Reverse Osmosis, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test
Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.
First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant
The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations
Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.
Researchers share industry prize for fouling research
Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju
The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant
The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination
A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.
IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.
Orange County loses widely respected lab director
Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check
Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.
Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant
The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.
South Australian town to get new desalination plant
South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Oman's Sur desalination plant seeks large expansion
The owner and operator of Oman's Sur seawater desalination plant, Sharqiyah Desalination Company (SDC), has filed a bid with the Oman Tender Board for approval of a proposed expansion of 10.6 MIGD (48,000 m³/d) to the plant.
Sembcorp announces successful IPO for Salalah IWPP
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 26 September 2013 the successful close of its intial public offering (IPO) for part of its joint venture in Oman, Sembcorp Salalah Power & Water Co.
Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.
Al Ghubrah desalination to use ERI energy-recovery devices
Energy Recover Inc is to supply its PX Q300 Pressure Exchanger® technology for the Al Ghubrah seawater desalination plant in Oman.
Seven Seas completing Caribbean hat-trick of plants
Florida-based Seven Seas Water Corp has recently commissioned the second and largest in a series of three desalination plants in the Caribbean - the 4.6 MGD (17,400 m³/d) Point Fortin plant in Trinidad.
ERI lands Al-Jubail contract in Saudi Arabia
Acciona Agua has awarded a contract to Energy Recovery Inc for PX Pressure Exchanger energy‑recovery equipment for the SWRO‑4 desalination plant in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
CaribDA calls for 2014 conference papers
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has issued a call for papers for its Biennial Conference & Exposition in June 2014.
Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.
Consolidated expects more desalination in Mexico and Bali
Desalination supplier Consolidated Water Co, based in the Cayman Islands, says that its Rosarito project in Mexico has presented an opportunity for two other potential Mexican projects similar in size to its larger Caribbean operations.
Indian state gives green light to desalination duo
India's Tamil Nadu state government has given the go-ahead for two 60 Ml/d output seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants at Kuthiraimozhi in Ramanathapuram and Alanthalai in the port city of Tuticorin. They will supply more than 1,100 rural areas where provision of safe drinking water has been a long-standing challenge.
Consultants sought for Ajman SWRO desalination
The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) in the UAE has issued a tender (19W/2013) for consultancy services for a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at Al Zawra, Ajman.
Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1
Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.
ERI to provide pressure-exchangers for Carlsbad SWRO
IDE Technologies has selected pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in California, USA.
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
California city ponders desalination revival
California's city of Morro Bay is poised to apply to the state Coastal Commission to operate continually its currently idle reverse osmosis desalination plant. The city let its operating permit expire in 2000, and the plant - built in 1992 - has not operated since then except for occasional emergency use.
Agbar subsidiary submits EIS for Chile desalination plant
An environmental impact study (EIS) has been submitted for the construction of a 1,000 L/s (86,400 ³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the coastal town of Chañaral, near the city of Caldera in Chile's Region III.
Groundbreaking for Fujairah 1 IWPP in UAE
The US$ 200 million expansion project for the Furjairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE broke ground on 30 June 2013.
SEDA workshop to look at RO operational variances
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is to hold a Workshop on Brackish and sea water reverse osmosis operational variances in Gibsonton, Florida, at the Tampa Bay Desal II Water Treatment Plant.
Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July
The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.
Huntington Beach councillors oppose desalination plan
The City of Huntington Beach in California voted on 6 May 2013 to allow council members to individually send letters to the California Coastal Commission (CCC) opposing the coastal development permit (CDP) for a seawater desalination plant which the previous council had approved in 2010.
Mine wants state desalination plant despite OK for own project
Namibian mining company, Rössing Uranium, has restated its preference for procuring water from national water utility, Namwater, despite having completed a feasibility study of its planned desalination plant north of Swakopmund.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team
Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.
MottMac named as engineer for Ghubrah IWP
Mott MacDonald of the UK has been named owner's engineer for the US$ 350 million Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman.
