Recycling, greenhouse gas


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Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

The new power and water facility is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at EGA's smelter by 10 per cent

EGA plans $272 million power and water plant at Jebel Ali

Mubadala and Dubal Holding are developing a new power and desalination facility at Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA)'s smelter in Jebel Ali, Dubai.

Water Corporation cooperates on wave-energy desalination

Western Australia's Water Corporation has signed a cooperation agreement to support the wave-powered seawater desalination pilot project proposed by Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July

The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

Australian wave-energy desalination pilot to get funding

Australia's Carnegie Wave Energy announced on 28 February 2013 that it had received a government grant of Aus$ 1.27 million (US$ 1.30 million) to support a wave-powered seawater desalination demonstration project.

California county mulls tapping into nuclear plant desalination

As part of its plans to combat ongoing severe drought, California's San Luis Obispo County (SLO) is considering the construction of a 10 km pipeline to tap into the spare capacity of a desalination plant currently providing only the needs of a nuclear power plant.

California approves bond issue for Carlsbad desalination

Poseidon Resources has submitted and had approved an application for US$ 780 million in tax-exempt bonds for the Carlsbad seawater desalination project.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

Location of the Carlsbad desalination plant by the Encina power station.

Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead

Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

Hydranautics commits to Climate Registry

Hydranautics/Nitto Denko of California, USA, has become the first US-based desalination membrane manufacturer to join the Climate Registry and commit itself to reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

"Significant" impacts from Monterey desalination says draft report

Whichever of the three desalination-based proposals for future water supply on the Monterey peninsula in California is eventually implemented, there would be "significant and unavoidable" environmental impacts.

Carlsbad project plan for green SWRO

The largest and most advanced seawater desalination project under development in the USA today is the 189,000 m³/d plant in Carlsbad in southern California. This project is collocated with the Encina coastal power generation station, which currently uses seawater for once-through cooling. The Carlsbad seawater desalination project is developed as a public-private partnership between Poseidon Resources and eight utilities and municipalities in San Diego County. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with production of desalinated seawater at the Carlsbad project are planned to be mitigated by a portfolio of alternative technologies and measures: from the use of CO2 for water production, green building design and of state-of-the-art technology; to the development of on-site and off-site green energy projects and CO2 sequestration by reforestation and new coastal wetlands. The mix of GHG reduction alternatives will be prioritized and implemented under a Carbon Action Plan which defines a roadmap for carbon-neutral seawater desalination. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

Water-reuse education centre opens in Sydney

The Water Recycling Education Centre was been officially opened on 21 February 2011 in the St Marys suburb of Sydney, Australia, by water minister Phillip Costa today in St Marys, adding to the community education resources of Sydney Water.

Marubeni takes 40% stake in Osmoflo

Marubeni Corporation of Japan has taken a 40% stake in Adelaide-based Osmoflo, Australia's leading locally owned desalination company.

Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech

Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.

Seprotech appoints new CEO and president

Ottawa-based Seprotech Systems Inc, developer of CrystalBlue™ membrane-based water recycling systems, announced a new chairman and CEO on 27 January 2011,

GHD leads Sydney water recycling consortium

A consortium led by engineering consultants GHD has been selected by the City of Sydney, Australia, to develop a decentralised water masterplan for the Local Government Area (LGA), which would include Australia's first city-wide recycled water network and significantly reduce demands on drinking water supplies.

Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations

More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.

Hunter Water to look at desalination/reuse again

Desalination and water reuse are back on the table as options for the future water supply of the Hunter Valley area of New South Wales, Australia, following the state government's axing of the Tillegra dam on 28 November 2010.

Australia's first groundwater replenishment trial launched

Western Australia's water minister, Graham Jacobs, launched Australia's first Groundwater Replenishment Trial on 30 November 2010, which research indicates may be cheaper than desalination.

Australia urged to recycle more water for urban supplies

Greater use of recycled water in Australia's water supplies was called for on 29 November 2010 by James Cameron, acting CEO of the National Water Commission (NWC).

VA Tech bags Indian power water treatment contract

VA Tech Wabag Limited, based in Chennai, India, has received an order for total water management of the Kakatiya and Rayalaseema thermal power projects under a balance of plants package as part of a consortium with APGENCO. The Wabag portion involves around INR 2900 million (€ 47 million).

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

Wastewater reuse plant nears completion in Hegang, China

United Envirotech of Singapore expects to complete construction of a 30,000 m³/d wastewater reuse facility for China's Hegang municipal government by the end of December 2010.

Water reuse in Sydney will more than double by 2015

Water reuse in Sydney, Australia, will increase to 70 million m³ in 2015, according to the 2010 Metropolitan Water Plan just published by the New South Wales state government.

AWWA training manual adds membranes and recycling

New information on water treatment residuals and expanded coverage of membrane treatment and recycling feature in the updated fourth edition of the Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations (WSO)training series published on 17 August 2010 by the American Water Works Association.

