Saudi Arabia, Water Reuse, Tender, Water Scarcity, Tanks, Tanks


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The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

Fort forges ahead with reuse project

The first water reuse project in Oklahoma state is reported to be making headway at the US army's post at Fort Sill.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Saudi poised for sevefold hike in water reuse

Unveiling a white paper highlighting government policy options for addressing water scarcity in Saudi Arabia, GE Power & Water said the kingdom was in a position to up its reuse of wastewater sevenfold to more than 240 million m³/year.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

San Francisco's Golden Gate Park

San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park

San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

Singapore's Changi wastewater reclamation plant.

Tender later this year for Changi expansion

A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.

Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility

Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.

GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU

GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.

Chinese lead water-reuse positivity in GE survey

GE announced on 5 June 2013 the final part of the results from its three-country 3,000-sample consumer water-reuse survey.

GE reasserts policy proposals for water reuse

Engineering giant, GE, has again urged policymakers to consider four major policy options for water recycling and reuse first unveiled at Water Arabia 2015 in February this year.

World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse

Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.

X-raying goods vehicles at Kerem Shalom commercial crossing between Israel and Palestine

Gaza desalination plant delayed by goods blockade

Construction of a desalination plant in Gaza City, Palestine, has stalled after Israel halted the passage of goods into the State, reports Relief Web.

Tunisia has a programme of water projects designed to reduce reliance on groundwater sources

KfW finances Euro 82 million Tunisian desalination project

KfW Development Bank is to loan €82 million ($95 million) to Tunisia for a desalination plant in Zarat, Gabes Governorate, reports Tunis Afrique Presse.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

McLaughlin takes over at CST Industries

Liquid-storage tankmaker CST Industries of Lenexa, USA, has a new president and CEO following the departure of Brian Bauerbach, who is leaving the company to lead another venture.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Metito to supply RO plant for UAE oil base

Supply of a 2,700 m³/d reverse osmosis desalination plant and a 360 m³/d demineralization plant for an oil and gas installation on Das Island, UAE, has been awarded to UAE-based Metito by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company.

One of the 10,000 m³ tanks under construction at Tordera.

Tordera SWRO storage tanks built within 16 weeks

The challenge of upgrading and nearly doubling the potable water storage capacity as part of an upgrade of the Tordera seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Blanes (Girona) near Barcelona, Spain, within a rigorous timeframe, was awarded to CST Vulcan, a division of CST Industries Inc. Using a specialised jacking system, allowing the tanks to be built from the ground up, construction was completed in August 2009, in less than 16 weeks total, allowing the overall project to continue on time and as planned.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

City of Sydney seeks water recycling masterplan

The City of Sydney is seeking tenders to develop a decentralised water masterplan to produce more 10 % of the Australian city's water supply from local sources.

Cape Town action on desalination and water reuse

The City of Cape Town, South Africa, is planning to issue a tender for a feasibility study of a "large‐ scale" seawater desalination plant within the next month. The study will determine the most appropriate location and size for such a plant.

SWCC privatization 'on track', says governor

The governor of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Fehied F Alshareef, issued a statement on 13 October 2009 saying that the SWCC privatization and restructuring implementation program remained on track, and that there was no intention to cancel or postpone it.

Saudi plans two more giant desalination plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has unveiled plans to build two huge sea water desalination plants including a vast 1.5 million m³/day capacity hybrid plant with 30% of its production coming from reverse osmosis and the rest from thermal desalination.

Alliance bids sought for W Australia water-reuse plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation has invited proposals from suitably experienced organizations to form an alliance with the water supplier to design and build the Beenyup Advanced Water Recycling Plant at Craigie.

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

Black & Veatch wins consultant contract for giant Jeddah desalination project

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded consultancy, Black & Veatch, the engineering and design contract for a major desalination project that will supply the kingdom's second largest city, Jeddah.

Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project

Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.

KAUST hosts EMS desalination/reuse school

The European Membrane Society has announced a week-long Middle East school of membrane technology at the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia.

Dow to build FilmTec RO factory in Saudi Arabia

Dow Water & Process Solutions announced on 26 July 2011 that it is going to manufacture FilmTec™ reverse-osmosis (RO) elements in Saudi Arabia.

