in water and wastewater projects according to market analyst Bluefield Research.

Israeli group to build desalination plants in Dar-es-Salaam

Water authorities in Dar-es-Salaam are planning to work with an Israeli consortium in constructing two reverse osmosis desalination plants to alleviate water shortage in the Tanzanian commercial capital.

Trinidad and Tobago remain on dry alert despite desalination upgrade completion

Trinidad and Tobago remain under a dry spell alert as a completed upgrade at the desalination plant in Point Lisas takes up to two months to provide fully its increased capacity.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

The beach at Chennai, in the Bay of Bengal, nearby the site of the new desalination plant at Nemmeli

Suez International seeks to halt work order on Nemmeli project

Madras High Court has ordered Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board not to issue a work order for its proposed Nemmeli desalination plant, following a petition from bidder Suez International.

Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility

Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

Bahamas desalination plant production to be expanded

Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 1 February 2011 that it has entered into a binding letter agreement with its customer, the Water & Sewerage Corporation (WSC), to increase the daily production capacity of its Blue Hill plant in Nassau, Bahamas, by approximately 67% to 12 million GPD (45,000 m³/d) compared with the plant's current capacity of 7.2 million GPD (27,000 m³/d).

Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE

Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Veolia given Sydney wastewater reuse licence

New South Wales premier Nathan Rees announced on 7 May 2009 that Veolia Water has been issued the first licence under the Water Industry Competition Act 2006 to construct, maintain and operate a new recycled water plant at Fairfield, Sydney Australia, as part of the Rosehill Recycling Scheme.

Hawkes Bay plant still awaiting go-ahead

Though it has signed a contract in June with the Karachi Water & Sewerage Board, Norwegian supplier Aqualyng is still waiting for official steps by the Sindh Provincial Government before it can start the 114,000 m³/d Hawkes Bay reverse-osmosis plant which will supply potable water for Karachi.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

Justice Raja of Madras High Court, Tamil Nadu, has halted the tender for Nemmeli desalination plant

Madras High Court halts Nemmeli desal tender

The tender process for a desalination project in Chennai has been frozen by the Madras High Court in Tamil Nadu, reports Times of India.

The new desalination mega-plant will be located on the East Coast Road in Chennai, India

India's Ministry of Environment backs Chennai mega-project

A proposed 400,000 m3/d desalination plant in Chennai, India, has been recommended for Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance by the national Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.

Bangalore is the capital city of Karnataka state in India, and has a population of more than 10 million

Bangalore utility to require residential blocks to install private reuse facilities

Housing complexes of 50 or more apartments in Bangalore, India, will be required to install their own private water recycling units in the future, reports the BBC.

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

The new desalination plant will be located on the east side of Singapore's Marina Bay

Koh Brothers bags Marina East subcontract

Keppel Seghers has subcontracted Singapore's Koh Brothers Building & Civil Engineering as construction partner on the Marina East desalination plant project.

Tuas planning area in the west of Singapore will host the new water reclamation plant

PUB picks CH2M Hill to develop detailed designs for Tuas project

Singapore's PUB has appointed CH2M Hill Singapore as detailed design consultant for the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant, after a pre-qualification exercise.

Mott MacDonald team leader (third from left), briefs Dhaka officials on potential resettlement issues relating to a proposed new water treatment plant

Mott MacDonald bags major Dhaka water project

Consulting engineer Mott MacDonald is to manage, design and supervise a major water supply project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

A mixture of fixed charges, variable charges, and environmental charges for water are in use worldwide

IWA highlights levels of water consumption and tariffs globally

Households in Washington DC, US, are the biggest consumers of water compared to 169 other world cities, while households in Jinja, Uganda, use the least amount of water, a new report shows.

Trinidad and Tobago relies on desalinated water to supply the population

Supplies run dry after pipe collapses at Pt Lisas Desalination Plant

Emergency repairs are underway at Pt Lisas Desalination Plant in Trinidad and Tobago, after part of a pipeline collapsed leaving residents without water, reports the Trinidad Express.

Rishabh Sethi, executive director, SPML Infra, 'proud to be part of making fresh water available'

Rajasthan boosts water supplies with three major reuse projects across 11 cities

SPML Infra and Tata Projects have won three contracts worth a total of INR 1,275 crores ($189 million) to supply sewerage and wastewater reuse systems to 11 cities in Rajasthan, India.

Investment in US water utilities will shift from federal to other sources over the coming decade

Stage set for proliferation of private finance in US utilities

Capital expenditure by US water and wastewater utilities is expected to top $532 billion between 2016 and 2025, but the upturn is unlikely to be funded by federal budgets.

