Saudi Arabia, Seawater, Wastewater Treatment, India, Desalination, Saudi Arabia, Membrane


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The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018

Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).

The demonstration project will draw on lessons from the Mega-ton Water System, whose aim was to create a paradigm shift in energy consumption for reverse osmosis desalination

Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo

Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.

Hyflux is pursuing a restructuring of its liabilities

Hyflux exits contract with SWCC amid company reorganisation

Hyflux has quit a contract with Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) for three seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, amid moves to restructure the company.

Swcc and Hyrec sign MOU to use Hyrec's concentration technology at SWCC plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Hyrec Technologies Ltd. have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to deploy Hyrec's Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) technology for Zero Liquid Discharge desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

GrahamTek is an innovator in 16-inch reverse osmosis membrane technology

GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project

GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

SEDA Spring Symposium registration opened

The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) has opened registration for its Spring Symposium to be held in Florida in June 2014.

SEDA Spring Symposium brochure available for download

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has a brochure available for its 2013 Spring Symposium to be held at Delray Beach, Florida.

IWA extends deadline for Toronto membrane papers

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of papers for the 7th IWA Specialised Membrane Technology Conference & Exhibition for Water & Wastewater Treatment & Reuse.

AMTA and SEDA to hold Chesapeake membrane workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA), which promotes membrane processes for desalination and water / wastewater treatment, is to hold a joint technology transfer workshop with the Southeast Desalting Association in Chesapeake, Virginia, in May 2013.

SWMOA announces dates for 2013-14

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced additional workshop dates for desalination and water / wastewater treatment membrane operators for 2013 and the date and venue for its 2014 annual symposium.

EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers

A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.

Indian desalination conference set for February

The Indian Desalination Society (InDA) has published a brochure for its National Conference on Water Purification Technologies & Management (InDACON 2012).

The Bundamba wastewater reuse plant in Queensland

Virtual tour online for Bundamba AWT

The multi award-winning Bundamba Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, which is already featured in a video available from Koch Membrane Systems, now has its own online virtual tour.

Aquatech system reuses Indian auto-plant effluent

A contract to provide a membrane-based effluent recycling system for an automotive manufacturing facility located in North India's National Capital Region (NCR) has been awarded to Aquatech.

H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant

Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.

H20 Innovation opens Indian manufacturing plant

Canada's H2O Innovation Inc announced on 6 April 2011 the opening of a 10,000 ft² (929 m²) manufacturing plant for its Indian joint-venture H2O Innovation India Ltd near Vadodara, Gujarat.

Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA

Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.

UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants

Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.

Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture

Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.

Pflugerville location for SCMA membrane workshop

An introduction to the use of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is being offered in a Texas workshop being held by the South Central Membrane Association (SCMA) on 9 February 2012.

Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned

The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.

Rochem and APTwater announce merger

A merger was announced on 9 November 2011 between APTwater Inc of California, USA, and Rochem AG of Switzerland.

Clairet promoted by H2O Innovation

Guillaume Clairet has been promoted by membrane water-treatment company H2O Innovation Inc to the newly created position of vice president, strategic business development.

Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment

Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.

Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa

Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge

Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020. 

NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China

Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility

Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

Evoqua to be new title for Siemens Water Technologies

Evoqua Water Technologies LLC is to be the new name of Siemens Water Technologies LLC following its acquisition by AEA Investors LP.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Desalitech RO wastewater use 'will pay back in 6 months'

Desalitech, developer of the closed-circuit desalination (CCD) system, is to supply a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) advanced wastewater treatment system for a pesticide plant in Gujarat, India.

Chinese visitors are shown the MBR plant at Al Ansab.

Chinese delegation visits Oman's Al Ansab MBR plant

A Chinese delegation led by the deputy minister of water resources, Lee Joieeing, visited Oman's Al Ansab submerged membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant in Muscat on 24 October 2011 (featured in D&WR, November/December 2011).

United Envirotech buys Xinmin wastewater concession

Membrane treatment specialist United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) announced on 3 October 2011 that the group has exercised a call option to acquire the entire equity interest of Tongji Environmental (China) Pte Ltd, the holding company for Aton Environmental (Shenyang) Co Ltd, for RMB 34.03 million (US$ 5.34 million).

Big energy-savings as giant MBR opens near Seattle

What is claimed to be the world's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) installation was opened on 24 September 2011 at the Brightwater Wastewater Treatment Plant near Seattle in the US Pacific Northwest.

MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China

A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).

Koch MBR system chosen by Chinese city

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes supplied by Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) has been chosen for a wastewater treatment plant operated by Zhangjiagang JinGang Sewage Treatment, a state-owned entity which looks after all municipal plants for the Chinese city of Zhangjiagang.

