Seawater, Desalination, Reverse Osmosis, Wastewater Treatment, Reverse Osmosis, Hollow Fiber, Singapore, Pacific, greenhouse gas, China, Renewable Energy


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Hydranautics to collaborate with Singapore's Memstar

Membrane manufacturer Nitto Denko/Hydranautics has agreed business collaboration with Memstar Technology Ltd, the Singapore-based manufacturer of high-performance hollow-fiber membranes.


United Envirotech to acquire Singapore membrane-maker

Singapore's United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) is to acquire its own membrane manufacturing capability by spending S$ 293.4 million (US$ 231 million) on a 100% stake in Memstar Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Memstar Technology Ltd, also of Singapore, plus certain assets.

Dr Krishnamurthy Rao

IDA announces death of InDA founder

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has reported the death of India's "water man" and founder of the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Dr CH Krishnamurthy Rao.

memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs

A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China

A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).

Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech

Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.

Sembcorp to build Chinese chemical wastewater plant

Sembcorp announced on 19 December 2013 that it would be developing a new industrial wastewater treatment plant in the Caofeidian Chemical Industrial Park in Hebei province, China.

Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China

Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

Desalination worries for Hyflux in Libya

Singapore-based contractor Hyflux is "closely monitoring" the situation in Libya, where it is due to start work shortly on a 40,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis facility under a contract awarded in November 2010 by the General People's Committee for Utilities (the Ministry of Utilities in Libya).

Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya

A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.

New South Wales premier switches on Sydney desalination plant

Sydney's seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was switched on by New South Wales premier Kristina Keneally on 28 January 2008, providing water to meet up to 15% of Sydney's water needs.

JGC and Hyflux to collaborate on water and desalination projects

Hydrocarbon engineering company JGC Corporation of Japan and NewSpring Utility Pte Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Singapore-based membrane technology company Hyflux Ltd, signed a joint venture agreement on 22 December 2009 to develop greenfield water projects including desalination in China.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance

Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Iqbal Ahmad

Ahmad takes charge of inge sales for Asia/Pacific

Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane specialist inge GmbH has taken the decision to appoint a dedicated representative to reinforce its local presence in the Asia-Pacific region and boost its regional activities.

Siemens wins OC membrane system contract

A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant

Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Singapore desalination pressure-vessel contract for ROPV

Pressure-vessel producer ROPV announced on 12 September 2011 that Hyflux had awarded the company a contract to supply pressure vessels to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant, Singapore's second and largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.

DWEER ERDs chosen for Singapore desalination plant

Singapore's new 318,200 m³/d Tuaspring seawater desalination plant will use DWEER™ devices to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream of the reverse-osmosis process.

Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal

A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July

The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.

Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant

A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.

Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore

The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.

Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial

Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.

ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria

The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.

Solar power installed soon for Nauru desalination plant

Singapore's Hitachi-Aquatech has awarded a contract to two New Zealand companies for a 131 kWp solar system to power a desalination plant for the Pacific island of Nauru.

IDA announces final academy details for Singapore

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced details of its inaugural set of courses and faculty for the new IDA Desalination Academy, which will officially be launched in conjunction with the 2012 Singapore International Water Week.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Australian wave-energy desalination pilot to get funding

Australia's Carnegie Wave Energy announced on 28 February 2013 that it had received a government grant of Aus$ 1.27 million (US$ 1.30 million) to support a wave-powered seawater desalination demonstration project.

Dow to build RO membrane plant in Huzhou, China

A world-class manufacturing facility for Dow FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for desalination and water reuse is to be built in Huzhou, China, the Dow Chemical Co announced on 7 June 2012.

Vizualization of Singapore's new desalination plant

Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant

PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.

Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests

The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.

Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya

Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance

Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.

Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders

Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?

Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Befesa chooses ERI again for Qingdao seawater desalination

The 100,000 m³/d Qingdao seawater desalination plant in China is to become the seventh Befesa- built reverse-osmosis plant to use PX isobaric energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base

Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day

The Aqualyng Recuperator energy-recovery device.

Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant

Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Singapore setting for Desalitech pilot plant

A 200 m³/d pilot reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment unit is to be set up in Singapore by Desalitech Ltd under a contract from a client who has yet to be named.

