Reverse Osmosis, Algeria, Africa


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Africa's largest desalination plant opens

Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has officially opened its recently completed 500,000 m³/d desalination plant at Magtaa, Algeria. The facility is Africa's biggest and contains the largest ultrafiltration pre-treatment facility in the world according to Hyflux.

Private players are reshaping desalination says report

Private water companies are "reshaping global desalination" with nine of the top ten capacity additions in 2015 coming from private sector players according to market researcher Bluefield Research.

Hyflux poised for global diversification says chief

Anticipated growth in the global desalination market is expected to help diversify revenue from Asia to the Middle East and African markets for Singapore water company, Hyflux, according to its chief executive Olivia Lum.

RO plant commissioned for US military base

A reverse-osmosis (RO) drinking-water plant supplied by ThermoEnergy Corporation to a major US military base at an undisclosed location in the Africa/Middle East region was commissioned in early December 2011.

PWT to be represented by Omya in EMEA region

Professional Water Technologies announced on 6 September 2011 that it had signed a sales representative agreement with Omya International AG, a leading global producer of industrial minerals, and a worldwide distributor of chemical products.

Feasibility started for South African desalination plant

A feasibility study is underway in South Africa's Northern Cape for a 7,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Abraham Villiers Bay close to the town of Kotzesrus.

Ghana desalination plant begun by Agengoa

Construction of the Nungua seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant in Ghana, the first large desalination plant in West Africa, is now under way.

H2O Innovation lands San Jose WTP ultrafiltration contract

A 30 MGD (113,562 m³/d) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane water treatment system in California is one of three new contracts totaling Can$ 8.8 million (US$ 8.1 million) announced on 21 May 2014 by H2O Innovation.

Hyflux Libyan desalination contracts could be delayed

Singapore-based desalination contractor Hyflux said on 23 February 2011 that its projects in Libya could be delayed due to the political uncertainty in the country, according to Reuters.

Environnement in global revamp

Suez Environnement has merged its Degrémont subsidiary into its international operating division under a major restructuring of the group's operations outside of Europe that will create five new regional businesses.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Senegal mulls desalination to counter supply shortfall in capital

Senegal water utility, Senegalaise des Eaux (SDE), is planning investment in desalination to avoid repeats of last year's severe supply shortages in the the rapidly growing capital city, Dakar, according to the firm's chief executive Mamadou Dia.

GDF Suez bags Lahmeyer

GDF Suez' consultancy arm, Tractebel Engineering, has bought Germany-based water and energy consultancy Lahmeyer International from financial investment firm Capiton.

MottMac buys up South African engineering firm

Johannesburg-based engineering specialist PD Naidoo & Associates has been acquired by global engineering firm Mott MacDonald.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

Reynolds to lead CH2M Hill in MENA and India

Chartered engineer Neil Reynolds has been appointed regional managing director for CH2M Hill's operations in Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and India.

Djibouti 'planning desalination plant with EU aid'

The government of Djibouti in east Africa is planning to build a 45,000 m³/d desalination plant with European Union (EU) finance, according to a report in Gulf News on 4 December 2011.

Acciona Agua makes two new MENA appointments

Spanish desalination company Acciona Agua has appointed José Díaz-Caneja as development manager, Middle East and North Africa.

Hyflux wins 40,000 m³/d SWRO plant in Libya

A contract for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, has been won by Hyflux Ltd of Singapore, the company announced on 15 November 2010.

Malaysia's Malakoff eyes desalination in global advance

Malaysian power and water engineering firm, Malakoff Corporation, is looking to expand its operation and maintenance (O&M) arm, Teknik Janakuasa, beyond its home market with an emphasis that includes desalination.

The award-winning Hamma Water Desalination facility by GE Power and Algerian Energy Company, in the Algerian capital city of Algiers

Algeria desal plant wins OPIC award for public-private excellence

Hamma Water Desalination facility in Algeria, the first reverse osmosis seawater plant in Africa to be funded by public-private investment, has scooped OPIC's Impact Award for Critical Infrastructure, for effectiveness in public-private partnerships in major infrastructure projects.

Installed desalination growth slowed in 2011‑2012

Installed desalination capacity around the world rose by only 9% last year to reach 78.4 million m³/d, according to the latest data published by the International Desalination Association (IDA) and Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Qatar and Sweden will hold technical workshops on a project to fuel desalination entirely by solar and wind power

Qatar and Sweden plot renewables-fuelled desalination project

A renewables-fuelled desalination project aiming to produce water for $1/m3 is to be jointly developed by Qatar and Sweden, reports The Peninsular.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

IDA on road to Morocco in March 2012

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the first event of its kind in the North Africa region, a conference on desalination and sustainability in partnership with the Societé Marocaine des Membranes et de Dessalement (SMMD).

