Seawater, Fouling, Water Treatment, Mining, Massachusetts, Japan, Seawater,waste Water Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii


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Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

MIT membrane start-up completes funding round

The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine

Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.

Desalitech wins US golf-course desalination contract

Reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech Inc has won a competitive bid to supply a water purification system using its Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) system to the Kittansett Club golf course in Marion, Massachusetts, USA.

Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval

An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).

Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player

Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.

Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market

Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.

H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract

A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung

Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.

North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company

A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.

BASF water business combined with other sectors

German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.

Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore

The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.

Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU

Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.

H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant

Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.

LG Electronics forms water treatment JV with Hitachi

South Korea's LG Electronics and Japan's Hitachi are to establish a joint venture in October 2011 to expand into the water and wastewater treatment industries initially in Korea.

IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer

Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Cost, regulation and water scarcity are driving a shift in mindset toward resource recovery in brine treatment

The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?

As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

AWA to hold membrane fouling master class

Membrane fouling is to be the subject of a master class to be held by the Australian Water Association (AWA) in November 2012.

Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination

The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination

DWEER™ energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination

An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.

License sought for seawater desalination plant in Chile

White Mountain Titanium Corporation announced on 26 April 2012 that it has applied for an access license to draw seawater for a planned desalination plant in Chile.

Mining water treatment market to grow 85% by 2019

The global water treatment market for hard-rock mining - iron, copper, gold, nickel - is set to grow 85% to US$ 17 billion by 2019 according to market analyst, Bluefield Research.

Jorge T Aguinaldo

New quartet joins RWL's Aeromix and Nirosoft

RWL Water has recently added four new staff to its group companies Aeromix and Nirosoft.

A 500 m³/day MSF/FBE evaporator, Isle of Texel, Netherlands.

MSF/FBE seawater desalination and fouling hypersaline wastewater treatment

The Multi-Stage Flash/Fluidised Bed Evaporator (MSF/FBE) is not strictly a new technology, but the applications suggested in this article are new. It is claimed to halve the costs of distillate production compared with most advanced conventional MSFs and is suggested as a way to expand existing MSF plants. Another application is the wind-powered MSF/FBE for distillate production at remote underdeveloped locations. This article also introduces a Vapour Compression/Fluidised Bed Evaporator (VC/FBE) for the treatment and concentration of saline and severely fouling industrial and mining (waste)water streams. This article first appeared in the August/September 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Chilean politicians launch mining desalination bill

A cross-party group of eight deputies in the lower house of the Chilean national congress has submitted a bill to require mining companies using more than 150 L/s of water for extraction purposes to install seawater desalination equipment.

Bechtel contract for Escondida desalination project

BHP Billiton has contracted Bechtel to provide engineering, project management and construction services for the water supply to the Escondida copper mine in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers

Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.

RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines

A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.

Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry

The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.

Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

Water rights row could delay Western Australia desalination plant

A row over water rights in the north-west of Australia could lead to delay in the construction of the West Pilbara Seawater Desalination Plant, despite assurances in February 2011 from Western Australia's (WA) state government that the project was on track.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant

Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.

Aqualia wins SWRO contract in Chile

Spanish company Aqualia has been awarded a contract worth about € 17 million to design and supply seawater reverse-osmosis equipment for a desalination plant in Chile, its first work in that country.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

IWA extends deadline for Toronto membrane papers

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of papers for the 7th IWA Specialised Membrane Technology Conference & Exhibition for Water & Wastewater Treatment & Reuse.

Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard

Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.

Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs

Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.

IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

Nearly 200 abstracts received for AMTA/AWWA conference

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) says that 193 abstracts have been received for its joint conference next year with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas.

Oil sands UF water treatment won by H2O Innovation

A Can$ 9.4 million (US$ 9.6 million) contract for a membrane-based water treatment package has been awarded to H2O Innovation Inc by Fort Hills Energy LP for the Fort Hills Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada.

