Renewable Energy, Seawater, Morocco, Membrane Distillation, greenhouse gas, China, Renewable Energy


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Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

EDS publishes June solar desalination course program

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published the program for its three-day intensive course on Desalination With Solar Energy to be held in Almeria, Spain, on 11‑13 June 2014.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?

Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

New South Wales premier switches on Sydney desalination plant

Sydney's seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was switched on by New South Wales premier Kristina Keneally on 28 January 2008, providing water to meet up to 15% of Sydney's water needs.

MD developer seeking US powerplant partners

Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

Siemens signs wind desalination MoU in Australia

Siemens Australia has announced a partnership with Windesal, a South Australia company using technology designed in Denmark, to develop clean technologies and wind-powered desalination plants.

IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway

The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants

Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).

Masdar green desalination competition kicks off

All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.

EDS promotes learning on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society is promoting two sets of courses looking at desalination using renewable energies.

Renewable-energy desalination community seeks to start association

The renewable-energy (RE) desalination community should organize itself into a body that will represent the sector and lobby for its interests, says a new report.

Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.

Acuamed desalination plants to use renewable energy

All the desalination plants owned by Acuamed, the Spanish water supplier, as well as distribution networks and company offices, will be run on renewable energy, the company announced on 22 December 2009.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

Desalination/reuse in UK/Israel water agreement

Desalination, water reuse and use of renewable energy in desalination and water reclamation were included in an agreement signed on 21 December 2011 between British Water, which represents the UK water industry supply chain, and MATIMOP, the Israeli Industry Centre for Research & Development.

Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.

Water Corporation cooperates on wave-energy desalination

Western Australia's Water Corporation has signed a cooperation agreement to support the wave-powered seawater desalination pilot project proposed by Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd.

Australian wave-energy desalination pilot to get funding

Australia's Carnegie Wave Energy announced on 28 February 2013 that it had received a government grant of Aus$ 1.27 million (US$ 1.30 million) to support a wave-powered seawater desalination demonstration project.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course

The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.

Desalination part of new Algeria-Morocco cooperation

A meeting on issues related to water management and purification and seawater desalination is to be held in Algiers on 18 April 2011 between officials from the relevant ministries in Algeria and Morocco.

Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot

Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme

Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.

Second Perth desalination plant starts in three weeks

Less than a week after getting federal government clearance, the contract for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant was signed on 30 June 2009.

Artist's impression of the Seadog installation

Wave-powered desalination about to be installed

A company in Texas, USA, is preparing to demonstrate the use of desalination with the wave-power facility it is about to install in the Gulf of Mexico.

Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.

Abengoa wins contract for Morocco desalination plant

Morocco's National Power and Drinking Water Office (ONEE) has contracted Spanish desalination company, Abengoa, to construct a 100,000 m³/d plant, some 45 km from the city of Agadir.

Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.

Desert community MD trial produces first water

First water was produced in mid-November 2013 by the membrane distillation plant set up in the Great Victoria Desert, Australia, by a team from the National Centre for Excellence in Desalination Australia (NCEDA).

Saltworks test rig with evaporation pond surrounded by windbreak.

Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost

Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Samoa first to draw from Japanese solar/desalination fund

Samoa on 17 June 2011 became the first country to access a Japanese fund set up for solar power generation and seawater desalination or a combination of both.

memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs

A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

EU to support saline-aquifer desalination in Djibouti

A 22,500 m³/d brackish-water desalination plant, expandable to double that size and powered by renewable energy, is to be built in the East African state of Djibouti with support from the European Union (EU).

IDA launches Energy Task Force in Marseille

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has formed a global Energy Task Force whose goal is to achieve a 20% reduction in energy consumption in all major seawater desalination processes by 2015.

US National Alliance for Water Innovation selected to Lead Energy-Water Desalination Hub

The US Department of Energy has announced the selection of the National Alliance for Water Innovation (NAWI) to lead its Energy-Water Desalination Hub, intended to tackle water security issues.

The DoE's new Energy-Water Desalination Hub will have $100 million to invest in early-stage research and development

US DoE announces $100 million for Energy-Water Desalination Hub

The US Department of Energy (DoE) has announced $100 million in funding to establish an Energy-Water Desalination Hub.

South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future

The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.

Twelve projects announced at Australian desalination centre opening

A project to apply wave energy to seawater desalination was one of 12 projects to receive awards from Australia's National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED) and announced at the centre's opening on 23 July 2010.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in CopiapĆ³, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

Saudi solar desalination push nears end of Phase 1

The first of three phases of the King Abdullah Initiative for Solar Water Desalination is expected to be operational by the end of this year, according to reports from Saudi Arabia.