Chinese membrane wastewater firm gets big investment

Global investor KKR has entered into an agreement with United Envirotech Limited (UEL), a water treatment and recycling company in China, for a US$ 40 million common equity investment. KKR subscribed US$ 113.8 million convertible bonds issued by UEL in October 2011 to support the company's business expansion.

MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program

Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.

Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech

Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.

ZLD wastewater pilot makes first water in Beijing

A pilot NanoClear™ zero-discharge wastewater treatment plant in Beijing has just produced its first water, according to developer Dais Analytic Corporation.

Slimline MBR is first product from LG Electronics

Only two months after announcing it was entering the water membrane business, LG Electronics (LG) unveiled its first wastewater treatment solution, a membrane bioreactor, on 25 November 2010.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

Italy opens its second largest municipal MBR plant

Italy's second largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) entered service on 17 July 2012 following the inauguration of the upgraded wastewater treatment plant in Borghetto Santo Spirito, a town on the Ligurian coast southwest of Genoa.

World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over

Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.

VA Tech Wabag wins industrial reuse plant in Gujarat

Ultrafiltration (UF), reverse-osmosis (RO) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) will all be part of a 32,420 m³/d effluent treatment and recycling plant to be built in India by Chennai-based VA Tech Wabag.

GE signs up for Indian industry wastewater reuse partnership

GE and Ramky Enviro Engineers, the Indian environment and waste management organization, have signed emergency water and industrial wastewater treatment agreements specifically designed to address India's industrial wastewater treatment and recycling needs.

ACWA appoints nanotechnology membrane specialist

UK water and wastewater specialist ACWA Services announced on 6 June 2012 that it has appointed a membrane nanotechnology specialist, Dr Oscar Hernandez-Ramirez as a chemical process engineer.

MBR technologies help expand Queensland treatment plant

A sewage treatment plant in Queensland, Australia, will double its capacity to 1,000 m³/d with the help of membrane bioreactor technologies provided by GE.

United Envirotech to acquire Singapore membrane-maker

Singapore's United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) is to acquire its own membrane manufacturing capability by spending S$ 293.4 million (US$ 231 million) on a 100% stake in Memstar Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Memstar Technology Ltd, also of Singapore, plus certain assets.

Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast is the site for the two mega-size seawater reverse osmosis projects

Saudi Arabia's WEC seeks developers for two mega projects

Water and Electricity Company (WEC) of Saudi Arabia has requested expressions of interest on two new mega seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant projects.

Piedmont is boosting business globally with new contract wins

Piedmont signs new supply and distribution contracts

Piedmont, a producer of corrosion resistant equipment for desalination plants, has signed a roster of new supply and partner distribution agreements globally.

The new seawater desalination capacity will support development in Dhofar Governorate, Oman

OPWP signs ACWA Power, Veolia and Dhofar Development for Salalah project

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has signed ACWA Power Saudi Arabia, Veolia Middle East, and Dhofar International Development and Investment, on a build, own and operate contract for Salalah Water Desalination Plant.

Mott MacDonald absorbs Australasian water specialist

The Mott MacDonald consultancy group has taken in AWT, a specialist water technology and consulting company based in New Zealand and Australia.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

The new desalination capacity is part of Saudi Arabia's water sector privatisation programme

Bidding shapes up for Shuqaiq 3 desal plant

Six consortia have bid for Shuqaiq 3 desalination plant project in Saudi Arabia, a public-private partnership expected to include a 25-year concession.

Shuqaiq is in the south of Saudi Arabia, near the border with Yemen

Saudi Arabia's WEC pre-qualifies bidders for Shuqaiq 3

Saudi Arabia's Water and Electricity Company (WEC) has pre-qualified 15 companies for Shuqaiq 3 desalination plant project.

Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water

Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.

The contract was signed by Saudi minister of environment, water, and agriculture Abdulrahman Al-Fadhli (right), and Jesús Sancho, Acciona managing director for the Middle East

Acciona Agua wins E200 million Al Kohbar desal contract

Acciona Agua has won a Euro 200 million ($232 million) contract to design and build Al Khobar desalination plant on Saudi Arabia's east coast.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

Saudi Arabia's minister of environment, water and agriculture Abdulrahman Al-Fadlhi has welcomed investment to improve the country's desalination portfolio

Saudi's Al-Fadhli gets the go-ahead for nine new desalination plants

Saudi Arabia has an ambitious $530 million programme to build nine new desalination plants on the Red Sea coast within 18 months, the minister of environment, water and agriculture Abdulrahman Al-Fadhli has revealed.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

New distributors and EU compliance for PWT

Membrane chemicals supplier Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the US arm of Canada's H2O Innovation, recently signed agreements with two new distributors in Brazil and Argentina, increasing its presence in South America.

