Saudi Arabia, Desalination, Chemicals, Germany, Bahrain, Tanks


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Germans delivering small MVC/MED units to Saudi Arabia

Medesa GmbH of Germany has delivered a 180 m³/d desalination unit to the Al Marshad Group for the industrial area in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor

ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.

Typical plant configuration based on Synwater 500 system

Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology

Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

KfW signs Djerba desalination loan agreement in Tunisia

Tunisia's Société Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux (SONEDE) signed an agreement on 22 August 2013 with the German development bank KfW for a loan of around € 60 million for the Djerba seawater desalination plant.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

Berlin venue for next GWI/IDA water summit

Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan will be the guest speaker at the next Global Water Summit organized by Global Water Intelligence and the International Desalination Association, which will be in Berlin, Germany, on 18-19 April 2011.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

Germany's Lahmeyer acquires GKW Consult

Two long-standing German consulting engineering firms have been combined, hard on the heels of the Dutch DHV-Haskoning merger.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

Lanxess moves into water filtration membranes

Speciality chemicals manufacturer Lanxess AG on 21 January 2010 launched construction of a new plant to develop and produce membrane filtration technology at its site in Bitterfeld, Germany.

UF membrane cooperation agreed by inge and Aquasource

Germany's inge GmbH and France's Aquasource have agreed to enter into a strategic cooperation effective from April 2014, with each company focusing on their respective competences.

Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser

Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.

memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs

A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.

German membrane-maker Lanxess moves its HQ

Reverse-osmosis membrane and ion-exchange manufacturer Lanxess has moved its headquarters to Köln, Germany, and will officially manage its global operations from there as of 1 August 2013.

2011 IWA Membrane Technology conference dates

The 6th International Water Association Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology will take place on 4-7 October 2011 in Aachen, Germany. The conference is organised by the Institute for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and the Institute for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University and will be held at the conference centre Eurogress in Aachen.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Saudi poised for sevefold hike in water reuse

Unveiling a white paper highlighting government policy options for addressing water scarcity in Saudi Arabia, GE Power & Water said the kingdom was in a position to up its reuse of wastewater sevenfold to more than 240 million m³/year.

ItN's Ceramic Flat Membrane (CFM) Systems provide 'unprecedented technical and economical water treatment', it says

SafBon to supercharge production of ItN membranes

SafBon is dramatically stepping up production of ItN Nanovation ceramic flatsheet membranes to fulfil new orders.

Saudi and South Korea sign desalination deal

Saudi Arabia and South Korea have signed a water desalination agreement and a memorandum of understanding for technology transference to Saudi.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi

Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant

The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.

First Degrémont BWRO unit starts up in Saudi Arabia

The first of the 5,000 m³/d modular brackish-water desalination units being supplied to Saudi Arabia's National Water Company (NWC) by Degrémont began producing water on 7 February 2013.

SWCC's Rabigh plant will be largest SWRO desalination

The approval of the world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant in Saudi Arabia was reported by the government-controlled Saudi Press Agency on 11 February 2013.

ABB to supply switchgear to Yanbu 3 desalination

ABB has won an order to design and deliver 420 kV high voltage gas insulated switchgear that will facilitate the supply of power to the Yanbu 3 desalination facility in Saudi Arabia and support the grid integration of a new 2.5 GW power generation plant.

Doosan takes Yanbu 3 MSF plant in Saudi

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build the Yanbu Phase 3 Seawater Desalination Plant under a contract worth US$ 1 billion from the Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia.

Degrémont wins brackish-water contracts in Riyadh

Suez Environnement subsidiary Degrémont has been awarded two contracts worth EUR 40 million to supply reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plants at 14 sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Acciona lands 100,000 m³/d SWRO plant at Al Jubail

Spain's Acciona Agua in consortium with Saudi Arabia's BinLaden Group has been awarded the contract for the 100,000 m³/d SWRO-4 desalination plant at Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC

The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.


KAUST SWRO desalination plant won by AES Arabia

A US$ 14 million contract for a 15,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) Research Park in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to AES Arabia Ltd.

New technical services company set up in Saudi

A new company to offer specialized technical services to the oil and gas, petrochemical, energy and water desalination sectors has been set up in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by Stork Technical Services of the Netherlands and Saudi Industrial Services Co (SISCO).

BEL wins Al Jubail desalination supply contract

Al Fatah Water & Power has selected BEL pressure vessels for the second-phase extension of the seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Jubail City, Saudi Arabia, which will supply water to the numerous industries located around the city.

Pentair X-Flow wins Jubail ultrafiltration order

Pentair X-Flow announced on 4 April 2012 an order from Al Fatah Water & Power to supply its Seaguard ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids to the Jubail Phase 2 seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination project in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

KAUST hosts EMS desalination/reuse school

The European Membrane Society has announced a week-long Middle East school of membrane technology at the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia.

