Saudi Arabia, Mining, Recovery, Monitoring, Reverse Osmosis, Malta
Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval
An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
IDA releases program details for Morocco conference
The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.
Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine
Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant
Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions
BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.
Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.
Acciona to build RO plant for Chile mines
Spain's Acciona Agua has been selected by Grupo CAP to design, build, bring into service and operate for 20 years a seawater desalination plant to service mining operations in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III.
RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines
A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.
H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract
A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.
IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract
IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.
Ministry reported to have rejected Chile desalination EIS
The Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Environment Ministry) in Chile has apparently rejected the environmental impact study (EIS) produced by Suez subsidiary Agbar Chile for an 86,000 m³/d desalination plant in Northern Region III.
Aqualia wins SWRO contract in Chile
Spanish company Aqualia has been awarded a contract worth about € 17 million to design and supply seawater reverse-osmosis equipment for a desalination plant in Chile, its first work in that country.
Swcc and Hyrec sign MOU to use Hyrec's concentration technology at SWCC plants
Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Hyrec Technologies Ltd. have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to deploy Hyrec's Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) technology for Zero Liquid Discharge desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo
Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.
RWL wins contract to build desalination plant in Argentina
RWL Water has won a contact to build what it claims will be Argentina's largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.
Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination
Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.
Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant
The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.
Aqualogy starts up copper mine desalination plant in Chile
Aqualogy has inaugurated the operation and maintenance of a US$ 100 million reverse osmosis desalination plant built for the Mantoverde copper mine.
UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine
The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.
Bechtel contract for Escondida desalination project
BHP Billiton has contracted Bechtel to provide engineering, project management and construction services for the water supply to the Escondida copper mine in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine
The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
Escondida mega plant poised to produce water in March
Mining giant BHP Billiton has reported the "mechanical completion" of Escondida Water Supply project, Chile, with the first water expected in March 2017.
Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water
The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
Permit sought for RO discharge to Great Salt Lake
A proposal from the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District (JCWCD) in Utah, USA, to discharge reject brine from a 7-14 MGD (26,000-53,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis desalination (RO) plant into the Great Salt Lake is out for public comment from 1 December 2010 as part of the permit process.
Namibian mines get mixed messages
Namibian uranium mines have received mixed news on the prospects for an end to their struggle to secure cheaper and secure water supplies through new desalination facilities.
License sought for seawater desalination plant in Chile
White Mountain Titanium Corporation announced on 26 April 2012 that it has applied for an access license to draw seawater for a planned desalination plant in Chile.
Rio Tinto mine mulls building Namibian desalination plant
Rio Tinto's Rossing Uranium mine in Namibia is planning an environmental impact study for its proposed water desalination plant.
Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player
Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.
Namibia moves to buy Areva desalination plant
Namibia has moved on its declared intention to offer to buy Areva's 20 million m³/d water desalination plant in the country.
Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project
Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.
Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader
South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.
Oil sands UF water treatment won by H2O Innovation
A Can$ 9.4 million (US$ 9.6 million) contract for a membrane-based water treatment package has been awarded to H2O Innovation Inc by Fort Hills Energy LP for the Fort Hills Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada.
Olympic Dam desalination EIS released by BHP Billiton
The desalination plant in South Australia to feed BHP Billiton's Olympic Dam mining development moved a step closer when the company released the final supplementary environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the project on 13 May 2011.
Mining water treatment market to grow 85% by 2019
The global water treatment market for hard-rock mining - iron, copper, gold, nickel - is set to grow 85% to US$ 17 billion by 2019 according to market analyst, Bluefield Research.
Water rights row could delay Western Australia desalination plant
A row over water rights in the north-west of Australia could lead to delay in the construction of the West Pilbara Seawater Desalination Plant, despite assurances in February 2011 from Western Australia's (WA) state government that the project was on track.
Chilean politicians launch mining desalination bill
A cross-party group of eight deputies in the lower house of the Chilean national congress has submitted a bill to require mining companies using more than 150 L/s of water for extraction purposes to install seawater desalination equipment.
Chilean mining firm strikes desalination deal with water protesters
Chilean copper mining company, Antofagasta, has struck a deal with demonstrators from the town of Salamanca in the Choapa River Valley who had been blocking access to its Los Pelambres mine in Chile, in protest against the mine's consumption of water amid severe water scarcity in the region.
Acciona forecasts Chilean desalination surge on back of revitalized copper mining
Spanish clean energy and water company, Acciona, has forecast a surge in demand for desalination plants in Chile as the country's copper mining industry expands.
CaribDA to sponsor Chile desalination seminar
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced on 14 October 2010 that it would be a sponsor of a seminar on Desalination, Innovations & Sustainable Development to be held in Antofagasta, Chile, during 29 November - 1 December 2010.