Sumitomo allies with VA Tech Wabag

Japan's Sumitomo Corp announced on 7 December 2010 an alliance agreement with India-based VA Tech Wabag Ltd, under which the two companies will strategically cooperate in multiple areas within the water infrastructure industry

Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China

Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.

AMTA's awards recognise individuals for a variety of contributions to the field of membrane technology

AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

New headquarters for Kurita Water Industries

Japanese water-treatment chemical supplier Kurita Water Industries has moved to a new headquarters in Tokyo.

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture

Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.

SEDA December workshop to look at chemicals for RO

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a technology transfer workshop on Chemical Treatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) to be held in Palm Bay, Florida, in December 2013.

Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal

The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.

Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia

Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.

Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination

Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.

Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September

The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant

A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.

Peter Waldron

Waldron takes up Toray Membrane post

Membrane veteran Peter Waldron took up his new position as business development manager for San Diego-based Toray Membrane USA on 28 March 2011, but he told D&WR that he's remaining in Massachusetts for the near future.

Chilean mining firm strikes desalination deal with water protesters

Chilean copper mining company, Antofagasta, has struck a deal with demonstrators from the town of Salamanca in the Choapa River Valley who had been blocking access to its Los Pelambres mine in Chile, in protest against the mine's consumption of water amid severe water scarcity in the region.

Chile's copper mines will turn to desalination for half their water

Desalination will provide half the water demand of Chile's copper mining industry by 2026, according to findings in a report by the Chilean state copper commission, Cochilco.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Slimline MBR is first product from LG Electronics

Only two months after announcing it was entering the water membrane business, LG Electronics (LG) unveiled its first wastewater treatment solution, a membrane bioreactor, on 25 November 2010.

Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project

Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.

Acciona to build RO plant for Chile mines

Spain's Acciona Agua has been selected by Grupo CAP to design, build, bring into service and operate for 20 years a seawater desalination plant to service mining operations in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III.

IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract

IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.

Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources

Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.

Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.

Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field

Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.

BP bags stake in Saltworks

Oil and gas giant, BP, has taken a stake in Canadian water treatment company, Saltworks Technologies, through its technology investment arm BP Ventures.

The new SWRO mega plant at Escondida copper mine is fed by seawater from the Port of Antofagasta, 170 kilometeres away

Escondida mega plant poised to produce water in March

Mining giant BHP Billiton has reported the "mechanical completion" of Escondida Water Supply project, Chile, with the first water expected in March 2017.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be used to capture salt and ions in seawater

MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers

The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.

Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve

Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

RWL wins contract to build desalination plant in Argentina

RWL Water has won a contact to build what it claims will be Argentina's largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.

Doyen of Japanese desalination retiring

Dr Totaro Goto, former managing director of the Water Re-use Desalination Center (WDRC) in Japan and a former member of the D&WR Editorial Board, is to retire from the center at the end of March.

Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water

A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.

Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November

A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.

Rick Stover is executive vice president of Desalitech and an IDA board member

Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"


Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

“We are looking at organic growth, and mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures.

Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water

The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.

Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant

The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.

New CEO appointed by Poseidon Resources

Carlos A Riva, who has led a number of leading infrastructure companies, has joined Poseidon Resources as chief executive officer.

Japan funds desalination relief for South Pacific islands

The construction of a 30 m³/d desalination plant has relieved freshwater problems for around 200 inhabitants of Vanuavatu, one of the islands in the southern Lau Group in the South Pacific.

Hitachi signs Indian desalination water purchase accord

Japan's Hitachi announced on 13 January 2013 that its consortium with Hyflux of Singapore had concluded a water purchase agreement with Dahej SEZ Ltd (DSL), the management company of the Dahej Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Gujarat, India, for water from its proposed desalination plant in the SEZ.

Aquatech shale-gas treatment center opened

The formal opening of a central water treatment center set up for shale gas producers in Pennsylvania by local company Aquatech took place on 18 April 2013.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Samoa first to draw from Japanese solar/desalination fund

Samoa on 17 June 2011 became the first country to access a Japanese fund set up for solar power generation and seawater desalination or a combination of both.

Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis

A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination

The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.

Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues

India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.

ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project

A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.


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