Seawater, Research, Municipal, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
Morillon to direct MEDRC training
Michel Morillon, former CEO and CTO of the 80,000 m³/d Sur seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant project in Oman, has joined the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) as director of training.
Redondo Beach go-ahead for desalination demonstration plant
The California Coastal Commission approved on 9 April 2009 a seawater desalination project to be undertaken by the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD) at Redondo Beach.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
Mumbai set for two 100,000 m³/d desalination plants
The Maharashtra government committee looking into desalination for Mumbai, India, has decided on two 100,000 m³/d plants using the reverse-osmosis plants in Chennai as a blueprint, although it is acknowledged that seawater conditions are different.
3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju
The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.
Marin voters could decide desalination future
Marin Municipal Water District in California will have to seek the permission of consumers to proceed any further with its investigations into the possibility of desalination, if a ballot later this year is successful.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
Work on Carlsbad should start early in 2013
Work on the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant is expected to start early in 2013, following approval by the board of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) on 29 November 2012 of the water-purchase agreement between SDCWA and Poseidon Resources, developers of the desalination plant.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
West Basin seeking powerplant site for desalination plant
Two power companies are in talks with Southern California's West Basin Municipal Water District over the 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) desalination plant planned by the district.
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
Marin MWD wins but desalination EIR challenge looms
Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD) won a ruling in March 2011 by a Marin superior court judge which keeps its option of a seawater desalination plant on track.
Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy
Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy
UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC
The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Marin MWD to appeal desalination EIR judgement
The Marin Municipal Water District voted on 16 November 2011 to appeal a judicial ruling that an environmental impact report (EIR) for its possible seawater desalination project was flawed, which effectively stopped the project.
Partnership launches ceramic trial
Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA
Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to
demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater
Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst
Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.
Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'
Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies
Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).
California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant
California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.
KAUST SWRO desalination plant won by AES Arabia
A US$ 14 million contract for a 15,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) Research Park in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to AES Arabia Ltd.
IDE desalination seminar trains Jordanians and Palestinians
Thirty participants from Palestine and Jordan completed a week-long desalination seminar in Israel in early November 2010.
Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead
The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.
EDS sets Barcelona papers deadline
The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers for its next conference in the Desalination For The Environment which it is holding in Barcelona on 23-26 April 2012 in association with Asociación Española de Desalación y Reutilización.
New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report
By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
Advantages of Polyethersulfone (PESU) membranes for pretreatment for SWRO applications
Membrane pretreatment for large-scale seawater desalination has grown rapidly in the last few years. Existing examples seem to show that the additional cost can be more than recouped in reduced chemical costs alone, but there are also environmental advantages. This article is the first of two discussing the advantages of polyethersulfone (PESU) membranes for filtration duties in water treatment. This article will start by considering general advantages of membrane use together with the reference and experience position, and then examine the particular benefits of PESU in terms of treated water quality. The final sections include a review of membrane pretreatment costs and environmental impact in comparison with conventional pretreatment technology. The second article, to be published at the beginning of 2010, will consider the advantages in using PESU membranes in municipal water applications.
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
San Francisco study proves impaired source still feasible
The Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD), near San Francisco, USA, has been exploring seawater desalination to provide a drought-proof supplement to its over-extended water supply. Desalination of San Francisco Bay water presents challenges for pretreatment due to the frequent changes in water quality from the ebb and flow of the tides and winds, seasonal changes in the flows of two major rivers (Sacramento and San Joaquin), and impacts from stormwater and industrial discharges. It also presents technical and sociological challenges to convince customers that high quality drinking water can be produced from an impaired water source. A 12-month desalination pilot program was carried out to achieve the following main objectives: Test different pretreatment processes and membrane performance to determine which ones perform best to process SF Bay source water. Perform studies to address environmental concerns to facilitate permit applications and support an environmental impact report. Demonstrate that SWRO can reliably produce high-quality drinking water through comprehensive water-quality testing, tours and public outreach This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge
Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.