Ensure Your Water Future is the theme for the 2017 IDA World Congress in Sao Paulo, Brazil

IDA extends deadline for Congress submissions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has extended the deadline for submitting abstracts for consideration in the technical programme for the 2017 IDA World Congress in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The new deadline is 11:59pm (EDT) next Tuesday, November 15, 2016.

NCEDA's CEO attacks east-coast desalination critics

As Perth, on Australia's west coast, experiences its driest July on record, the CEO of the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination Australia (NCEDA), Neil Palmer, has taken on the media and politicians on the country's east coast over the recent spending on desalination.

Energy Recovery announces deal duo

Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.

Morocco seeks private investors for US$ 27 billion water plan

Morocco's water minster, Charafat Afilal, has unveiled plans to let private capital take the lead in developing desalination and irrigation projects as part of a US$ 27 billion programme to ease the burden on the country's water resources.

Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco

UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.



IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

IDA on road to Morocco in March 2012

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the first event of its kind in the North Africa region, a conference on desalination and sustainability in partnership with the Societé Marocaine des Membranes et de Dessalement (SMMD).

Cadagua to get 75,800 m³/d Moroccan desalination plant

Spain's Cadagua has been given a letter of intent for award of a 75,800 m³/d desalination plant in the Jorf Lasfar industrial complex in Morocco, 100km south of Casablanca.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

IFC to support large Moroccan desalination project

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, signed an agreement on 4 May 2010 with the government of Morocco to support private investment in a new desalination and irrigation plant that will help improve the water supply to a vital agricultural region.

Abengoa signs world first large renewable desalination plant deal

Saudi-based water treatment specialist, Advanced Water Technologies (AWT) has appointed Spanish conglomerate, Abengoa, as its partner in the development of the world's first, large-scale desalination plant to be powered by solar energy.

MD plant using generator heat starts on Maldive island

The world's first desalination unit using waste heat from a power generator with membrane distillation has started up on Guhli island in the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

MD+VC succeeds at produced-water disposal site

A new desalination technique of membrane distillation (MD) combined with vapour compression (VC) has been pronounced a success in an effort to reduce produced water disposal costs at a Texas disposal well.

GE and memsys in joint MD development accord

Singapore-based membrane distillation (MD) specialist memsys clearwater Pte Ltd has entered into an agreement with GE to jointly develop the technology for the fast-growing oil and gas market.

Construction starts on Melbourne desalination plant

Construction started on 6 October 2009 on the Melbourne Desalination Project in Australia, which will provide up to 150 million m³ of water each year to the city from the end of 2011.

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

Typical plant configuration based on Synwater 500 system

Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology

Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.

Plataforma Solar de Almeria

Online registration open for EDS solar desalination course

Online registration is now available for the European Desalination Society's course on Desalination with Solar Energy in Almeria, Spain, on 18-20 April 2012, which can be combined with the EDS conference in Barcelona on 23-26 April.

VSEP NF system used at Brazilian ethanol plant

A full-scale vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system has been commissioned successfully by New Logic Research at a Brazilian ethanol plant.

Djibouti's desalination plant project was developed over five years in partnership with the EU

Eiffage and Tedagua clinch Djibouti desalination contract

French engineering firm Eiffage Genie Civil in consortium with Tedagua of Spain has won a contract to build a desalination plant in Djibouti, east Africa.

Egyptian solar desalination

The Egyptian Gazette reported on 22 September 2011 that Egypt's scientists have developed a solar-power based technology to reduce the cost of water desalination from LE 10 (US$ 1.67) to LE 4 ($0 67) per cubic metre.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Saudi's PIF is upping its stake in Acwa Power

Saudi's PIF to raise stake in Acwa Power

Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund (PIF) is to raise its stake in Acwa Power to 40 per cent up from 25 per cent, reports Reuters.

Low-grade waste heat holds promise for desalination

Low-grade, waste heat produced by industry may be applicable to distillation desalination to make fresh water where revere osmosis is not suitable according to findings by the University of Western Australia (UWA).

Nitto Denko/Hydranautics' COO Brett Andrews (left) shakes hands with Statkraft's  executive vice president Jon Brandsar, while Stein Erik Skilhagen, head of osmotic power, Statkraft  looks on.

Hydranautics to supply osmotic-power developer Statkraft

Desalination membrane manufacturer Nitto Denko/Hydranautics has signed an agreement with Norwegian osmotic-power developer Statkraft for the development and supply of membranes for osmotic power.

Green energy firm plans frack water desalination

Australian renewable energy firm AGL plans to install a 2 Ml/d desalination plant to treat water produced during hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at its Gloucester coal-seam gas project.

RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract

A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.

Sir Richard Branson

Branson to address IDA Perth congress in September

Sir Richard Branson, famous for his achievements as an entrepreneur and founder of the international brand Virgin, is to be keynote speaker at the World Congress of the International Desalination Association in Perth.

Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says

The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.


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