Wade Miller stepping down as WateReuse director

The executive director of the WateReuse Association and the WateReuse Research Foundation, G Wade Miller, announced on 8 August 2013 his resignation from the two organizations effective 31 March 2014.

Governor signs bill to implement Texas water plan

A bill signed by the governor of the state of Texas, USA, on 28 May 2013 will help promote innovative water reuse and conservation in the state as it implements the State Water Plan.

ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi

Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.

IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.

Texas moves towards direct potable reuse

The US state of Texas has taken a step towards direct potable water reuse (DPR) with the Texas Water Development Board awarding a study project to Alan Plummer Associates Inc, consultants based in the state.

IDA president calls for new thinking on sustainability

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, described the transition to sustainability as "one of the most important paradigm shifts of the modern era," when he addressed the International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi on 21 January 2013.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

Desalination and reuse in Water Leaders' Blue Paper

Key ideas from the Water Leaders Summit at this year's Singapore International Water Week have been captured in the latest Water Week 2011 publications, Blue Paper and Solutions.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

Minton to lead WRRF research programs

Julie Minton has been appointed director of research programs by the WateReuse Research Foundation (WRRF), which conducts and promotes applied research on water reuse and desalination.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

CONGRESS NEWS Desalination industry embraces conservation as vital ally

Desalination industry leaders this week declared emphatic support for the role of sustainable measures alongside advances in desalination to address growing water scarcity. Opening speakers at the IDA World Congress in San Diego emphasized the importance of conservation and water recycling in meeting an escalating global challenge from water scarcity.

CDM and Miahona in Saudi water partnership

US consultant CDM and Miahona (Our Water), a subsidiary of ACWA Power Development, have announced a new partnership to execute water projects in Saudi Arabia. The partnership will manage engineering and consulting for water sector projects, including providing studies, designs, construction management, operations, and management consulting services.

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

Deadline soon for InDA Congress abstracts

Abstracts for the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Congress - InDACON 2011 - must reach the association by 1 December 2010.

IDA energy task force meeting in Abu Dhabi

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will convene the first meeting of its global Energy Task Force in conjunction with the International Water Summit, which takes place on 15-17 January 2013 in Abu Dhabi.

Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity

The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

X-Flow UF modules to treat Saudi hospital wastewater

Pentair X-Flow's Airlift™ MBR Megablock ultrafiltration (UF) system is treat 8,000 m³/d of hospital wastewater at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Doosan Hydro wins Al Jubail membrane treatment contract

Florida-based Doosan Hydro Technology has been awarded a US$ 10 million contract by Daelim Industrial Co Ltd for the industrial wastewater treatment and reuse package on the Saudi Elastomers Project (SEP) located in Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Kuwait to host IDA Fellowship Program for 2012

Kuwait's Ministry of Electricity & Water is to be the new host agency for the International Desalination Association's Fellowship Program in 2012.

UK water firm plans two water reuse plants

UK water company South East Water is to develop two water reuse schemes as part of its bid to ensure supply meets demand to 2040. 

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

OPWP seeks consultant for two desalination projects

The Oman Power and Water Procurement Company SAOC (OPWP) has invited specialized companies to submit offers for supervisory consultancy services for the Ghubrah IWP and Barka I water projects, both of which involve desalination plants.

Texas desalination RFQ period ends on 14 September

The qualification period for a feasibility study for a large seawater desalination plant in Texas, USA, ends on 14 September 2012.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

Prequalification invited for Ghubrah IWP in Oman

Submissions have been invited by Oman Power & Water Procurement Company by 17 November 2011 for qualification to tender for the development of an independent water project at Ghubrah (Ghubrah IWP) in Muscat governate.

Consolidated bidding for Mexican SWRO desalination

Consolidated Water Co (CWCO) has declared itself to be one of the tenderers for the El Salitral desalination plant in Baja California, Mexico. Bids are due by June.

Accusations fly in Israeli desalination chaos

Chaos still reigns in Israel over the Ashdod desalination plant, which is now the subject of accusations from the national water company Mekorot against losing tenderers Shikun u'Binui (SKBN) and Global Environmental Services (GES).

Eight bidders for Singapore's second desalination plant

Eight companies/consortia had expressed interest in Singapore's second and largest desalination plant when the tender for the project closed on 23 October 2010.

Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.


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