Reverse Osmosis, Salinity, Maintenance, Oklahoma, Arizona
Puretec acquires Layne Christensen's DI assets
California-based Puretec Industrial Water announced at the end of March 2013 that it had acquired the assets of Layne Christensen's Arizona-based deionization water purification and water system maintenance services as from 1 April 2013.
Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer
The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.
Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears
Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.
Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run
Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.
Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech
Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.
Desalitech to supply wastewater reuse system to steel mill
Desalitech is to supply an advanced wastewater recovery system to Mid American Steel and Wire, a leading supplier in the US wire and rod industry.
Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system
A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.
Large RO membranes at heart of Scottsdale expansion
The 7.1 MGD (26,900 m³/d) expansion of the City of Scottsdale's Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) plant in Arizona, USA, is now fully operational creating a total of 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) of reused wastewater.
Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale
Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.
AMTA lists tech transfer and AWWA events
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has fixed dates for technology-transfer workshops this year including a joint event with the South West Membrane Operators Association (SWMOA),
Israel Electric looks for Hadera desalination maintenance
Israel Electric Corporation is negotiating to take over maintenance for the 275,000 m³/d Hadera desalination plant, currently under construction in Israel, according to the Globes financial newspaper.
Oklahoma passes potable water-reuse implementation bill
The governor of the US state of Oklahoma, Mary Fallin, on 28 May 2014 signed Senate Bill 1187 making it possible for water agencies to implement potable water reuse projects.
Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost
The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.
Nine projects get Reclamation feasibility funding
The Camp Pendleton desalination project in California is one of nine advanced water treatment and reuse projects in three US states selected for feasibility-study funding by the Bureau of Reclamation.
1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report
A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.
Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity
The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.
Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now
An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.
FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up
Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem membrane technology for industrial applications.
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
July abstract deadline for joint AWWA/AMTA conference
A deadline of 22 July 2011 has been set for abstracts for the joint Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held in Arizona, USA, next year by the American Water Works Association and the Membrane Technology Association.
Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations
More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.
Trinidad residents struggle as Point Lisas closes for maintenance
Trinidad's water supplies will be placed under stress after the water and sewerage authority temporarily shuts down the Point Lisas desalination plant for maintenance creating a 10% shortfall in output.
Australians offered a desalination O&M masterclass
The Australian Water Association has issued a call for papers for a Master Class on Desalination Operations & Maintenance to be held in Sydney on 2-4 February 2010.
Hitachi-led consortium gets large Iraq desalination job
A consortium comprising Hitachi, Veolia Environnement subsidiary OTV and The Arab Contractors, a nationalised Egyptian construction company, has received an order from the Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities & Public Works for the engineering, procurement, and construction of a large desalination plant in Basrah, in the south of Iraq.
Point Lisas back in action
Trinidad's Point Lisas desalination plant has resumed operation following the completion of extensive planned maintenance work by its owner, the Desalination Company of Trinidad and Tobago.
Masdar desal pilot: the results so far
Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.
Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract
A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018
Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.
Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds
Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.
Turks & Caicos SWRO goes to Aqua‑Chem
A contract for the supply and installation of a 300,000 GPD (1,135 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant the Turks Caicos Islands in the Caribbean has been awarded to Aqua‑Chem Inc.
Carlsbad desalination water price will be US$ 1.65‑1.86/m³
The Water Purchase Agreement for the proposed Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in California was released on 27 September 2012 by the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA).
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
Victaulic acquires MTS desalination plug valve
Pipe-jointing specialist Victaulic has acquired the desalination business of Spain's MTS Valves & Technology, which designs and manufactures valves for the global desalination market, including the MTS Plug Valve.
Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo
Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.
November ballot for Santa Cruz desalination
Barely two weeks after the City of Santa Cruz in California had accepted the preliminary design report by CDM Smith for its proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant, the city clerk's office confirmed on 3 July 2012 that proponents of a charter amendment for a vote on the desalination project had collected enough signatures to place it on the November 2012 ballot.
SDCWA considered Carlsbad desalination size reduction
Some of the thinking of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) about the ongoing negotiations over the purchase of water from the Carlsbad desalination plant were revealed at a special board of directors meeting on 14 June 2012.
Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers
Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.
Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project
Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.