The Innova 100 m³/d automatic RO system

Automatic Italian RO bought by Kenyan resort

A means of getting reverse-osmosis (RO) into sub-Saharan Africa has been provided by Italy's Innova Ltd, which recently delivered its first automatic seawater RO desalination plant with 100 m³/d capacity to a tourist resort in Kenya.

South African RO plant begins production

The 15,000 m³/d reverse-osmosis desalination plant for Mossel Bay, South Africa, should go into full production this week, after three weeks of commissioning.

Acciona wins desalination deal in Cape Verde islands

A consortium of Spanish water technology firm, Acciona Agua, and construction firm Sade-CGTH, has won a €16 million (US$ 18.5 million) design and build contract for a 5,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant on each of the African Cape Verde islands of Sal and São Vicente from the local energy and water utility, Electra-SARL.

CaribDA pretreatment workshop set for Antigua

A workshop on pretreatment for seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is being held by the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) on the island of Antigua on 7-8 April 2011.

Magtaa desalination turbocharger delivery complete

Delivery of 25 TurboCharger energy recovery devices for the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the world has been completed by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Tubular membranes replaced at South Africa coal plant

More than 2,500 tubular reverse-osmosis (TRO) membrane modules have been replaced at a South African coal-to-liquids refinery by Veolia‑owned Membratek in a subcontract.

PEI wins giant Magtaa energy-recovery contract

Hyflux Ltd has selected HTCAT TurboChargers from Pump Engineering Inc (PEI) as the energy-recovery technology for the 500,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant at Magtaa on the Mediterranean coast of Algeria.

Toray wins giant Magtaa desalination membrane contract

Toray Industries Inc of Japan announced on 29 September 2009 that it had won an order from Hyflux Ltd to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for what will be the world's largest membrane-based desalination plant, Magtaa in Algeria.

Al Dur desalination financing tied up

Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC) and GDF Suez announced on 26 July 2009 completion of the limited recourse financing of the US$ 2.1 billion Al-Dur Independent Water & Power Producer (IWPP) project , which includes a 218,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant as well as a 1,240 MW combined-cycle gas-turbine power plant.

ERI wins ninth Algerian supply contract

UTE Cap Djinet, a consortium consisting of Spanish contractors Inima and Aqualia, has selected PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc for a large desalination plant to be built in Algeria.

ABB to power giant Magtaa RO desalination plant

ABB has been awared a US$ 28 million contract to provide power for the Magtaa desalination plant in Algeria, which, at 500,000 m³/d will be the largest reverse-osmosis plant in the world.

Algerian worldbeater has UF pretreatment

The President of Algeria, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, presided over the on-site ground-breaking ceremony for what will be the world's largest reverse-osmosis desalination plant with a capacity of 500,000 m³/d in Magtaa in Oran province, western Algeria, on 16 December 2008.

ERI wins another Algerian contract

Another large-scale energy-recovery contract for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination in Algeria was announced by Energy Recovery Inc on 11 December 2008.

ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria

The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.

Befesa ties up Tenes project finance

Madrid-based contractor Befesa, through its subsidiary Befesa Agua, announced on 1 December 2008 closure of the US$ 185 million financing for the design, construction, funding and 25-year operation of the Tenes seawater desalination plant in Algeria.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

Israeli group to build desalination plants in Dar-es-Salaam

Water authorities in Dar-es-Salaam are planning to work with an Israeli consortium in constructing two reverse osmosis desalination plants to alleviate water shortage in the Tanzanian commercial capital.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine

A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.

Kuwait discusses seawater desalination with Algeria

Algiers was the setting on 12 July 2012 for the first meeting of the Kuwait-Algerian committee for seawater desalination, which aims to establish cooperation between the two nations on the technology.

New distributors and EU compliance for PWT

Membrane chemicals supplier Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the US arm of Canada's H2O Innovation, recently signed agreements with two new distributors in Brazil and Argentina, increasing its presence in South America.

Pure Aqua builds solar-powered desalination for Cameroon

US-based Pure Aqua has designed and manufactured six solar-powered reverse osmosis water purifiers for river water in the African state of Cameroon.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Acciona Agua commissions Fouka desalination in Algeria

The commissioning of the Fouka seawater desalination plant in Algeria, which reached full operational capacity in July, was announced by Acciona Agua on 8 August 2011.

