Reverse Osmosis, IWPP


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Groundbreaking for Fujairah 1 IWPP in UAE

The US$ 200 million expansion project for the Furjairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE broke ground on 30 June 2013.

Sumitomo consortium gets Ras Azzour approval

After complaining about premature announcements of its preferred bidder, Saudi Arabia's Water & Electricity Company (WEC) finally confirmed at the end of October that the consortium of Sumitomo Corporation/Aljomaih Automotive Co/Malakoff International was its First Ranked Bidder for the Ras Azzour independent water & power plant (IWPP).

Sumitomo backs off Ras Azzour desalination bid

A consortium led by Japan's Sumitomo Corporation has "put on hold" its plans for the Ras Azzour independent water and power project (IWPP) in Saudi Arabia, according to Reuters.

Fujairah expansion kicks off

The Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) and Sembcorp Industries have completed construction and begun operation of a US$ 200-million expansion to the Fujairah 1 Independent Water and Power Plant (IWPP) in the United Arab Emirates.

Kuwait shortlists seven for power and water project

Kuwait has shortlisted seven consortiums for the second phase of the Az Zour North Complex independent water and power producer (IWPP) project.



MWH selected for 250 MGD Texas desalination study

MWH Global has been selected by the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) in Texas, USA, to carry out the feasibility study to assess the development of ocean water desalination of up to 250 MGD (950,000 m³/d) as a regional water supply, including the option of co-located power generation facilities.

Salalah IWPP officially opened in Oman

The Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant in Oman, which includes a 69,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant completed in May 2012, was officially opened on 19 May 2013.

Salalah IWPP passes acceptance tests in Oman

Acceptance tests for the US$ 1 billion Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in Oman have been successfully completed, Sembcorp Industries announced on 28 May 2012.

Saudi government to take back Ras Azzour desalination

The giant Ras Azzour desalination plant in Saudi Arabia, which was to have produced 1 million m³/d, is now unlikely to be built be private enterprise.

Shuaibah IWPP set for operation in February

ACWA Power International told lenders attending a status meeting in Dubai in late October that the Shuaibah independent water and power project in Saudi Arabia was on schedule with initial commercial operations date set for 5 February 2009.

The Shuqaiq power and water complex

Shuqaiq IWPP desalination plant in production

The Shuqaiq Independent Water & Power Project in Saudi Arabia began production at the end of May 2010.

Shuqaiq II desalination plant ahead of schedule

The US$ 1.87 billion Shuqaiq II Independent Power and Water Project (IWPP) in Saudi Arabia will be completed before May 2010, the date scheduled for commercial operation.

Work starts on Salalah desalination and power plant in Oman

The groundbreaking ceremony for the US$ 1 billion Salalah Independent Water and Power Plant (Salalah IWPP) in Oman took place on 10 February 2010.

Al Dur desalination financing tied up

Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC) and GDF Suez announced on 26 July 2009 completion of the limited recourse financing of the US$ 2.1 billion Al-Dur Independent Water & Power Producer (IWPP) project , which includes a 218,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant as well as a 1,240 MW combined-cycle gas-turbine power plant.

Sembcorp announces successful IPO for Salalah IWPP

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 26 September 2013 the successful close of its intial public offering (IPO) for part of its joint venture in Oman, Sembcorp Salalah Power & Water Co.

Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1

Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.

Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo

Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.

Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

ADWEA issues RfP for Mirfa power and desalination

The Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) last week issued a request for proposals from prequalified bidders for its build‑own‑operate extension of power generation and reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination at Al Mirfa.

Salalah RO desalination plant ahead of schedule

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries, which recently announced completion of the first phase of the Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in Oman, has told D&WR that the reverse-osmosis desalination plant is under construction and will be completed ahead of schedule in April 2012.

Hydrochem chooses DWEERs for Oman's Salalah desalination

DWEER energy-recovery systems will be used in the Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (Salalah IWPP) in Oman to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream in the desalination process.

Sembcorp to develop SWRO desalination plant in Abu Dhabi

Singapore's Sembcorp Utilities has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) in the UAE to develop and build a new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility with potable water production capacity of around 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

Pentair chosen to supply Salalah SWRO CO2 system

Pentair Haffmans has been chosen to supply a CO2 system for the seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant which is part of the Salalah Independent Water & Power (IWPP) plant in Oman.

Figure 1: Aerial view of Fujairah 1 plant before its SWRO extension.

