Reverse Osmosis, India, Morocco, Energy Recovery, Coal Seam Gas, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Hawaii
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship
The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).
IDA releases program details for Morocco conference
The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.
Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco
UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
Desalitech RO wastewater use 'will pay back in 6 months'
Desalitech, developer of the closed-circuit desalination (CCD) system, is to supply a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) advanced wastewater treatment system for a pesticide plant in Gujarat, India.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants
Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.
H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant
Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1.8 million Morocco deal
Pressure energy technology firm, Energy Recovery, has won a US$ 1.8 million deal to supply its PX pressure exchanger technology for a desalination plant in Morocco.
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project
Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.
India's BARC develops small solar RO and UF units
Domestic and community-level reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units have been developed for producing safe drinking water by Saly T Panicker at the Desalination Division of India's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Tata power plant installs cooling water reuse
India's largest power company, Tata Power, has installed a reverse osmosis plant at its Power House #6 power station in Jamshedpur to recover and reuse blow-down water from cooling towers.
Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility
Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.
Aquatech to build SBR/UF/RO reuse plant for Mumbai airport
A complete turnkey engineering, procurement and construction contract for a 10,000 m³/d waste and sewage treatment and recycle project for the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport at Mumbai, India, has been awarded to Aquatech. Aquatech will also subsequently operate and maintain the facility.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
VA Tech Wabag wins industrial reuse plant in Gujarat
Ultrafiltration (UF), reverse-osmosis (RO) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) will all be part of a 32,420 m³/d effluent treatment and recycling plant to be built in India by Chennai-based VA Tech Wabag.
Wabag India lands water recycling job in Vizag
Wabag India has been awarded a € 20+ million contract for the planning and completion of a comprehensive turnkey plant water system, including a wastewater treatment plant as part of the expansion of the Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd power plant in Vizag, India.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project
Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up
Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.
Cadagua to get 75,800 m³/d Moroccan desalination plant
Spain's Cadagua has been given a letter of intent for award of a 75,800 m³/d desalination plant in the Jorf Lasfar industrial complex in Morocco, 100km south of Casablanca.
Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.
ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion
High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
ERI pressure-exchangers for Spanish desalination plant
The 50,000 m³/d Marina Baja-Mutxamel seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant currently under construction near Alicante, Spain, is to be fitted with PX-260 energy-recovery devices.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
Stover leaves Oasys for Desalitech
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) old boy Dr Richard Stover has joined Tel Aviv-based Desalitech, a company with a desalination process that does away with energy-recovery devices.
Magtaa desalination turbocharger delivery complete
Delivery of 25 TurboCharger energy recovery devices for the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the world has been completed by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Sumitomo allies with VA Tech Wabag
Japan's Sumitomo Corp announced on 7 December 2010 an alliance agreement with India-based VA Tech Wabag Ltd, under which the two companies will strategically cooperate in multiple areas within the water infrastructure industry
Sulzer to supply a package of pumps to Sohar plant
Swiss technology and services company Sulzer is to provide a package of 49 pumping units to the new 250,000 m3/d desalination plant in Sohar, Oman.
Two Spanish desalination plants get ERI PX devices
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is to supply energy recovery-devices for two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants currently under construction along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Befesa chooses ERI again for Qingdao seawater desalination
The 100,000 m³/d Qingdao seawater desalination plant in China is to become the seventh Befesa- built reverse-osmosis plant to use PX isobaric energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Fedco pressure-booster beats 80% efficiency
"We're now ready to go after any project in the world," Eli Oklejas, president of Fedco, told D&WR, after he had announced that a performance test on the company's hydraulic pressure booster (HPB) energy-recovery device for desalination had surpassed 80% efficiency.
Hydrochem chooses DWEERs for Oman's Salalah desalination
DWEER energy-recovery systems will be used in the Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (Salalah IWPP) in Oman to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream in the desalination process.
ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion
Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.
Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant
Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.
ERI equipment chosen for Melbourne desalination
The AquaSure consortium has chosen PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery technology from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the Victorian Desalination Project, which will supply drinking water to Melbourne, Australia.
PEI wins giant Magtaa energy-recovery contract
Hyflux Ltd has selected HTCAT TurboChargers from Pump Engineering Inc (PEI) as the energy-recovery technology for the 500,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant at Magtaa on the Mediterranean coast of Algeria.
PX energy-recovery for Hadera desalination expansion
Energy Recovery Inc's PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) devices have been selected by IDE Technologies for the expansion of its seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Hadera, Israel.
PX energy-recovery units selected for Palmachim expansion
Energy Recovery Inc announced on 9 September 2009 that its PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) devices have been selected for use in the expansion of the 115,000 m³/d Palmachim desalination plant, one of the largest seawater reverse osmosis plants in Israel.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Flowserve wins three Calder orders in Spain
Flowserve Corporation announced on 9 July 2009 that it had received three orders for Calder energy-recovery devices for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination projects in Spain including the Campo de Dalais project, which will receive the recently upgraded DWEER units.
ERI wins ninth Algerian supply contract
UTE Cap Djinet, a consortium consisting of Spanish contractors Inima and Aqualia, has selected PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc for a large desalination plant to be built in Algeria.
Calder bought by Flowserve
US pump and valve manufacturer Flowserve announced on 21 April 2009 that it acquired Swiss desalination energy-recovery system provider Calder AG. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.
