Saudi Arabia, Pretreatment, Water Reuse, Asia, Cape Verde, Tanks, Tanks


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The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

Fort forges ahead with reuse project

The first water reuse project in Oklahoma state is reported to be making headway at the US army's post at Fort Sill.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

San Francisco's Golden Gate Park

San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park

San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Japanese funds sought for Cape Verde desalination plant

Cape Verde is reported to be looking to Japan for funding for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant on the island of Santiago.

X-raying goods vehicles at Kerem Shalom commercial crossing between Israel and Palestine

Gaza desalination plant delayed by goods blockade

Construction of a desalination plant in Gaza City, Palestine, has stalled after Israel halted the passage of goods into the State, reports Relief Web.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Tunisia has a programme of water projects designed to reduce reliance on groundwater sources

KfW finances Euro 82 million Tunisian desalination project

KfW Development Bank is to loan €82 million ($95 million) to Tunisia for a desalination plant in Zarat, Gabes Governorate, reports Tunis Afrique Presse.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

McLaughlin takes over at CST Industries

Liquid-storage tankmaker CST Industries of Lenexa, USA, has a new president and CEO following the departure of Brian Bauerbach, who is leaving the company to lead another venture.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Metito to supply RO plant for UAE oil base

Supply of a 2,700 m³/d reverse osmosis desalination plant and a 360 m³/d demineralization plant for an oil and gas installation on Das Island, UAE, has been awarded to UAE-based Metito by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company.

One of the 10,000 m³ tanks under construction at Tordera.

Tordera SWRO storage tanks built within 16 weeks

The challenge of upgrading and nearly doubling the potable water storage capacity as part of an upgrade of the Tordera seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Blanes (Girona) near Barcelona, Spain, within a rigorous timeframe, was awarded to CST Vulcan, a division of CST Industries Inc. Using a specialised jacking system, allowing the tanks to be built from the ground up, construction was completed in August 2009, in less than 16 weeks total, allowing the overall project to continue on time and as planned.

Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Xylem bags Singapore UV deal

Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

Dr Mike Dixon

Mike Dixon awarded IDA 2012 Fellowship Award

Dr Mike Dixon, research and development (R&D) engineer for South Australian (SA) Water Corporation's Adelaide Desalination Project has been named by the International Desalination Association's 2012 Fellowship Award.

IDA and PUB to cooperate on water training/education

The International Desalination Association (IDA) and PUB, Singapore's national water agency, signed an agreement on 2 July 2012 to explore opportunities for mutual cooperation in promising areas of training and education regarding water.

Dow to build RO membrane plant in Huzhou, China

A world-class manufacturing facility for Dow FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for desalination and water reuse is to be built in Huzhou, China, the Dow Chemical Co announced on 7 June 2012.

Quindao desalination event gets IDA support

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced its support for the 2012 Qingdao International Desalination Conference, jointly organized by China Desalination Association (CDA) and other groups, and supported by Asia-Pacific Desalination Association and related countries.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

Amiad filters provide pretreatment in Brazilian UF reuse project

Disc filters are to be supplied by Amiad Filtration Systems Ltd to protect ultrafiltration membranes in the Aquapolo tertiary wastewater treatment and reuse project in São Paulo, Brazil.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

Siemens wins OC membrane system contract

A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.

Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

Brazil's reuse set to surge says São Paolo water chief

Water reuse in Brazil is poised for "strong growth" in response to a tightening water crisis according to the country's largest water company. Currently only 0.1% of Brazil's water is produced by reuse.

Water Reuse California appoints new managing director

WateReuse California has appointed Jennifer West as managing director of the California Section.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Tata power plant installs cooling water reuse

India's largest power company, Tata Power, has installed a reverse osmosis plant at its Power House #6 power station in Jamshedpur to recover and reuse blow-down water from cooling towers.

UK water firm plans two water reuse plants

UK water company South East Water is to develop two water reuse schemes as part of its bid to ensure supply meets demand to 2040. 

San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge

The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.

Oklahoma passes potable water-reuse implementation bill

The governor of the US state of Oklahoma, Mary Fallin, on 28 May 2014 signed Senate Bill 1187 making it possible for water agencies to implement potable water reuse projects.