Peruvian mine desalination 'viable' says Southern Copper
The construction of a desalination plant for Southern Copper's US$ 1 billion Tia Maria copper mine, in the Islay province of Arequipa in Peru, is "a viable option", according to the company's executive president Oscar Gonzales, quoted by Reuters on 24 May 2010.
Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry
The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.
Chile's copper mines will turn to desalination for half their water
Desalination will provide half the water demand of Chile's copper mining industry by 2026, according to findings in a report by the Chilean state copper commission, Cochilco.
Mining slump threatens Nambia's desalination
Investments in desalination and electricity generation in Namibia could be in jeopardy following a dramatic slowdown in mining output in 2008, according to a new report published on 5 May 2009 by the International Monetary Fund.
Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers
Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.
Aquatech supplies evaporator to Madagascar mine
Aquatech International Corporation announced in December 2008 an order from SNC-Lavalin Inc, Canada, for design, manufacture and supply of a Spray-Film evaporator to concentrate a process stream in a Madagascar mining project containing nickel-sulphate.
Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination
An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse
Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.
Municipal desalination plant planned for Chile's Copiapó
Construction of a municipal desalination plant will form part of urgent measures to address water shortages in the region around the Chilean city of Copiapó.
BASF water business combined with other sectors
German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.
Giant Canadian potash project buys Veolia evaporator
Evaporation and crystallization equipment from Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has been bought by K+S Potash of Canada to constitute the core process for a potash project in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Gradiant spins out subsidiary Gradiant Energy Services
Boston based industrial water solutions specialist Gradiant has formed a new subsidiary, oilfield services company Gradiant Energy Services (GES).
ERI to supply two S American mining desalination plants
Two large contracts in desalination projects for the mining industry in South American were announced on 1 March 2012 by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), which will be supplying its PX Pressure Exchangers to both projects.
Papers deadline stretched for IWA reuse conference
The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of outline papers for the 9th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse.
Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project
Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.
Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?
In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?
MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers
The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Some Gold Coast desalination issues still unresolved
A large number of non-compliance issues relating to the Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, have been listed in a letter sent on 2 July 2009 by Keith Davies, CEO of WaterSecure, who are taking over the project, to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure & Planning.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur
Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
CaribDA, ERI and Dow back operator training
In co-operation with Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) and Dow Water & Process Solutions, the Caribbean Desalination Association is organising a two-day operator training program at the Westin Dawn Beach Resort in St Maarten on 17-18 September 2009.
CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use
Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).
BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site
The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
EOI request is out on Jubail phase 3 desal mega-project
Saudi Arabia's Water and Electricity Co has requested expressions of interest on Jubail phase 3, an integrated water and power project to include 1.17 million m3/d of desalination.
Saudi Arabia's WEC pre-qualifies bidders for Shuqaiq 3
Saudi Arabia's Water and Electricity Company (WEC) has pre-qualified 15 companies for Shuqaiq 3 desalination plant project.
Mine wants state desalination plant despite OK for own project
Namibian mining company, Rössing Uranium, has restated its preference for procuring water from national water utility, Namwater, despite having completed a feasibility study of its planned desalination plant north of Swakopmund.
GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project
GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.
Saudi's Al-Fadhli gets the go-ahead for nine new desalination plants
Saudi Arabia has an ambitious $530 million programme to build nine new desalination plants on the Red Sea coast within 18 months, the minister of environment, water and agriculture Abdulrahman Al-Fadhli has revealed.
Saudi Arabia's WEC seeks developers for two mega projects
Water and Electricity Company (WEC) of Saudi Arabia has requested expressions of interest on two new mega seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant projects.
UK/Saudi initiative targets low-cost carbon neutral desalination using solar dome
NEOM has signed an agreement with UK-based Solar Water Plc to build the first ever "solar dome" desalination plants in NEOM, northwest Saudi Arabia. The pilot project claims it will revolutionise the water desalination process.
DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia
DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.
Seven bidders line up for Abu Dhabi mega-project
Abu Dhabi Department of Energy has unveiled the seven consortia bidding for Taweela desalination plant mega-project, with the lowest price coming from ACWA Power at $0.49 per cube.
Bidding shapes up for Shuqaiq 3 desal plant
Six consortia have bid for Shuqaiq 3 desalination plant project in Saudi Arabia, a public-private partnership expected to include a 25-year concession.
Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve
Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.
EIA submitted for 276,000m³/d RO plant in Chile
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) was filed in early September by Minera Escondida, operated by BHP Billiton, for its project Supplementary Desalinated Water Supply for Minera Escondida in Chile.
Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'
Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.
Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine
A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.
Commission approves California American Water test slant well
The California Coastal Commission has approved the application by water utility, California American Water, (Cal Am) to construct a test slant well for its proposed 48 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination project.
Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions
California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Cal Am strikes deal on test well
Utility, California American Water (Cal Am), has struck a deal with cement maker, Cemex, to allow the water firm to drill slant test wells, and possibly production wells, on Cemex' north Marina sand mining plant site.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations
Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.