Fujairah 1 Extension SWRO:Integration with MSF leads to large savings

EMIRATES SEMBCORP Water & Power Company (ESC) owns and operates the Fujairah 1 Independent power and desalination plant (F1 IWPP) in Fujairah, UAE (pictured in Figure 1 below). The plant has a gross power generation capacity of 893 MW and can produce 100 MIGD (454,600 m3/d) of desalinated water. In June 2013, to enhance the availability and reliability of the existing reverse osmosis (RO) plant in red tide conditions and to generate additional potable water, ESC began constructing a new 30 MIGD (136,400 m3/d) seawater RO (SWRO) desalinated. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Saudi desalination barge company refinanced

The company which owns the two 50,000 m³/d barge-mounted desalination plants which have provided emergency water supply to Saudi Arabian cities in recent years announced on 13 July 2011 the successful closing of its SR 140 million (US$ 37 million) refinancing of commercial facilities.

In 2012, Abengoa won a contract to build an RO plant of 45,000 m3/d in Barka, northeast Oman

Oman notes shift to RO, as water demand to rise 5 per cent

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has published its outlook for power and desalinated water supply to 2023.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

GdF Suez wins Abu Dhabi power and water deal

GdF Suez has signed a 25-year power and water purchase agreement with Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company for the Mirfa independent water and power project which includes a new 136,380 m3/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.

Sembcorp-led JV to build Oman power and desalination plant

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 23 November 2009 that a joint venture formed between its fully-owned subsidiary Sembcorp Utilities and the Oman Investment Corporation (OIC) has won a 15-year contract to supply power and water to the government-owned Oman Power & Water Procurement Company.

Bahrain energy bid includes desalt

A consortium, including Saudi-owned infrastructure firm ACWA Power, has in its bid for Bahrain's 390,000 tonne a year waste-to-energy plant the provision of desalinated water.

Kuwait invites bids for Doha desalination plant as Az-Zour is 65% finished

Kuwait's ministry of electricity and water plans to invite bids for the first phase of a new desalination plant at Doha. Separately, construction of the first phase of a US$ 1.4 billion power and water plant at Az-Zour is close to twp-thirds complete.

H2O Innovation updates Piedmont Pacific acquisition

Its recent acquisition of Piedmont Pacific means that Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is now supplying flexible pipe couplings to some of the largest desalination plants under construction in the world.

Veolia wins Az Zour MED desalination plant in Kuwait

Veolia Environnement announced on 13 January 2014 that its Sidem subsidiary had won the contract to build the seawater desalination plant at the Az Zour North complex in Kuwait for € 320 million.

Sidem to build Kuwait's Az-Zour MED desalination plant

A consortium of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) of South Korea and Sidem, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, has announced the signing on 12 December 2013 of a US$ 1.4 billion engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract with Shamal Az-Zour Al-Oula to build the first phase of the Az-Zour North Independent Water & Power Project (IWPP) in Kuwait.

Interest invited for Oman's Quriyyat desalination project

The Oman Power & Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has issued a notice in advance of a formal government request for qualification for its next independent water project (IWP) in Quriyyat, south of Muscat.

Q&A Ziad Bouars: "When you come it's just sand"

Ziad Bouars, commissioning manager at Sidem-Veolia, explains why he has no intention of swapping a projects role out in the field for a desk job back at head office

Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast is home to numerous water and power plants

ACWA Power sells stake in Shuqaiq IWPP, Saudi Arabia

ACWA Power has sold an effective 8 per cent stake in Shuqaiq Independent Water & Power Project (IWPP), Saudi Arabia, to Arab Petroleum Investments Corporation (APICORP), a regional development bank.

Guadalupe-Blanco desalination feasibility award in May?

Interviews will be taking place on 1-2 May 2013 with the seven groups left in competition for the feasibility study for the Regional South Central Texas Power & Seawater Desalination Project proposed by the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA).

Oman to issue tenders for two projects

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) is poised to issue a prequalification tender to build new water desalination plants across the sultanate.

OPWP chief sets out Oman's desalination plans

Oman is planning up to four new desalination plants between now and 2017, Bob Whitelaw, CEO of the state-run Oman Power & Water Procurement Company (OPWP) told a conference in Muscat on 11 October 2011.

Dubai amends laws to permit IWPPs

Following its announcement of its first independent power and water project (IWPP) at Hassyan with a 454,000 m³/d desalination plant, Dubai has amended the royal decree that set up the Dubai Electricity & Water Authority (DEWA) in 1992 to allow more IWPPs.

March tender for Dubai's 545,000 m³/d Hassyan desalination plant

Originally tendered in June 2008, the much-delayed 120 MIGD (545,000 m³/d) Hassyan desalination plant, with its associated 1,500 MW power station, is to be tendered in March 2011, the Dubai Electricity & Water Authority announced on 27 February 2011.

