Recycling, Chemicals, Safety
Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group
Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.
Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations
More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.
Australia urged to recycle more water for urban supplies
Greater use of recycled water in Australia's water supplies was called for on 29 November 2010 by James Cameron, acting CEO of the National Water Commission (NWC).
GE reasserts policy proposals for water reuse
Engineering giant, GE, has again urged policymakers to consider four major policy options for water recycling and reuse first unveiled at Water Arabia 2015 in February this year.
"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee
Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
American Chemistry Council wants bigger say on new EPA panel
The American Chemistry Council has called on the US Environmental Protection Agency to expand its new Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals (SACC) to include representatives from the chemicals industry, reports Chemical Watch.
GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor
GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.
PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation
The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
IDE to supply desalination for Teck copper mine
IDE is to design and supply a modular desalination plant for Teck Resources' Quebrada Blanca copper mine extension project in northern Chile.
De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules
De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.
Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader
Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?
SWCC to shape up operations as privatisation begins
Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has hired DuPont Sustainable Solutions (DSS) to brush up operational performance across the organisation in preparation for privatisation.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing
Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.
Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE
Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Mechanical pipe joints perform under pressure
Since their introduction nearly 100 years ago, mechanical grooved piping systems have provided a wide range of performance benefits for system designers, installers and end users, writes Len Swantek, director, global regulatory compliance, Victualic.
US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops
Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.
Xylem to join US trade mission to India
Water technology company, Xylem, has been selected to participate in the US Department of Commerce's Smart Cities Infrastructure Business Development Mission to India, 8-12 February.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project
Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.
CH2M reuse promotion drive picks up Stockholm prize
Colorado-based service and engineering company, CH2M, has won the 2015 Stockholm International Water Institute's (SIWI's) Stockholm Industry Water Award, for developing and advancing methods to clean water and increasing public acceptance of recycled water.
CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India
Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.
Brussels seeks options on how to up water reuse
A European Union (EU) public consultation on "policy options to optimise water reuse in the EU" is approaching its close as the bloc seeks to exploit a "significant potential for further development of water reuse" among member states.
Hinman to take chair at CH2M Hill
President and chief executive officer of engineering consultant CH2M Hill, Jacqueline Hinman, will take up her new appointment as chairman of the board at the company on 18 September.
IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site
IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.
SEDA workshop to look at membrane pilot testing
The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) is to hold a workshop in Florida in April on Pilot Testing of Integrated Membrane Systems.
SEDA announces certification school in April 2014
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a membrane operator certification short school on Introduction to Membrane Systems in Florida in April 2014.
H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts
H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.
Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio
The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).
SWCC lets systems contract for RO training room
Cyprus-incorporated Hyperion Systems Engineering announced on 16 September 2013 that it would supply a generic operator training simulator (OTS) system for the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia.
IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant
The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.
Brochure online for SEDA Fall Symposium
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) now has the brochure online for its Fall Symposium, titled Membranes: That's Where Water is Headed, on 23- 25 November 2011 in Clearwater, Florida.
Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project
Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.
High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater
California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.
CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March
Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Adelaide plant delayed by four months
The Adelaide desalination plant is four months behind schedule, South Australia's minister for water, Paul Caica, announced on 28 August 2010.
Floating Saudi desalination barges relaunched
Saudi Arabia's two floating water desalination barges have been moved from Shuquaiq to Yanbu, and the first was relaunched on 7 July 2010 by Fehied F Al-Shareef, governor of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Engineer Nabil Azmaruli, general manager of the General Directorate of Water in Al-Madina.
Chinese Desalination Society joins unconventional-water seminar
A national seminar on Unconventional Water-Use Technology is to be held in Urumqi in Xinjiang province, China, from 5-9 August 2009 to discuss sea- and brackish-water desalination and use of flood water.
Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant
Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
High-flow cartridges provide safety filter solution for RO
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in membrane technology in China. It has been widely used in many fields, including seawater desalination, power plants, metallurgic, petrochemical, and municipal and wastewater reuse. This article looks at the use of safety filters for RO systems and how a high-flow filter can avoid build-up of microorganisms and consequent frequent filter change. A paper factory project provides a case study. Significant advantages including high flow-rate and long service-time help Horizon's RZ filter cartridge to occupy an important position in safety filtration for the membrane water-treatment market in China. It displays superior applicability to those large-scale and super large-scale plants operated in recent years. At the same time, RZ filter cartridges have shown fine performance when handling raw water with complicated quality or large fluctuations. Compared with regular cartridges, RZ filter cartridges provide an excellent solution to safety filtration of membrane water treatment because of their longer service life, smaller investment and lower change-out cost. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
Antiscalant removes need for acid in wastewater RO
Field trials of a new scale-inhibiting chemical for use with reverse-osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse plants show that, at a low dose rate, it can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times, obviating the need for using dangerous and costly acid. Current design practices for large effluent reuse projects are focused on a combination of removing phosphate by precipitation prior to the RO plant and acid dosing to reduce pH to 6.0 and hence increase calcium phosphate solubility to prevent fouling. Conventional antiscalants are ineffective at high phosphate and high recovery rates, and the only other option has been to dose large quantities of acid to reduce feed pH to below 6.2. Reducing the pH from 7.5 to 6.0 on a 2,700 m /day plant would require 0.5 to 1 ton of 95% sulphuric acid per day. Handling this quantity of acid is an environmental, health, safety and logistical problem that many plant operators would like to move away from. The results from the field trials show that using a highly active threshold inhibiting antiscalant such as Genesys PHO at a low dose rate of 2 -5 mg/L can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
NASA approves space-station wastewater reuse
In a giant leap for wastewater reuse, NASA, the US federal space agency, gave the green light on 20 May 2009 to the Expedition 19 astronauts aboard the International Space Station to drink reused wastewater from the station's new recycling system.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Bay Area reuse expansion fails to pass US Representatives
The Bay Area Regional Water Recycling Program Expansion Act of 2009, which sought to amend the Reclamation Wastewater & Groundwater Study & Facilities Act to expand the Bay Area Regional Water Recycling Program (BARWRP) in California, USA, failed to gain a necessary two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives on 30 September 2009.
NWRI publishes California recycling white paper
The US National Water Research Institute has published a white paper, cosponsored by WateReuse California, which highlights the need for more effort in advancing the use of recycled water in California.
DRACE wins Melbourne recycling design contract
City West Water, the water supply company for Melbourne, Australia, has awarded Spanish contractor DRACE medioambiente, in joint venture with Tedagua, an Aus$ 36.5 million (US$ 30.4 million) design contract for a water recycling system.
US export finance boost for water and energy projects
US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Nominated USEPA chief drops "direct potable reuse" hint
Probably for the very first time, a US government nominee has admitted the possibility of direct potable water reuse, as well as pointing to increases in water recycling and desalination.
Victoria urged to set new reuse and desalination goals
A committee set up by the Victoria state government in Australia has recommended that enforceable water recyling and reuse targets at Melbourne's sewage treatment plants should be raised to 50% by 2012 and 70% by 2015.
Chinese visitors for West Basin water-reuse plant
California's West Basin Municipal Water district announced on 26 April 2013 that earlier in the month it had received a visit from a group of public and private administrators from China interested to learn about water recycling facilities and the management experiences of US enterprises in wastewater treatment.
Bill seeks funding for six San Francisco reuse projects
Six more water reuse projects in the San Francisco Bay area would be eligible for US federal funding if a bill introduced in the House of Representatives on 14 May 2009 is passed.
Veolia given Sydney wastewater reuse licence
New South Wales premier Nathan Rees announced on 7 May 2009 that Veolia Water has been issued the first licence under the Water Industry Competition Act 2006 to construct, maintain and operate a new recycled water plant at Fairfield, Sydney Australia, as part of the Rosehill Recycling Scheme.
US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water
Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.
US govt to invest US$ 135 million in water reuse
The US Department of the Interior announced on 15 April 2009 the investment of US$1 billion under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) in America's water infrastructure to create jobs and get the economy moving again. Of this, US$ 135 million is available for grants for water reuse and recycling projects.
New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report
By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.
West Australia looks at five desalination options
The Water Corporation in Western Australia is looking at five options for desalination as part of its draft plan Water Forever: Directions for Our Water Future published on 9 March 2009 for public comment.
UK seawater desalination may become necessary, says IMechE report
Seawater desalination may become necessary in the United Kingdom if precipitation does not provide sufficient water, according to a report Climate change: adapting to the inevitable published in February 2009 by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Obama government allocates US$ 126 million for water recycling
The new US government led by President Obama is to provide US$ 126 million for water recycling projects, alongside US$ 6 billion for state potable water programmes and many other water funding resources.
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project
The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.
Shell Australia refinery moves to 95% recycling
An agreement to construct a major water-recycling plant at Shell Australia's Geelong refinery has been approved by the company and Barwon Water.
Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers
The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.
Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%
Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.
Aquatech system reuses Indian auto-plant effluent
A contract to provide a membrane-based effluent recycling system for an automotive manufacturing facility located in North India's National Capital Region (NCR) has been awarded to Aquatech.