Oman desalination workshop to look at red tides

Experts from the Middle East and Australia are organizing a joint expert workshop on the dangers for desalination plants of harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly called "red tides" in Oman on 8- 9 February 2012.

Record-breaking MSF desalination unit sails for Saudi

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has successfully completed fabrication of the world's largest multi-stage flash (MSF) evaporator.

Saudi forum discount for IDA members

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced on 17 November 2011 that its members would be eligible for a 10% discount on delegate fees for the 2011 Saudi Water & Power Forum (SWPF 2011), which will be held 4-6 December 2011 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

ClydeUnion pumps for Kindasa desalination expansion

UK-based ClydeUnion Pumps has been awarded a contract by Kindasa Water Services to supply pumps for an additional train for the existing Kindasa seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.

SWCC to invite tenders for new desalination capacity

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) is poised to invite tenders for its planned increase in water production in the kingdom to meet is soaring demand for potable water according to a recent report in MEED.

Seokwon Yun (left), executive vice president of Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction and Thamer S Al-Sharhan, president of Marafiq, sign the contract for Yanbu II.

Doosan signs 68,000 m³/d MED desalination contract

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build a 68,000 m³/d multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination plant in the Yanbu region of Saudi Arabia.

Doosan set to build 2 MED plants in Yanbu

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction of South Korea is to receive an engineering, procurement and construction contract for two multi-effect distillation desalination (MED) units from Marafiq, the power and water utility company for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Dow to build FilmTec RO factory in Saudi Arabia

Dow Water & Process Solutions announced on 26 July 2011 that it is going to manufacture FilmTec™ reverse-osmosis (RO) elements in Saudi Arabia.

FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract

The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).

ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi

Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.

Hanwha signs for Jubail/Yanbu power and desalination

Hanwha Engineering & Construction from South Korea has signed a US$ 1.05 billion contract with Marafiq, the power and water utility for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, to build a power station and desalination plant.

Doosan to build world's largest MED desalination unit

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has signed an agreement with the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia to co-build what will be the world's largest single multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination unit.

Titanium supplier chosen for Ras Azzour desalination plant

Uniti LLC, a US-Russian industrial titanium venture jointly owned by Allegheny Technologies Inc and Verkhnaya Salda Metallurgical Production Association, announced on 16 December 2010 that it has been chosen to supply a significant portion of the commercially pure (CP) titanium to be used in the Ras Azzour desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux wins Saudi deal for Yanbu

Desalination specialist, Hyflux, has won a US$ 48 million contract to build a containerised desalination system for Saudi Arabia.

Black & Veatch wins consultant contract for giant Jeddah desalination project

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded consultancy, Black & Veatch, the engineering and design contract for a major desalination project that will supply the kingdom's second largest city, Jeddah.

Fedco pressure-booster beats 80% efficiency

"We're now ready to go after any project in the world," Eli Oklejas, president of Fedco, told D&WR, after he had announced that a performance test on the company's hydraulic pressure booster (HPB) energy-recovery device for desalination had surpassed 80% efficiency.

GE wins drive deal for Yanbu 3 desalination plant

GE's Power Conversion arm has won a deal to provide the electrical variable speed drive (eVSD) system, including motors and MV7000 drives, to the Yanbu 3 power and desalination plant under construction in Saudi Arabia.

 The systems will reduce the energy needed to run the desalination process as well as the overall cost, said GE.

Japanese-led consortium bags US$ 120 million Saudi desalination deal

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded a US$ 120 million contract for the expansion of the Shuaiba 2 seawater desalination plant to a joint venture including ACWA Holding and Japanese engineering firms Itochu Corporation and Sasakura.

Doosan wins giant Ras Azzour desalination plant contract

Doosan Heavy Industries of South Korea has won a US$ 1.46 billion contract to supply the Ras Azzour desalination plant in Saudi Arabia, which, at a capacity of 228 MIGD (1,036,500 m³/d), will be the largest in the world.

Floating Saudi desalination barges relaunched

Saudi Arabia's two floating water desalination barges have been moved from Shuquaiq to Yanbu, and the first was relaunched on 7 July 2010 by Fehied F Al-Shareef, governor of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Engineer Nabil Azmaruli, general manager of the General Directorate of Water in Al-Madina.

The Shuqaiq power and water complex

Shuqaiq IWPP desalination plant in production

The Shuqaiq Independent Water & Power Project in Saudi Arabia began production at the end of May 2010.

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

IBM joins in Saudi solar desalination initiative

Saudi Arabia's solar powered desalination initiative, announced in January, is now to involve the ultra-high concentrator photovoltaic (UHCPV) and nanomembrane desalination technologies being jointly developed by IBM and the King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST).