Dow to build FilmTec RO factory in Saudi Arabia

Dow Water & Process Solutions announced on 26 July 2011 that it is going to manufacture FilmTec™ reverse-osmosis (RO) elements in Saudi Arabia.

Cadagua to get 75,800 m³/d Moroccan desalination plant

Spain's Cadagua has been given a letter of intent for award of a 75,800 m³/d desalination plant in the Jorf Lasfar industrial complex in Morocco, 100km south of Casablanca.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse will make a return visit to Dubai in 2019

IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.

'We have been more than 70 years working in the EPC market', Pedro Almagro, Abengoa Agua CEO

Interview: Pedro Almagro, CEO, Abengoa Agua

As comebacks go, Abengoa's has been pretty impressive. The company that has been through a traumatic one-and-a-half years, in April 2017 wowed the industry with a massive €240 million contract win from Saudi Arabia's ACWA Power.

The new desalination plant will supply residents of the country's capital, Djibouti city

Gulf of Aden project inches forward

Three firms have been pre-selected for a reverse osmosis desalination project in Djibouti, East Africa.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Trekkopje SWRO opened at Namibian uranium mine

The 55,000 m³/d Trekkopje seawater desalination plant in Nambia was opened opened on 16 August 2010 in the presence of Namibia's minister of agriculture, water and forestry, John Mutorwa, and former president, Same Nujom

The Ikusasa membrane plant

First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May

The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Saudi deal gives Toray fourth membrane‑making base

A new joint venture to sell desalination and water treatment membranes in the Middle East has been set up between Toray Industries of Japan and Abunayyan Holding, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

MEDRC to run membrane courses in Oman

The Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) has obtained an exclusive license to present two David H Paul seminars in the Middle East/North Africa region.

The Port of Durban, on the east coast of South Africa in KwaZulu-Natal province

Hitachi to demo integrated desalination and reuse system in South Africa

Hitachi has been selected to run a demonstration project for RemixWater, its integrated seawater desalination and water reuse system, in South Africa.

FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center

Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.

Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia

A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Dow Saudi factory ships first elements

Dow Water & Process Solutions' (DW&PS) has made its first shipment of its Filmtech reverse osmosis (RO) elements from its new Jubail Operations manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

The Ikusasa ultrafiltration membrane plant

UF solution to rural water supplies?

Sub-Saharan Africa is not a region generally associated with membrane technology, but that is now changing. Desalination projects are already appearing in, for example, South Africa and Ghana, and South Africa is fast developing its own technologies. Water treatment manufacturer Ikusasa is developing its own UF modules both for rural water supply and for desalination pretreatment. The company is also developing its reverse-osmosis desalination capability and is currently looking at anodic Zn for scaling protection in treating high-calcium groundwater. This article appeared in the February-March 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.

South African desalination project comes under press fire

Water supplier for South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province, Umgeni Water, is considering a proposal to build a seawater desalination plant on the Illovo River within the next five years to cope with growing demand in its Upper South Coast region.

Dow project seeks to promote reuse

Dow Water & Process Solutions, is participating in one of ten European Commission-funded projects that aim to stimulate innovation and improve cohesion in Europe's water reuse sector.

Metito collects Egypt deals worth US$ 8.5 million

Water management firm, Metito, has won contracts for four projects worth EGP 65 million (US$ 8.5 million) on the back of moves to support the revival of Egypt's local tourism economy.

Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA

Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.

Inside Osmoflo's containerised desalination unit

South Africa declares drought a national disaster, weighs desal options

South Africa has declared a national disaster owing to the severe drought that is threatening to cease water supplies in City of Cape Town.

PWT signs three new overseas distributors

Three new distributors in Malaysia, Singapore and South Africa have been signed up by Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the business unit of Canada's H2O Innovation Inc.

Hyflux forecasts end to Middle East desalination doldrums

Following its recent landing of its first major Middle Eastern municipal water contract in five years,  Singapore water treatment firm Hyflux said it anticipated demand in the region to accelerate.

GrahamTek is an innovator in 16-inch reverse osmosis membrane technology

GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project

GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Sonitec-Vortisand appoints MENA manager

Canada-based Sonitec-Vortisand has appointed Nikhil Bhatia, as regional manager for its newly formed subsidiary, Sonitec-Vortisand Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

KMS signs distributor for Italy

Koch Membranes Systems (KMS) announced on 17 June 2011 that it had signed a distribution agreement for Italy with Univar Inc, a US global chemical distributor.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

Barka desalination plant will supply 218,000 m3/d of potable water to the people of Oman

Dow to supply RO elements to Barka desalination plant project

Dow Water & Process Solutions is to supply advanced reverse osmosis (RO) elements to Barka desalination plant project in Oman, after selection by Suez.