Ras Azzour desalination and power bids invited again

Bids have been invited from local and international contracting companies and manufacturers in both power and desalination for the Ras Azzour Desalination & Power Plant Project.

King starts production at Jubail II desalination plant

Saudia Arabia's King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz pressed a button on 29 April 2009 to start water production at the 800,000 m³/d Jubail II desalination plant, part of the world's largest independent water and power project (IWPP).

Kuwait wants to open its power and water sector to private firms and financiers

Kuwait calls for EoIs on two power and water PPPs

The Kuwait Authority for Partnership Projects (KAPP) has requested expressions of interest (EoIs) on two separate power and water projects to be delivered as public-private partnerships (PPPs).

Qatar prepared for soaring water demand

Requirements for water and power in Qatar are expected to soar by more than 50% by 2022 according to estimates from the state owned utility the Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa).

Palo Pinto passes desalination plan

With water supplies for the Texas city of Mineral Wells dwindling, Palo Pinto county has approved, as part of its drought contingency plan, the construction of a US$ 6.1 million reverse osmosis desalination plant to treat water from the Brazos river.

Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018

Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.

Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds

Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.

San Diego gives green light to potable reuse plan

San Diego's city council has given the green light to the construction of a 415Ml/d facility for direct potable reuse of wastewater costing up to US$ 3.5 billion. The reverse osmosis recycling scheme is expected to meet as much as a third of San Diego's daily drinking water requirement by 2035 making it the second largest potable reuse plant in the US.

Advisor ups Santa Barbara desalination restart cost by 25%

The city council of Santa Barbara in California may need to add to its planned water rates increase to cover the cost of a restart to the city's mothballed desalination plant according to acting water advisor, Josh Haggmark. He issued his warning after upping his US$ 32 million September estimate of the cost of re-booting the plant by about 25%.

Saudis to build second expansion to Oman desalination plant at Barka

Saudi generation and desalination firm, ACWA Power Barka has won a contract with Oman Power and Water Procurement (OPWP) to build a second seawater reverse osmosis plant at Barka 60km from the Omani capital, Muscat.

Commission approves California American Water test slant well

The California Coastal Commission has approved the application by water utility, California American Water, (Cal Am) to construct a test slant well for its proposed 48 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination project.

Africa's largest desalination plant opens

Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has officially opened its recently completed 500,000 m³/d desalination plant at Magtaa, Algeria. The facility is Africa's biggest and contains the largest ultrafiltration pre-treatment facility in the world according to Hyflux.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

Cal Am strikes deal on test well

Utility, California American Water (Cal Am), has struck a deal with cement maker, Cemex, to allow the water firm to drill slant test wells, and possibly production wells, on Cemex' north Marina sand mining plant site.

RWL wins contract to build desalination plant in Argentina

RWL Water has won a contact to build what it claims will be Argentina's largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.

Belville planning board approves reverse osmosis plant

A request by US local water utility, H2GO (Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer), for an amendment to allow for the building of a reverse osmosis brackish water purification plant has been approved unanimously by the planning authority at Belville, North Carolina.

West Basin declares record year in recycled water output

West Basin Municipal Water District in California has declared fiscal year 2013-14 a record 12 months in recycled water production at its Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility. The plant produced 60,000 Ml of recycled water in the period.

POSCO claims desalination first in Korea

Korean construction company POSCO E&C has completed the construction of what it claims to be the nation's first commercial seawater desalination plant.

Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities

Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.

Researchers uncover new membrane fouling mechanism

Researchers have uncovered "an additional reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling mechanism" arising from organic compounds present in ultrafiltration (UF) permeate during wastewater desalination.

Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.

HICL ups stake in Victorian Desalination to over 9%

Infrastructure investor, HICL Infrastructure, has upped its holding in Australia's Victorian Desalination public private partnership project to about 9.3% with an additional 3.4% stake acquired for £25.2 million (US$ 40.5 million).

STW Water bags Horizon, Texas US$ 2.2 million brine concentrator deal

STW Water has won the US$ 2.2 million contract to design, engineer and construct a reverse osmosis concentrator for the Municipal Utility District of Horizon City, Texas.

Researchers share industry prize for fouling research

Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.

Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant

Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.

California slant test gets US$ 1 million grant

Water utility, California American Water, has received a US$1 million grant from the state's Department of Water Resources to help fund the company's $4 million planned slant well test.

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

Namibian government poised to table offer for Areva desalination plant

Namibia's government is poised to table an offer to buy Areva's seawater desalination plant at Trekkopje and to use the 20 million m³-a-year facility to supply the country's semi-arid Erongo region.

Planned Mexican desalination plant to serve US utility

Reverse osmosis desalination company, Consolidated Water, has reported progress in its plan to build a seawater desalination plant in Mexico to supply a US water utility.