Spanish opposition calls for end to paralysis of giant desalination project
Opposition politicians in Alicante, Spain have called on the country's central government to implement the completion of two, long-delayed reverse osmosis desalination plants to avoid urgent problems in the province amid a current drought.
Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination
PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.
Minister visits commissioned Spanish desalination plant
Spain's minister for environment and rural and marine affairs, Rosa Aguilar, visited the 20,000 m³/d Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination plant in Almería province on 20 September 2011 on the occasion of its commissioning.
GE-Osmoflo alliance creates powerful Australian presence
A strategic alliance giving Australian desalination and water recycling company Osmoflo access to products produced by water and process giant GE was unveiled at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 6 September 2011.
Miller Truby joins Professional Water Technologies
Miller Truby has joined Professional Water Technologies (PWT) in the USA as regional account manager.
ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion
High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.
MEDRC to run two RO courses in May 2014
The Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) in Oman is running two three-day courses on operation of reverse-osmosis (RO) plants in May 2014:
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
IDE desalination seminar trains Jordanians and Palestinians
Thirty participants from Palestine and Jordan completed a week-long desalination seminar in Israel in early November 2010.
Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya
A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
PoU reverse-osmosis planned for US city's households
The City of Andrews, USA, is likely to submit a proposal to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) at the end of this year for installation of point-of-use (PoU) reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment on 4,500 city homes.
Gold Coast desalination plant finally handed over
The Tugun desalination plant in Gold Coast, Australia, was handed over to the Queensland state government on 1 October 2010 and has become part of the South East Queensland Water Grid (SEQWG).
Hitachi in Libyan MBR tie-up
Libyan water technology company El Zulal announced on 21 July 2010 that it has signed a sales and marketing agreement with Hitachi of Japan to distribute Hitachi's membrane bioreactor (MBR) product range in Libya.
Wave-powered desalination about to be installed
A company in Texas, USA, is preparing to demonstrate the use of desalination with the wave-power facility it is about to install in the Gulf of Mexico.
H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts
H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.
Work starting on 2nd Chennai SWRO plant
Work is due to begin in January 2010 on the 100,000 m³/d Nemmeli seawater desalination plant south of Chennai, India. Chennai Metrowater issued work orders in the first week of January for the project.
Cascal buys Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia
Cascal NV, a subsidiary of the UK-based Biwater water and wastewater group, announced on 15 December 2009 the acquisition of three Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia Water North America.
DRACE wins Melbourne recycling design contract
City West Water, the water supply company for Melbourne, Australia, has awarded Spanish contractor DRACE medioambiente, in joint venture with Tedagua, an Aus$ 36.5 million (US$ 30.4 million) design contract for a water recycling system.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
Aquatech wins SWRO desalination contract in Gujarat
Tata Power has awarded Aquatech International Corporation an EPC contract for a 25,200 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for India's first Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) at Mundra in coastal Gujarat.
PWT acquired by H2O Innovation
Canadian water-treatment systems manufacturer H2O Innovation Inc announced on 28 May 2009 the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Professional Water Technologies (PWT) in an arms' length transaction involving H2O subsidiary Membrane Systems Inc.
Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant
A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.
Tampa Bay desalination plant in trouble again
Just at the time it is really needed, the Tampa Bay seawater desalination plant has hit trouble again. For some months now, the plant has been operating well below capacity - at a time when the rainfall in that part of Florida is at record low levels.
Ashdod desalination tender launched by Mekorot
Mekorot Development & Enterprises (MD&E), a subsidiary of the Israeli national water company, issued on 1 February 2009 a tender for the design, building, commissioning and supervision on a turnkey basis of the Ashdod seawater desalination plant.
Huntington Beach is 'precedent-setting' for California
When the California State Water Board adopted new regulations on seawater desalination plants in 2015, Poseidon, the developer of a proposed 50 million gallons a day (189,000 m3/d) capacity seawater RO plant in Huntington Beach, California, went back to the drawing board on its water intake technology.
Australian study finds way to up value of desalination for farming
Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have found that the addition of nutrients could make desalinated water more financially attractive to farmers.
Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant
A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.
Indian state gives green light to desalination duo
India's Tamil Nadu state government has given the go-ahead for two 60 Ml/d output seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants at Kuthiraimozhi in Ramanathapuram and Alanthalai in the port city of Tuticorin. They will supply more than 1,100 rural areas where provision of safe drinking water has been a long-standing challenge.