Four SEDA events posted for 2012

The Southeast Desalting Association has posted four events on its website for 2012, including its Spring Symposium in Bonita Springs, Florida, and a workshop in North Carolina.

Hitachi in Libyan MBR tie-up

Libyan water technology company El Zulal announced on 21 July 2010 that it has signed a sales and marketing agreement with Hitachi of Japan to distribute Hitachi's membrane bioreactor (MBR) product range in Libya.

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

AWA to hold membrane fouling master class

Membrane fouling is to be the subject of a master class to be held by the Australian Water Association (AWA) in November 2012.

Jubail phase 3 water and power project is a significant move in Saudi Arabai's shift toward reverse osmosis

EOI request is out on Jubail phase 3 desal mega-project

Saudi Arabia's Water and Electricity Co has requested expressions of interest on Jubail phase 3, an integrated water and power project to include 1.17 million m3/d of desalination.

Menningmann becomes president of Biwater AEWT

Jorg Menningmann has joined Biwater's desalination and membrane treatment sector as president of Biwater AEWT.

ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi

Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.

ACWA Power has pipped rivals to the post by a single cent

ACWA Power shaves $0.01 off next-best price in Rabigh 3 bidding

ACWA Power is offering the most competitive price by $0.01 out of five bidding consortia for Rabigh 3 independent power and water project.

Saudi Arabia is investing in temporary as well as long-term desalination capacity

SWCC poised to invite bids for mobile desal capacity

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) is poised to invite bids from mobile desalination providers to augment supplies until its planned large scale projects start producing.

The new mega-size desalination facility will be situated on the Red Sea coast

Marubeni-led group wins Shuqaiq 3 project

A consortium led by Marubeni Corporation is to invest $600 million in Shuqaiq 3 desalination plant project in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

The Saudis are running a competitive bidding process for the supervisory contract

Saudi's WEC prequalifies eight firms for supervisory contract

Saudi Arabia's Water and Electricity Company (WEC) has pre-qualified eight companies to provide supervisory consultancy services on its desalination projects.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Sumitomo allies with VA Tech Wabag

Japan's Sumitomo Corp announced on 7 December 2010 an alliance agreement with India-based VA Tech Wabag Ltd, under which the two companies will strategically cooperate in multiple areas within the water infrastructure industry

New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies

Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).

Another patent for Aquaporin in China

Danish company Aquaporin A/S has received a Notification of Allowance from the Chinese government's State Intellectual Property Office for its patent application titled Methods for Production of Salinity Power.

The cost per cube of desalinated water bid on the planned Taweela mega-plant in Abu Dhabi is among the world's cheapest

Seven bidders line up for Abu Dhabi mega-project

Abu Dhabi Department of Energy has unveiled the seven consortia bidding for Taweela desalination plant mega-project, with the lowest price coming from ACWA Power at $0.49 per cube.

The new adsorption-based facility will use solar energy to power the desalination process

Saudi Arabia to build solar-powered, adsorption desalination plant

Saudi Arabia is building a solar-powered desalination plant using adsoprtion technology, in one of seven strategic projects that include the nation's first nuclear research reactor.

India 'to have 500 desalination plants by 2017'

India will have more than 500 desalination plants by 2017 in a market sector that is growing at 22%, according to a recently published market research report.

SWCC's tender for nine desalination plants has been reissued

SWCC asks firms to resubmit bids on nine plants

Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia has invited firms to resubmit bids on nine desalination plant projects that were brought forward in January 2018, reports MEED.

New AMTA/AWWA convention set for Las Vegas in 2014

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it has reached an interim agreement with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) to renew their combined desalination and water treatment membrane event for 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Community-level solar RO plant (250 L/h capacity)

India's BARC develops small solar RO and UF units

Domestic and community-level reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units have been developed for producing safe drinking water by Saly T Panicker at the Desalination Division of India's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner

UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.

Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference

Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.

Melbourne desalination plant to have Hydranautics membranes

Nitto Denko/Hydranautics has been contracted to supply its SWC6 MAX and ESPA2+ membrane elements to the Victorian Desalination Project, currently under construction on the Bass Coast of Australia, near Wonthaggi.

Hydranautics wins Adelaide membrane contract

Desalination membranes for the Adelaide desalination plant, located at Port Stanvac in South Australia, are to be supplied by Nitto Denko/Denko for both the first and second phases.

H2O Innovation’s COO to leave company

Canadian membrane system provider H2O Innovation Inc announced on 15 June 2012 the departure of James (Jim) L Peterson, chief operating officer (COO).

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant

Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.

Boron-nitride nanotubes speed desalination, says Australian research

Researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) claim to have discovered a way to speed the desalination of seawater by up to five times using nanotubes made from boron and nitrogen atoms.


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