Shuqaiq II desalination plant ahead of schedule

The US$ 1.87 billion Shuqaiq II Independent Power and Water Project (IWPP) in Saudi Arabia will be completed before May 2010, the date scheduled for commercial operation.

Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Ras Azzour desalination and power bids invited again

Bids have been invited from local and international contracting companies and manufacturers in both power and desalination for the Ras Azzour Desalination & Power Plant Project.

Sasakura eyes large Middle East desalination units

Sasakura Engineering Co is teaming up with fellow Japanese company Itochu Corp to enter the business of large-scale desalination plants in the Middle East.

Abengoa signs world first large renewable desalination plant deal

Saudi-based water treatment specialist, Advanced Water Technologies (AWT) has appointed Spanish conglomerate, Abengoa, as its partner in the development of the world's first, large-scale desalination plant to be powered by solar energy.

Ras Azzour could cost 25% less says SWCC

Saudi Arabia expects the cost of the Ras Azzour power and water desalination project to be 20-25% below initial estimates partly because the price of materials have fallen, according to Reuters.

SWCC privatization 'on track', says governor

The governor of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Fehied F Alshareef, issued a statement on 13 October 2009 saying that the SWCC privatization and restructuring implementation program remained on track, and that there was no intention to cancel or postpone it.

IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force

The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.

IDA releases more Congress details

More details have been released about the program for the 2009 World Congress of the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will take place during 7-12 November 2009 in Dubai.

Sumitomo backs off Ras Azzour desalination bid

A consortium led by Japan's Sumitomo Corporation has "put on hold" its plans for the Ras Azzour independent water and power project (IWPP) in Saudi Arabia, according to Reuters.

Saudi government to take back Ras Azzour desalination

The giant Ras Azzour desalination plant in Saudi Arabia, which was to have produced 1 million m³/d, is now unlikely to be built be private enterprise.

New nanotech company will benefit desalination, says prince

Desalination is likely to be one of the first sectors to benefit from a new nanotechnology company launched in Saudi Arabia.

Ionizable hydrophobes behind new IBM desalination membrane

US computer giant IBM, Tokyo-based Central Glass and the King Abdul Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) unveiled a novel desalination membrane technology at the World Water Forum in Turkey on 16 March 2009.

Privatization advisor contracts signed by SWCC

The contracts for advisors to the programme to privatize the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia were signed on 29 November 2008 in a ceremony attended by the Minister of Water & Electricity, HH Eng Abdullah Alhusayyen, who is chairman of the SWCC board, and the SWCC governor, Fehaid Al-Shareef.

Doosan awarded latest Jeddah contract

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction signed the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for the third stage of the Jeddah desalination plan in Saudi Arabia on 1 December 2008.

Sumitomo consortium gets Ras Azzour approval

After complaining about premature announcements of its preferred bidder, Saudi Arabia's Water & Electricity Company (WEC) finally confirmed at the end of October that the consortium of Sumitomo Corporation/Aljomaih Automotive Co/Malakoff International was its First Ranked Bidder for the Ras Azzour independent water & power plant (IWPP).

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

Saudi strikes desalination deal with Korea in bid to stem foreign influence

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has signed a deal with Korea for access to the latest seawater desalination technologies in a bid to reduce foreign influence on the kingdom's power and water industries.

Bahrain energy bid includes desalt

A consortium, including Saudi-owned infrastructure firm ACWA Power, has in its bid for Bahrain's 390,000 tonne a year waste-to-energy plant the provision of desalinated water.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

Go small and local on desalination warns Saudi water expert

President of the Saudi Water and Power Forum (SWPF) Dr Adil Bushnak, has warned that Saudi Arabia must end its rising dependence on "costly" centralised desalination plants.

Saudi brings on 2.5 million m³/d in desalination capacity

Saudi Arabia's General Establishment for Water Desalination (GEWD) is, over the next four years, implementing new projects with a total production capacity of up to 2.5 million m³/d in the Makkah region and the eastern province.



GE and Saudi Aramco launch $200k technology competition

General Electric and Saudi Aramco have launched a $200,000 challenge to improve the energy efficiency of seawater desalination.

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Saudi plans two more giant desalination plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has unveiled plans to build two huge sea water desalination plants including a vast 1.5 million m³/day capacity hybrid plant with 30% of its production coming from reverse osmosis and the rest from thermal desalination.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

The Al Hidd multi-effect distillation desalination plant.

GDF Suez looking to sell Al Hidd power/desalination stake

French energy group GDF Suez was reported by Reuters on 28 July 2011 to be planning to sell its 30% stake in Bahrain's Al Hidd power and desalination plant and has mandated HSBC as an adviser.


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