Australian recycling centre seeks proposaIs for validation framework

The newly launched Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence has issued its first call for proposals.

NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore

Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.

Deshmukh to oversee West Basin desalination and recycling

West Basin Municipal Water District in Los Angeles County, California, has hired former Orange County engineer Shivaji Deshmukh to be its new assistant general manager.

Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant

The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.

Alliance bids sought for W Australia water-reuse plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation has invited proposals from suitably experienced organizations to form an alliance with the water supplier to design and build the Beenyup Advanced Water Recycling Plant at Craigie.

Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars

Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.

Bay Area reuse expansion fails to pass US Representatives

The Bay Area Regional Water Recycling Program Expansion Act of 2009, which sought to amend the Reclamation Wastewater & Groundwater Study & Facilities Act to expand the Bay Area Regional Water Recycling Program (BARWRP) in California, USA, failed to gain a necessary two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives on 30 September 2009.

NWRI publishes California recycling white paper

The US National Water Research Institute has published a white paper, cosponsored by WateReuse California, which highlights the need for more effort in advancing the use of recycled water in California.

DRACE wins Melbourne recycling design contract

City West Water, the water supply company for Melbourne, Australia, has awarded Spanish contractor DRACE medioambiente, in joint venture with Tedagua, an Aus$ 36.5 million (US$ 30.4 million) design contract for a water recycling system.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding

US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Nominated USEPA chief drops "direct potable reuse" hint

Probably for the very first time, a US government nominee has admitted the possibility of direct potable water reuse, as well as pointing to increases in water recycling and desalination.

Victoria urged to set new reuse and desalination goals

A committee set up by the Victoria state government in Australia has recommended that enforceable water recyling and reuse targets at Melbourne's sewage treatment plants should be raised to 50% by 2012 and 70% by 2015.

Chinese visitors for West Basin water-reuse plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water district announced on 26 April 2013 that earlier in the month it had received a visit from a group of public and private administrators from China interested to learn about water recycling facilities and the management experiences of US enterprises in wastewater treatment.

The space station wastewater recycling system

NASA approves space-station wastewater reuse

In a giant leap for wastewater reuse, NASA, the US federal space agency, gave the green light on 20 May 2009 to the Expedition 19 astronauts aboard the International Space Station to drink reused wastewater from the station's new recycling system.

Bill seeks funding for six San Francisco reuse projects

Six more water reuse projects in the San Francisco Bay area would be eligible for US federal funding if a bill introduced in the House of Representatives on 14 May 2009 is passed.

Veolia given Sydney wastewater reuse licence

New South Wales premier Nathan Rees announced on 7 May 2009 that Veolia Water has been issued the first licence under the Water Industry Competition Act 2006 to construct, maintain and operate a new recycled water plant at Fairfield, Sydney Australia, as part of the Rosehill Recycling Scheme.

The Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility

US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water

Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.

US govt to invest US$ 135 million in water reuse

The US Department of the Interior announced on 15 April 2009 the investment of US$1 billion under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) in America's water infrastructure to create jobs and get the economy moving again. Of this, US$ 135 million is available for grants for water reuse and recycling projects.

New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report

By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.

UK seawater desalination may become necessary, says IMechE report

Seawater desalination may become necessary in the United Kingdom if precipitation does not provide sufficient water, according to a report Climate change: adapting to the inevitable published in February 2009 by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Obama government allocates US$ 126 million for water recycling

The new US government led by President Obama is to provide US$ 126 million for water recycling projects, alongside US$ 6 billion for state potable water programmes and many other water funding resources.

B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling

Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.

Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project

The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.

Shell Australia refinery moves to 95% recycling

An agreement to construct a major water-recycling plant at Shell Australia's Geelong refinery has been approved by the company and Barwon Water.

CalAm opts for recycling over desalination

In a testimony supporting a major groundwater replenishment project, president of water supplier, California American Water (CalAm), Rob MacLean, has told the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) the proposed project was preferable to building a large desalinated facility.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

Aquatech system reuses Indian auto-plant effluent

A contract to provide a membrane-based effluent recycling system for an automotive manufacturing facility located in North India's National Capital Region (NCR) has been awarded to Aquatech.

WRA aims outreach workshops at California CII sector

The WateReuse Association is organising outreach workshops in California on commercial, industrial and institutional (CII) water recycling aimed at business owners, plant engineers, utility managers, consultants and other industry experts.

Large wastewater reuse scheme planned for part of Delhi

Reuse of 40 MIGD (182,000 m³/d) of wastewater for direct non-potable or indirect potable uses will be provided for 3-4 million people in Delhi, India, under a partnership led by consultant CH2M Hill.