San Angelo council approves water-reuse study award

The San Angelo City Council in California awarded a US$ 189,000 contract on 20 May 2014 to Alan Plummer Associates Inc to evaluate reuse options for the city's wastewater.

Florida claims US reuse lead with 2.74 million m³/d

An average of 725 MGD (2.74 million m³/d) of treated wastewater is reused every day in the state of Florida, USA, according to statistics published by the South Florida Water Management District. It claims this leads the nation.

IDA accepting bids to stage 2017 World Congress

The International Desalination Association will be accepting formal bids to host its 2017 World Congress from 20 April 2014.

Florida legislates in favor of water reuse expansion

The state legislature of Florida, USA, on 2 May 2014 passed a bill (SB 536), which directs the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), in coordination with stakeholders, to conduct a comprehensive study and submit a report on the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater and excess surface water in Florida.

Public meeting set for San Joaquin water reuse EIS

The US Bureau of Reclamation has set a public scoping meeting for 13 May 2014 as part of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process for the proposed North Valley Regional Recycled Water Program (NVRRWP) in California's San Joaquin Valley.

Desalination/reuse pavilion set for IWA congress in Lisbon

The European Desalination Society (EDS) is co-organizing a Desalination & Water Reuse Pavilion with the International Water Association (IWA) at the IWA's World Water Congress & Exhibition to be held on 21-26 September 2014 in Lisbon, Portugal.

Wichita Falls set to start up DPR plant in May

Direct potable reuse of wastewater could be making its debut in Texas, USA, in early May 2014, as testing of water produced by the Temporary Water Reuse Project at the City of Wichita Falls continues to show the water is safe to drink.

August Rocky Mountain reuse workshop set for Golden

This year's Rocky Mountain Water Reuse Workshop is to be held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, on 14 August 2014.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

ALADYR affiliates to International Desalination Association

The Asociación Latinoamericana de Desalación y Reuse del Agua (ALADYR) has become the newest affiliate organization to join the International Desalination Association (IDA), bringing to 15 the number of regional and association IDA affiliates around the world.

Rodrigo Turra

New Chile office and country chief for IDE Technologies

IDE Technologies has opened a new office in Chile and appointed Rodrigo Turra as country sales director.

Soquel Creek district to examine water-reuse options

Soquel Creek Water District in California, whose proposed desalination project with City of Santa Cruz was put on hold last year when Santa Cruz backed out, is re-evaluating water-reuse projects and their feasibility.

Washington desalination/reuse view in WRA webcast

The WateReuse Association will present a webcast on 5 March 2014 providing an insider update on cutting-edge federal legislative and policy issues of interest to the water reuse and desalination communities.

IDA president calls for new thinking on sustainability

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, described the transition to sustainability as "one of the most important paradigm shifts of the modern era," when he addressed the International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi on 21 January 2013.

Abstracts invited for WateReuse symposium in Dallas

The WateReuse Association (WRA) has issued a call for presentations and posters for its 29th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held on 7-10 September 2014 in Dallas, Texas, USA.

Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer

Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.

ADB backs US$ 240 million Chinese water-reuse loans

A US$ 240 million loan package was agreed in Beijing on 20 November 2013 to upgrade wastewater treatment plants in China to meet the grade 1A standard, which means the water can be reused for industry cooling and watering city gardens.

Australian study looks at reuse scheme economics

A study has just been published in Australia on development of a holistic framework for rigorous assessment of the economics of non-potable recycled water schemes, including residential, industrial, municipal and agricultural schemes.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

The new seawater desalination capacity will support development in Dhofar Governorate, Oman

OPWP signs ACWA Power, Veolia and Dhofar Development for Salalah project

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has signed ACWA Power Saudi Arabia, Veolia Middle East, and Dhofar International Development and Investment, on a build, own and operate contract for Salalah Water Desalination Plant.

Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.

Five newcomers voted onto IDA board

Five new faces were elected directly to the board of the International Desalination Association (IDA) for 2013‑15.

Alliance bids sought for W Australia water-reuse plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation has invited proposals from suitably experienced organizations to form an alliance with the water supplier to design and build the Beenyup Advanced Water Recycling Plant at Craigie.

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.


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