Point Lisas back in action

Trinidad's Point Lisas desalination plant has resumed operation following the completion of extensive planned maintenance work by its owner, the Desalination Company of Trinidad and Tobago.

Trinidad residents struggle as Point Lisas closes for maintenance

Trinidad's water supplies will be placed under stress after the water and sewerage authority temporarily shuts down the Point Lisas desalination plant for maintenance creating a 10% shortfall in output.

Chinese commercialize sea-ice desalination process

A Chinese company could be producing at least 1 billion m³ of fresh water by desalination of sea ice by 2023, according to a report by the official Chinese news agency Xinhua on 14 January 2013.

Carlsbad SWRO first year milestones revealed

Following the early January celebration of the first year of construction of the Carlsbad seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in California, developer Poseidon Resources provided D&WR with a breakdown of the work so far.

Veolia wins Az Zour MED desalination plant in Kuwait

Veolia Environnement announced on 13 January 2014 that its Sidem subsidiary had won the contract to build the seawater desalination plant at the Az Zour North complex in Kuwait for € 320 million.

Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant

A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.

Chilean politicians launch mining desalination bill

A cross-party group of eight deputies in the lower house of the Chilean national congress has submitted a bill to require mining companies using more than 150 L/s of water for extraction purposes to install seawater desalination equipment.

Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions

California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.

Bechtel contract for Escondida desalination project

BHP Billiton has contracted Bechtel to provide engineering, project management and construction services for the water supply to the Escondida copper mine in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

IDE wins oil refinery SWRO plant in India

Reliance Industries Ltd, India's largest private-sector company, has ordered its first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination solution from IDE Technologies. Reliance chose IDE's SWRO solution to meet the increased water capacity needs of the plant at one of India's largest oil refineries.

Florida state official urges more seawater desalination

Florida, which is about to become the third most populous state in the USA, has been urged by its agriculture commissioner, Adam Putnam, to invest more in seawater desalination to combat water scarcity.

EIS filed for SWRO desalination plant for Chile fishery

An environmental impact study (EIS) has been filed by Seven Seas Water Chile SpA for the Bahía Caldera Desalination Plant in Chile's Region III.

Japan funds desalination relief for South Pacific islands

The construction of a 30 m³/d desalination plant has relieved freshwater problems for around 200 inhabitants of Vanuavatu, one of the islands in the southern Lau Group in the South Pacific.

US Virgin Islands SWRO plant officially opened

The newest seawater reverse-osmosis desalination facility in the US Virgin Islands was officially opened on 21 November 2013.

IDE buys Flowserve pumps for Carlsbad desalination

IDE Technologies has purchased three large vertical seawater intake pumps from Flowserve Corporation for the Carlsbad seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Carlsbad, California.

Commission vote halts Huntington Beach application

Poseidon Water withdrew its application for a coastal development permit (CDP) for its proposed Huntington Beach seawater desalination plant after the California Coastal Commission voted on 13 November 2013 to postpone a vote on the application.

California to promote reuse and streamline permitting

In the future, most new water in California will come from a combination of improved conservation and water use efficiency, conjunctive use (coordinated management of local surface and groundwater), recycled water, drinking water treatment, groundwater remediation, and desalination.

Two Saudi SWRO membrane contracts awarded to NanoH2O

Desalination membrane manufacturer NanoH2O Inc has won supply contracts for two seawater desalination projects in Saudi Arabia.

Barka SWRO desalination extension in final commissioning

ACWA Power Barka SAOG reported to the Muscat Securities Market on 27 October 2013 that it was in the final stages of commissioning its 10 MIGD (45,400 m³/d) Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Expansion Project in Oman.

NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China

Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.

Aerial view of Sorek desalination plant

World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational

The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.

Santa Cruz project pause leaves Soquel district quandry

The decision of Santa Cruz City Council on 8 October 2013 to halt all practical progress on its proposed seawater desalination plant has left its partner in the project, Soquel Creek Water District (SCWD) looking for alternatives.

Oman's Sur desalination plant seeks large expansion

The owner and operator of Oman's Sur seawater desalination plant, Sharqiyah Desalination Company (SDC), has filed a bid with the Oman Tender Board for approval of a proposed expansion of 10.6 MIGD (48,000 m³/d) to the plant.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Algerian minister announces desalination plant at El Marsa

Algeria's minister of water resources, Hocine Necib, announced on 6 October 2013 that a seawater desalination plant would be constructed "soon" in the town of El Marsa, according to the state‑run Algeria Press Service.

Sembcorp announces successful IPO for Salalah IWPP

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 26 September 2013 the successful close of its intial public offering (IPO) for part of its joint venture in Oman, Sembcorp Salalah Power & Water Co.


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