Degrémont to run all Perth's water and wastewater

France's Degrémont, which built the first Perth desalination plant in 2006, is to operate and maintain all the Western Australian city's water and wastewater assets for 10 years with a possible 5-year extension.

Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published

The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.

Abigroup to build Kooragang wastewater reuse plant

Construction of the Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme (KIWS) in New South Wales, Australia, is to be carried out by Abigroup under an Aus$ 40 million (US$ 40 million) contract.

US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes

The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.

Australia failing to meet wastewater reuse targets

Australia is falling well behind in the targets it has set itself for wastewater reuse, according to a study carried out for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities by Marsden Jacob Associates (MJA).

GE-Osmoflo alliance creates powerful Australian presence

A strategic alliance giving Australian desalination and water recycling company Osmoflo access to products produced by water and process giant GE was unveiled at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 6 September 2011.

Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project

Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.

Dr Michael Lamminen

Parkson appoints international business director

Water recycling and treatment specialist Parkson Corporation has named Dr Michael Lamminen to a new post of international business director to market the company's lineup of cost-efficient and environmentally-sustainable technology around the world.

Radcliffe to chair Australian water recycling committee

Dr John Radcliffe, who currently chairs the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences & Engineering (ATSE) Water Forum, has been appointed chairperson of the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence Research Advisory Committee.

National government funds agreed for Adelaide expansion

An agreement for Australian government funding of Aus$ 228 million (US$ 232 million) towards the expansion of the Adelaide Desalination Plant to 100 million m³/year has been finalised by the Australian and South Australian governments, as part of the national government's total commitment of Aus$ 328 million (US$ 333 million) towards the plant.

MWD move will not affect Carlsbad desalination, says Poseidon

Poseidon Resources on 16 June 2011 denied reports that the current standoff in Southern California between the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) and the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) will affect the Carlsbad Desalination Project.

Degremont-Marubeni JV wins Doha wastewater reuse extension

Qatar's Public Works Authority has awarded a € 65 million contract for expanding the Doha West membrane-based wastewater treatment and recycling plant to a joint venture of France's Degrémont and Japan's Marubeni Corporation.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

Gujarat state to go for solar desalination

The Indian state of Gujarat is to develop solar-based desalination along its coasts on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner, the state's chief minister Shri Narendra Modi announced on 22 March 2011.

California board offers low-interest water‑reuse finance

California's Water Resources Control Board (WRCB) has approved new low-interest financing terms for water-recycling projects that can be completed within three years of governor Jerry Brown's drought declaration on 17 January 2014.

August Rocky Mountain reuse workshop set for Golden

This year's Rocky Mountain Water Reuse Workshop is to be held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, on 14 August 2014.

West Basin rehires United Water for water‑reuse plant

Suez subsidiary United Water has been awarded a renewed contract by West Basin Municipal Water District in California to continue to operate and maintain the Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility including four satellite plants.

Australian study looks at reuse scheme economics

A study has just been published in Australia on development of a holistic framework for rigorous assessment of the economics of non-potable recycled water schemes, including residential, industrial, municipal and agricultural schemes.

Direct membrane filtration simplifies reuse process

Recent trials have proven that direct membrane filtration of high solids (algae) and disinfection provides a simpler treatment process with substantial cost reduction. In Pillbara, Australia, two plants are being constructed to treat wastewater for recycling aiming for a 4-log removal of bacteria and viruses by filtering alone. Ultraviolet treatment provides the final requirement to reach the required 6-log removal rate. This article gives an overview of the application, and details on the technology and design used. It first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Flowback water quality variability

Recycling Flowback and Produced Water in Tight-Oil Development

One of the most lively presentations at the recent International Desalination Association conference in Banff, Canada, came from local consultant Roberta Wasylishen, who described what is was like for a water engineer to get access to oil & gas projects in order to do a water treatment assessment. This article is based on her investigation and includes information on frac, flowback and produced water. This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

California to promote reuse and streamline permitting

In the future, most new water in California will come from a combination of improved conservation and water use efficiency, conjunctive use (coordinated management of local surface and groundwater), recycled water, drinking water treatment, groundwater remediation, and desalination.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.

SWMOA workshop announced for El Segundo in December

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced an Operator Training Workshop on 5 December 2013.

Saudi's PIF is upping its stake in Acwa Power

Saudi's PIF to raise stake in Acwa Power

Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund (PIF) is to raise its stake in Acwa Power to 40 per cent up from 25 per cent, reports Reuters.

Southern California reused-water purchase agreed

The Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) and the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (SDLAC) signed a 30‑year recycled water purchase agreement on 29 August 2013, which will eliminate the need for water from northern California and the Colorado river for groundwater recharge.

Wade Miller stepping down as WateReuse director

The executive director of the WateReuse Association and the WateReuse Research Foundation, G Wade Miller, announced on 8 August 2013 his resignation from the two organizations effective 31 March 2014.


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