EDS holding membrane training week in L'Aquila
The European Desalination Society is holding a membrane training week in L'Aquila, Italy, on 30 September - 4 October 2013 presenting two back-to-back seminars by David Paul.
Hyflux-led group wins US$ 250 million desalination plant tender
A consortium led by Singaporean water and environmental solutions company Hyflux has been awarded a US$ 250 million contract to design, build, own and operate an independent water project (IWP) in Oman.
Amiad to supply RO prefiltration system in Colombia
Amiad Water Systems has been awarded a US$ 7.7 million contract for the supply and maintenance of a prefiltration solution for reverse osmosis membrane protection at a desalination plant at an oil & gas operation in Colombia.
Cadagua consortium's Oman job worth US$ 300 million
More details were released on 13 February 2013 by Ferrovia of Spain about the contract announced in November 2012 for a consortium involving its subsidiary Cadagua for the Al Ghubrah desalination plant in Oman.
California city ponders desalination revival
California's city of Morro Bay is poised to apply to the state Coastal Commission to operate continually its currently idle reverse osmosis desalination plant. The city let its operating permit expire in 2000, and the plant - built in 1992 - has not operated since then except for occasional emergency use.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion
Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).
Nirosoft to build small SWRO plant in Chile
Chilean regional water utility Aguas De Altiplano has awarded a contract to Nirosoft Industries for a small seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.
Ghana desalination plant begun by Agengoa
Construction of the Nungua seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant in Ghana, the first large desalination plant in West Africa, is now under way.
Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination
The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.
ADWEA issues RfP for Mirfa power and desalination
The Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) last week issued a request for proposals from prequalified bidders for its build‑own‑operate extension of power generation and reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination at Al Mirfa.
Large Diameter RO Desalination Elements
In recent years, increasing the diameter of spiral elements has been studied as a method of lowering the cost of membrane treatment. It has been shown that the installed cost of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant can be reduced by up to 27% using larger diameter elements.Large diameter elements provide savings in footprint and building costs, as well as savings in the number of connections, to reduce the installed cost of a brackish water RO or nanofiltration (NF) system. This article presents case studies where large diameter reverse osmosis (RO) elements were used, including the reasons why large diameter elements were selected for specific projects. Systems desalinating brackish groundwater for potable water supply in the United States include the City of Goodyear, Arizona; the City of Waupun, Wisconsin; and the Tate-Monroe Water Association of Ohio. In Australia, the Bundamba AWT Plant in Queensland treats municipal effluent for reuse. At Joe White Maltings, an integrated membrane system, combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an RO system, allows wastewater from the plant to be recycled. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
WaterReuse awards recognise people and projects
The WateReuse Association has unveiled its annual award winners of people and projects that have made significant contributions to water reuse.
Winners of awards for water reuse projects unveiled
America's WateReuse Association has unveiled the winners of this year's awards for leadership in water reuse.
Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen
The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.
Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding
The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Aqualogy starts up copper mine desalination plant in Chile
Aqualogy has inaugurated the operation and maintenance of a US$ 100 million reverse osmosis desalination plant built for the Mantoverde copper mine.
Koreans purchase Spanish desalination company
Spanish desalination and water treatment company Inima OHL Medio Ambiente has been bought by GS Engineering & Construction, a South Korean company based in Seoul.
Desalination "too expensive" as Pacific island solution
A UN aid coordinator for the Pacific region said on 2 November 2011 that desalination was probably not a future solution for drought prevention in island groups like Tuvalu and Tokelau.
Perth desalination expansion to use ERDs from ERI
The expansion to the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant in Western Australia is to use PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices as were used in the original plant.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
Petrobras signs Suez to supply offshore desalination
Suez has won a €6 million contract to supply desalinated water for 11 offshore oil rigs owned by Petrobras, Brazil's majority state-owned oil company.
Malaysia's Malakoff eyes desalination in global advance
Malaysian power and water engineering firm, Malakoff Corporation, is looking to expand its operation and maintenance (O&M) arm, Teknik Janakuasa, beyond its home market with an emphasis that includes desalination.
Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies
Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.