Israeli group to build desalination plants in Dar-es-Salaam

Water authorities in Dar-es-Salaam are planning to work with an Israeli consortium in constructing two reverse osmosis desalination plants to alleviate water shortage in the Tanzanian commercial capital.

Purification plant donation may slow Sri Lankan kidney disease spread

A recently commissioned reverse osmosis water purification plant donated by water treatment company Puritas will help to curb the spread of chronic kidney disease in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka according to the plant owner. Some 400,000 people in the region are understood to be currently affected with the disease.

Spanish opposition calls for end to paralysis of giant desalination project

Opposition politicians in Alicante, Spain have called on the country's central government to implement the completion of two, long-delayed reverse osmosis desalination plants to avoid urgent problems in the province amid a current drought.

Venezuela's largest desalination plant to start this year

Venezuela state-owned oil firm PDVSA expects by the end of the year to start operating a US$ 200 million seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant to provide water for oil refineries on the Paraguaná peninsula and drinking water for local communities.

Torishima wins pump deal for Chilean reverse osmosis desalination

Japanese pump manufacturer Torishima Pump has received an order for high-pressure pumps and booster pumps for a new reverse osmosis desalination plant being built in Copiapo, Chile.

Delayed Tarpon Springs reverse osmosis plant nears completion

Construction of a long-awaited US$ 45 million brackish water reverse-osmosis plant at the US city of Tarpon Springs, Florida is close to completion a few weeks behind schedule.

LG Chem seeks global player status in reverse osmosis membranes

South Korean petrochemicals company LG Chem has unveiled plans to become a global player in the market for reverse osmosis membranes for desalination.

Joint venture wins Perth groundwater replenishment contract

Western Australia's Water Corporation has awarded a contract to design, construct, and commission a full-scale advanced water replenishment plant (AWRP) to a joint venture between CH2M Hill,and engineering company Thiess. The project will help secure Perth's drinking water supplies through 2060

Acciona wins Italian jobs

Spanish infrastructure company Acciona has won a contract to supply potable water through seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination on the Italian islands of Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa.

Tunisia desalination project completes feasibility check

Tunisia's National Water Company has completed a feasibility study for a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant to be located at Zaarat, in the south east of the country. The plant will be constructed in two 50,000 m³/d phases.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination

Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis

Oman signs US$ 300 million water project agreement

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company, the sultanate's sole procurer of new power generation and water desalination capacity, has signed water project agreements worth 115 million rial (US$ 300 million).

Pure Aqua builds solar-powered desalination for Cameroon

US-based Pure Aqua has designed and manufactured six solar-powered reverse osmosis water purifiers for river water in the African state of Cameroon.

Antigua seawater desalination plant poised for start

West Indies island, Antigua is currently testing a reverse osmosis seawater desalination facility which could come on stream in March.

Point Lisas nears end of sixth expansion

Desalcott's Point Lisas seawater reverse osmosis plant in Trinidad, West Indies, is nearing completion on its sixth expansion since it was commissioned in 2002.

Planned Texas inland desalination plant will be USA's biggest

San Antonio Water System (SAWS) is constructing what will become the largest inland desalination plant in the USA. The plant will desalinate groundwater from the Wilcox Aquifer in southern Bexar County, Texas.

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.

Saudi plans two more giant desalination plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has unveiled plans to build two huge sea water desalination plants including a vast 1.5 million m³/day capacity hybrid plant with 30% of its production coming from reverse osmosis and the rest from thermal desalination.

Saudi Arabia unveils plans for giant desalination plant

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has announced plans for what would be the world's largest desalination plant.

SWCC governor Dr AbdulRahman Al-Ibrahim and Ryuzo Sakamoto, chairman of Toyobo, opening the Rabigh plant.

Toyobo desalination membrane plant opened in Rabigh

The ACWA-Toyobo joint venture in Saudi Arabia, Arabian Japanese Membrane Company LLC (AJMC), opened its reverse-osmosis membrane production facility in Rabigh on 29 May 2014.

Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Land-purchase brings Consolidated's Mexican SWRO nearer

The planned Rosarito seawater desalination project in Mexico close to the US border took a step nearer on 22 May 2014 when Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced that it had completed the land purchase for the project.

Grenada government tries again with RO desalination

The report on the Grenada government's website on 21 May 2014 that it was building reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique might not be quite as good as it sounds.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Largest desalination plant produces its first water

Production of water has started at what will be the largest desalination facility in the world, the 1,025 million m³/d Ras al-Khair (Ras Azzour) seawater plant northwest of Jubail in Saudi Arabia.


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