Marubeni lowest of six consortia for Al Mirfa
A Marubeni-led consortium led the way when bids were opened by the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) on 6 March 2013 for the Al Mirfa Independent Power & Water Project.
Antigua seawater desalination plant poised for start
West Indies island, Antigua is currently testing a reverse osmosis seawater desalination facility which could come on stream in March.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
SWCC's Rabigh plant will be largest SWRO desalination
The approval of the world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant in Saudi Arabia was reported by the government-controlled Saudi Press Agency on 11 February 2013.
Cadagua consortium's Oman job worth US$ 300 million
More details were released on 13 February 2013 by Ferrovia of Spain about the contract announced in November 2012 for a consortium involving its subsidiary Cadagua for the Al Ghubrah desalination plant in Oman.
IDA publishes Academy programme for March 2013
Full details of the courses to be presented in the next session of the International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy in March 2013 have been published on the IDA website.
Feasibility started for South African desalination plant
A feasibility study is underway in South Africa's Northern Cape for a 7,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Abraham Villiers Bay close to the town of Kotzesrus.
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation
Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance
Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
More moves on Monterey desalination proposals
The final report on the choice of seawater desalination plants proposed for the Monterey Peninsula in California was presented to the Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Authority on 18 December 2012 by its consultant, Separation Processes Inc.
Carlsbad desalination construction gets going at last
Poseidon Resources announced on 27 December 2012 that it had secured all necessary funding for the Carlsbad Desalination Project and that its engineering, procurement and construction contractor, Kiewit Shea Desalination, had been given the green light to start construction.
Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot
Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.
Work on Carlsbad should start early in 2013
Work on the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant is expected to start early in 2013, following approval by the board of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) on 29 November 2012 of the water-purchase agreement between SDCWA and Poseidon Resources, developers of the desalination plant.
Nirosoft to build small SWRO plant in Chile
Chilean regional water utility Aguas De Altiplano has awarded a contract to Nirosoft Industries for a small seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.
Ghana desalination plant begun by Agengoa
Construction of the Nungua seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant in Ghana, the first large desalination plant in West Africa, is now under way.
Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination
The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.
Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant
A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).
Turks & Caicos SWRO goes to Aqua‑Chem
A contract for the supply and installation of a 300,000 GPD (1,135 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant the Turks Caicos Islands in the Caribbean has been awarded to Aqua‑Chem Inc.
Acciona lands 100,000 m³/d SWRO plant at Al Jubail
Spain's Acciona Agua in consortium with Saudi Arabia's BinLaden Group has been awarded the contract for the 100,000 m³/d SWRO-4 desalination plant at Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Carlsbad desalination water price will be US$ 1.65‑1.86/m³
The Water Purchase Agreement for the proposed Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in California was released on 27 September 2012 by the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA).
Monterey consultant can't choose between projects
The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.
UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC
The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.
Doosan donates SWRO plant to Vietnamese island
A 200 m³/d desalination facility has been donated to An Binh Island in Vietnam by Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction Co Ltd of South Korea.
Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant
A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.
KAUST SWRO desalination plant won by AES Arabia
A US$ 14 million contract for a 15,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for the King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) Research Park in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to AES Arabia Ltd.
Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve
Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
BEL wins Al Jubail desalination supply contract
Al Fatah Water & Power has selected BEL pressure vessels for the second-phase extension of the seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Jubail City, Saudi Arabia, which will supply water to the numerous industries located around the city.
Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds
Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.
Kuwait discusses seawater desalination with Algeria
Algiers was the setting on 12 July 2012 for the first meeting of the Kuwait-Algerian committee for seawater desalination, which aims to establish cooperation between the two nations on the technology.
November ballot for Santa Cruz desalination
Barely two weeks after the City of Santa Cruz in California had accepted the preliminary design report by CDM Smith for its proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant, the city clerk's office confirmed on 3 July 2012 that proponents of a charter amendment for a vote on the desalination project had collected enough signatures to place it on the November 2012 ballot.
Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders
Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).