Olympics facilities manager appointed as Tri-Tech VP

Former Siemens engineer, Weidong Bi, who managed membrane-bioreactor and reverse-osmosis plants for the Olympic Games in China, is one of three senior executive appointments announced by Tri-Tech Holding Inc on 3 June 2010.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Black & Veatch picks up deals in Hong Kong and Singapore

Consultant, Black & Veatch, has won contracts to provide key roles in two planned desalination projects in Hong Kong and Singapore. Both projects, according to Black & Veatch, will set new design and energy-use benchmarks for water treatment plants.

Oasys furthers advance in China

US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.

Dow and Haier agree new domestic RO membrane supply

A new collaboration agreement has been finalised between Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS) and Chinese global domestic products provider Haier for continued use of Dow membranes.

 L to R: Heiner Markhoff, GE Water CEO and president, Dr Tony Yan, chairman, National Research Foundation of Singapore, Prof Dr Chorh Chuan, president, NUS.

New Singapore center will develop desalination/reuse solutions

GE and the National University of Singapore (NUS) are investing US$ 100 million in the Singapore Water Technology Center, which will seek new solutions for low-energy seawater desalination, water reclamation and more efficient water reuse.

NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore

Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.

Vizualization of Singapore's Tuaspring desalination plant

US$0.36/m³ price for Singapore's second desalination plant

Tuaspring Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Singapore's Hyflux, signed a 25-year Water Purchase Agreement (WPA) with Singapore's national water agency on 6 April 2011 for the country's second and largest desalination plant.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

Changi NEWater Phase 1 RO delivered in 7 months

The first phase (40%) of the reverse-osmosis (RO) trains for Singapore's Changi NEWater treatment plant have been delivered within 7 months into the contract, sub-contractor Biwater announced on 5 December 2008.

Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination

Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Next IDA Academy course set for Singapore water week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has chosen Operational Aspects of Reverse Osmosis (RO) & Membrane Plants and Mega Projects to be the topics of the next two-day course for the IDA Desalination Academy.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua

Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.

Emirates Singapore venture poised for bond issue

Emirates SembCorp Water and Power - the joint venture, behind the Fujairah 1 independent water and power plant - is considering issuing a project bond to refinance its debt.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Saudi Arabia unveils plans for giant desalination plant

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has announced plans for what would be the world's largest desalination plant.

Artist impression’s of the wastewater treatment plant in Guangzhou city

Singapore firm wins large MBR contract in China

United Envirotech Ltd of Singapore announced on 3 November 2009 an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract worth RMB 264 million (US$ 38.7 million) to build a 100,000 m³/d membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment plant in Guangzhou, China.

Powerplant costs raise Singapore desalination bill

Singapore's water supply agency, PUB, has approved an increase in the cost of the 318,000 m³/d Tuaspring desalination project asked for by contractor Hyflux Ltd.

IDE wins Chinese follow-on order for four MED desalination plants

Four additional multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination units, each with a production capacity of 25,000 m³/day of distilled water, are to be supplied for Tianjin SDIC, China's new electricity- generation megaplant, by IDE Technologies of Israel.

Masdar steps up ties with China

Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.

Sembcorp to develop SWRO desalination plant in Abu Dhabi

Singapore's Sembcorp Utilities has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) in the UAE to develop and build a new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility with potable water production capacity of around 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal

Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.

Artist's impression of the Seadog installation

Wave-powered desalination about to be installed

A company in Texas, USA, is preparing to demonstrate the use of desalination with the wave-power facility it is about to install in the Gulf of Mexico.

New Jakarta RO desalination plant will open in December

A 5,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant is to be opened in Jakarta, Indonesia, in December 2010. The US$ 5.72 million reverse-osmosis facility will be at the Ancol Dreamland Park to provide clean water for its residential complexes and theme parks in the north of the city.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

Sembcorp announces successful IPO for Salalah IWPP

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 26 September 2013 the successful close of its intial public offering (IPO) for part of its joint venture in Oman, Sembcorp Salalah Power & Water Co.

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot

Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.

IDA and PUB to cooperate on water training/education

The International Desalination Association (IDA) and PUB, Singapore's national water agency, signed an agreement on 2 July 2012 to explore opportunities for mutual cooperation in promising areas of training and education regarding water.

Marubeni lowest of six consortia for Al Mirfa

A Marubeni-led consortium led the way when bids were opened by the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) on 6 March 2013 for the Al Mirfa Independent Power & Water Project.

Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae

Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.


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