WRA aims outreach workshops at California CII sector
The WateReuse Association is organising outreach workshops in California on commercial, industrial and institutional (CII) water recycling aimed at business owners, plant engineers, utility managers, consultants and other industry experts.
Large wastewater reuse scheme planned for part of Delhi
Reuse of 40 MIGD (182,000 m³/d) of wastewater for direct non-potable or indirect potable uses will be provided for 3-4 million people in Delhi, India, under a partnership led by consultant CH2M Hill.
Degrémont to run all Perth's water and wastewater
France's Degrémont, which built the first Perth desalination plant in 2006, is to operate and maintain all the Western Australian city's water and wastewater assets for 10 years with a possible 5-year extension.
Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published
The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.
Abigroup to build Kooragang wastewater reuse plant
Construction of the Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme (KIWS) in New South Wales, Australia, is to be carried out by Abigroup under an Aus$ 40 million (US$ 40 million) contract.
US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes
The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.
Australia failing to meet wastewater reuse targets
Australia is falling well behind in the targets it has set itself for wastewater reuse, according to a study carried out for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities by Marsden Jacob Associates (MJA).
GE-Osmoflo alliance creates powerful Australian presence
A strategic alliance giving Australian desalination and water recycling company Osmoflo access to products produced by water and process giant GE was unveiled at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 6 September 2011.
Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project
Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.
Parkson appoints international business director
Water recycling and treatment specialist Parkson Corporation has named Dr Michael Lamminen to a new post of international business director to market the company's lineup of cost-efficient and environmentally-sustainable technology around the world.
Radcliffe to chair Australian water recycling committee
Dr John Radcliffe, who currently chairs the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences & Engineering (ATSE) Water Forum, has been appointed chairperson of the Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence Research Advisory Committee.
National government funds agreed for Adelaide expansion
An agreement for Australian government funding of Aus$ 228 million (US$ 232 million) towards the expansion of the Adelaide Desalination Plant to 100 million m³/year has been finalised by the Australian and South Australian governments, as part of the national government's total commitment of Aus$ 328 million (US$ 333 million) towards the plant.
MWD move will not affect Carlsbad desalination, says Poseidon
Poseidon Resources on 16 June 2011 denied reports that the current standoff in Southern California between the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) and the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) will affect the Carlsbad Desalination Project.
Degremont-Marubeni JV wins Doha wastewater reuse extension
Qatar's Public Works Authority has awarded a € 65 million contract for expanding the Doha West membrane-based wastewater treatment and recycling plant to a joint venture of France's Degrémont and Japan's Marubeni Corporation.
Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin
Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Gujarat state to go for solar desalination
The Indian state of Gujarat is to develop solar-based desalination along its coasts on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner, the state's chief minister Shri Narendra Modi announced on 22 March 2011.
More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia
Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.
Water-reuse education centre opens in Sydney
The Water Recycling Education Centre was been officially opened on 21 February 2011 in the St Marys suburb of Sydney, Australia, by water minister Phillip Costa today in St Marys, adding to the community education resources of Sydney Water.
Marubeni takes 40% stake in Osmoflo
Marubeni Corporation of Japan has taken a 40% stake in Adelaide-based Osmoflo, Australia's leading locally owned desalination company.
Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech
Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.
Seprotech appoints new CEO and president
Ottawa-based Seprotech Systems Inc, developer of CrystalBlue membrane-based water recycling systems, announced a new chairman and CEO on 27 January 2011,
GHD leads Sydney water recycling consortium
A consortium led by engineering consultants GHD has been selected by the City of Sydney, Australia, to develop a decentralised water masterplan for the Local Government Area (LGA), which would include Australia's first city-wide recycled water network and significantly reduce demands on drinking water supplies.
Desalination tops user growth in membrane chemicals
The global market for membrane chemicals was worth US$ 1,013.8 million in 2013 and is expected to show a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.1% to 2020 according to a report by market researcher, Future Market Insights. And desalination was expected to witness the highest end use sector growth of 11.4% between 2014 and 2020.
Hunter Water to look at desalination/reuse again
Desalination and water reuse are back on the table as options for the future water supply of the Hunter Valley area of New South Wales, Australia, following the state government's axing of the Tillegra dam on 28 November 2010.
Australia's first groundwater replenishment trial launched
Western Australia's water minister, Graham Jacobs, launched Australia's first Groundwater Replenishment Trial on 30 November 2010, which research indicates may be cheaper than desalination.
CalAm opts for recycling over desalination
In a testimony supporting a major groundwater replenishment project, president of water supplier, California American Water (CalAm), Rob MacLean, has told the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) the proposed project was preferable to building a large desalinated facility.