Hyflux sells half-share of Singapore membrane R&D firm
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 March 2014 that it had agreed with Marmon Water (Singapore) Pte Ltd (MWS) to sell to MWS its entire 50% equity interest in Hyflux Marmon Development Pte Ltd (HMD), a company devoted to membrane/media filtration research.
Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities
Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.
Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team
Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check
Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.
Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia
Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle
Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem
A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.
Two Saudi SWRO membrane contracts awarded to NanoH2O
Desalination membrane manufacturer NanoH2O Inc has won supply contracts for two seawater desalination projects in Saudi Arabia.
Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant
The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.
OC pilot desalination pumping to restart in October
The pilot plant for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in California will resume discharging into the ocean in October 2011 following alterations to the discharge pipeline, which are about to go for bidding.
Cascal buys Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia
Cascal NV, a subsidiary of the UK-based Biwater water and wastewater group, announced on 15 December 2009 the acquisition of three Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia Water North America.
Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead
Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).
Orange County issues RFP for desalination pilot-plant operation
The Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) in California, USA, issued a request for proposals on 23 October 2009 for professional engineering services for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project - Phase 3. Deadline is 19 November 2009.
Mumbai desalination study deadline extended
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) in India has extended until 15 November 2009 its tender deadline for a techno-economic feasibility study for a desalination plant in Mubai, according to a local website.
Another appeal against Carlsbad desalination project
An appeal against a court ruling allowing the Carlsbad desalination plant to use the open-ocean cooling-water intakes of the adjacent power station for its water intake was launched on 18 August 2011 by the Surfrider Foundation, a non-profit grassroots organization.
First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant
The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.
Tianjin selected for 2013 IDA World Desalination Congress
Tianjin, China, is to be the venue for the 2013 World Congress on Desalination & Water Reuse to be held by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Carlsbad desalination plant set to start construction soon
The Carlsbad desalination plant jumped two of its final hurdles towards starting construction this week when it was backed by the courts and the local water quality board (WQB).
US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water
Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.
Financing and legal hurdles still ahead for Carlsbad desalination
The labyrinthine complexities of the desalination permitting process in California were further illustrated this week with the latest twists in the Carlsbad seawater desalination plant saga.
Court dismisses Carlsbad desalination permit challenge
Poseidon Resources jumped what it hopes will be the final legal hurdle for the Carlsbad Desalination Project on 24 June 2011, when the California Superior Court upheld the San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board's most recent approval of the project.
MWD move will not affect Carlsbad desalination, says Poseidon
Poseidon Resources on 16 June 2011 denied reports that the current standoff in Southern California between the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) and the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) will affect the Carlsbad Desalination Project.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
State budget cuts delay Carlsbad desalination approval
Cuts to the California state budget prevented officials of the San Diego County Regional Water Quality Control Board preparing recommendations regarding the proposed Carlsbad desalination plant for the board to vote on at a meeting on 11 February 2009.
UK utility ponders south coast desalination plant
UK utility, Southern Water, is considering the construction of a seawater desalination plant near the south coast city of Southampton.
Decision soon on Coquina Coast desalter study
Consultancy work on the Coquina Coast seawater desalination project by the City of Palm Coast, Florida, USA, which is lead negotiator for the project, is scheduled for approval at a council meeting on 16 December 2008.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
China halfway to 1 million m³/d seawater desalination
China's seawater desalination capacity now stands at 524,000 m³/d, according to Li Baochun, deputy director of the Tianjin Municipal Commission of Science & Technology, quoted in the People's Daily.
Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues
India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.
CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March
Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.
Researchers share industry prize for fouling research
Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.
MIT membrane start-up completes funding round
The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.
Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding
The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Qatari research aims to
The Qatar Electricity and Water Company (QEWC) and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop two pilot projects that could 'radically reduce the cost and energy use' of desalination.
Palmer set to lead Australian desalination centre
Neil Palmer, currently general manager of technical services at Australia's Osmoflo, will take over late in October as the CEO of the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED).
Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants
Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.
Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project
Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.
Committee to examine 500,000 m³/d desalination for Mumbai
The government of Maharashtra state in India has appointed a committee to study water recycling and desalination in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region and to make recommendations.
Chinese website and new director for Modern Water
UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.
Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test
Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.