ERI to supply 75,000 m³/d Venezuelan desalination plant
Spanish EPC contractor Acciona Agua has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA the energy-recovery technology contract for the 75,000 m³/d (20 MGD) Paraguana desalination plant in Venezuela.
PEI gets venture capital boost
Pump Engineering Inc (PEI), US manufacturer of pumps and turbocharger energy-recovery devices for reverse-osmosis desalination, announced on 26 January 2009 that it had closed a "multi-million dollar" equity investment deal with Plymouth Venture Partners (PVP) earlier in the month.
ERI wins another Algerian contract
Another large-scale energy-recovery contract for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination in Algeria was announced by Energy Recovery Inc on 11 December 2008.
ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria
The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.
Tordera expansion to use ERI devices
The energy recovery contract for the expansion of the Tordera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant near Barcelona, Spain, has been awarded to Energy Recovery Inc.
ERI supplies Andalucian desalter
Fifty PX-220 energy recovery devices to operate in the first-stage of the reverse osmosis process are to be supplied for the Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination project in Spain by Energy Recovery Inc.
Al Ghubrah desalination to use ERI energy-recovery devices
Energy Recover Inc is to supply its PX Q300 Pressure Exchanger® technology for the Al Ghubrah seawater desalination plant in Oman.
Kuwait's 136,000 m³/d Shuwaikh plant awarded to Doosan
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction won the contract in September for the 136,000 m³/d (36 MGD) Shuwaikh Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Desalination Plant, the first in the country to use SWRO. Simultaneously, Doosan awarded the energy-recovery contract to Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers
Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.
Sadyt chooses ERI pressure-exchangers for Ashdod
Israel's giant Ashdod desalination plant is to use PX-Q300 energy-recovery pressure-exchangers supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA.
ERI lands Al-Jubail contract in Saudi Arabia
Acciona Agua has awarded a contract to Energy Recovery Inc for PX Pressure Exchanger energy‑recovery equipment for the SWRO‑4 desalination plant in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
ERI to provide pressure-exchangers for Carlsbad SWRO
IDE Technologies has selected pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in California, USA.
Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit
Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.
Indian desalination conference set for February
The Indian Desalination Society (InDA) has published a brochure for its National Conference on Water Purification Technologies & Management (InDACON 2012).
Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination
PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.
ERI chief calls for less plant downtime
The new CEO of Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), Tom Rooney, in an interview with Desalination & Water Reuse (D&WR) at the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 7 September 2011, revealed that the company was now focusing on the issue of plant utilization.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Abengoa wins contract for Morocco desalination plant
Morocco's National Power and Drinking Water Office (ONEE) has contracted Spanish desalination company, Abengoa, to construct a 100,000 m³/d plant, some 45 km from the city of Agadir.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant
A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.
Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.
Second Isobarix ER unit installed in Mexico
Isobarix has installed its second commercial XPR energy-recovery unit for Memco Sistemas de Separacion SA de CV, who operate several seawater reverse-osmosis plants at resorts in Cancun and Los Cabos, Mexico.
Energy Recovery unveils $5.5 million of deals in India and the Middle East
Energy Recovery, the water technology specialist that recovers energy from industrial fluid flows and pressure cycles, has won new supply deals in the Middle East and India.
CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India
Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.
CaribDA, ERI and Dow back operator training
In co-operation with Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) and Dow Water & Process Solutions, the Caribbean Desalination Association is organising a two-day operator training program at the Westin Dawn Beach Resort in St Maarten on 17-18 September 2009.
FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center
Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.
Biwater Florida RO project has manipulated ER unit
Acceptance testing has been successfully completed for a I.5 MGD (5,680 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) system being built by Biwater at the Springtree Water Treatment Plant in Sunrise, Florida, USA.
VA Tech bags Indian power water treatment contract
VA Tech Wabag Limited, based in Chennai, India, has received an order for total water management of the Kakatiya and Rayalaseema thermal power projects under a balance of plants package as part of a consortium with APGENCO. The Wabag portion involves around INR 2900 million (€ 47 million).
Perth desalination expansion to use ERDs from ERI
The expansion to the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant in Western Australia is to use PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices as were used in the original plant.
New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies
Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).
GE signs up for Indian industry wastewater reuse partnership
GE and Ramky Enviro Engineers, the Indian environment and waste management organization, have signed emergency water and industrial wastewater treatment agreements specifically designed to address India's industrial wastewater treatment and recycling needs.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
ERI providing energy-recovery in Ghana and Oman
Spanish contractor Abengoa will use Energy Recovery Inc's pressure-exchanger technology in two desalination plants it is building in Ghana and Oman.
Al Sharif made VP sales for ERI's OEM group
California-based Energy Recovery Inc announced on 26 January 2011 the promotion of its former global sales director, Imad Al Sharif, to vice president of sales of OEM group, one of the fastest growing business groups at ERI.
Energy Recovery ships gear to Oman for Sur project
Pressure energy technology firm, Energy Recovery, has shipped the components for a US$ 1 million desalination plant project in Sur, Oman in partnership with French desalination company, Sidem.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
Pratt & Witney to validate PEI equipment
US space and aero engine-builder Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Inc (PWR) is to provide engineering and development services for Pump Engineering Inc (PEI), manufacturer of desalination pumping and energy-recovery equipment.
Tonner to join Consolidated Water as COO
Experienced desalter John Tonner is joining Consolidated Water Co Ltd as chief operating officer from 1 September 2011.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.