The project to desalinate water from Thane Creek is under fire primarily for its water price

Desal project in Thane, India, draws legal challenge

A desalination plant project to supply the city of Thane, in Maharashtra, India, has come under fire from activists and politicians who oppose the local authority's plan, reports Mumbai Mirror.

The transaction closed on 23 March 2018

Stantec expands UK footprint with ESI Consulting acquisition

Stantec is expanding operations in the UK through the acquisition of environmental firm ESI Consulting.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Teshie-Nungua desalination plant had improved access to water in the greater Accra region of Ghana

Abengoa in talks aimed at re-opening Ghana desalination plant

Abengoa has confirmed that it is actively re-negotiating with Ghana Water Company Ltd (GWCL) the terms of its Teshie-Nungua desalination plant contract.

Veolia chief executive for Middle East and North Africa Xavier Joseph is targeting ambitious growth in 2018

Veolia Middle East CEO Xavier Joseph targets significant growth

Veolia has investment capacity of $200 million for power and water projects across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) for 2018, regional chief executive Xavier Joseph has told Emirati news outlet The National.

A small scale desalination plant is planned for Cape Town's V&A Waterfront

Blame game begins ahead of Cape Town's 'day zero'

Mmusi Maimane, leader of South Africa's opposition party the Democratic Alliance, has slammed the national ministry of water and sanitation for failing in its duties, pointing out the high cost of building desalination plants.

Sulzer's acquisition of JWC Environmental assumes an enterprise value of $215 million

Sulzer to acquire JWC Environmental

Sulzer is to acquire JWC Environmental, a leading supplier of municipal and industrial wastewater equipment.

Egypt anticipates a reduction in Nile river water availability following completion of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Egypt's al-Sisi has a mega desal scheme in his sights

Egypt is to build a mega desalination plant in response to water scarcity concerns, reports news24.com.

(Left to right) Paul Fox, British consul general to Dubai and the Northern Emirates; Ahmad Al Mulla, senior manager sales, Dubai Airport Freezone; Joel Hagan, i2O chief executive; Jamal Bin Marghoob, director of sales, Dubai Airport Freezone; and Mohamed Sadek, i2O sales director for the Middle East and North Africa

i2O opens new base in Middle East and North Africa

UK smart water network solutions firm i2O has opened its first office in the Middle East and North Africa to support clients in the region.

Lamu old town, Kenya, is a UNESCO World Heritage site

Kenya authorities signal desalination project in Lamu County

The LAPSSET Authority is to build a desalination facility in Lamu County, Kenya, reports Kenya News Agency.

'Honoured to serve.' Shannon McCarthy, IDA secretary general

McCarthy in as new IDA secretary general

Shannon McCarthy has been appointed secretary general of the International Desalination Association (IDA) at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The report, Water Reuse: Drivers, Innovations and Public Perceptions, is available to download from the link below

Industry eyes 30 per cent growth in reuse revenues this year

Industry professionals in desalination and water reuse are strongly optimistic about the outlook for growth in reuse activity in the year ahead, a new survey by Water. desalination + reuse can reveal.

The new IDA board directors take up their post at IDA World Congress 2017 in Brazil

IDA unveils new board of directors

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has named its new board of directors for 2017 to 2019.

Inside the desalination plant at Teshie-Nungua, in Ghana's greater Accra region

Ghanaian utility staggers under weight of desalination costs

Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) is reviewing its options over Teshie-Nungua desalination plant, as it emerged that the facility results in a loss to the utility of about $2 million a month, reports CitiFMonline.com.

Henry Charrabé is a protégé of investor Ronald Lauder, and is backed by him as CEO of newly created Fluence Corp

Interview: Henry Charrabe, Fluence Corp

Henry Charrabe, newly appointed chief executive of Fluence Corporation, the company formed in July by the merger of RWL Water and Emefcy, has worked for the business' major investor Ronald Lauder for 16 years.

Djibouti's desalination plant project was developed over five years in partnership with the EU

Eiffage and Tedagua clinch Djibouti desalination contract

French engineering firm Eiffage Genie Civil in consortium with Tedagua of Spain has won a contract to build a desalination plant in Djibouti, east Africa.


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