Qatar, Sweden, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality


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Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars

Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.

Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia

Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.

Qatar ups desalination capacity

Qatar has upped its desalination capacity by 144 Ml/d after Qatar Electricity and Water's (QEWC's) inauguration of its US$ 504 million, Ras Abu Fontas multi-stage flash distillation plant A2. And QEWC has commenced construction work on its Ras Abu Fontas A3 desalination plant at Ras Abu Fontas, near Al Wakra.

Qatar to set up US$ 500 million reverse osmosis desalination plant

Qatar utility, Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) is set to establish a US$ 500-million, reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant that will produce freshwater at 136 Ml/d.



Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

Norit UF membranes for Swedish water treatment

A surface-water treatment plant that will be used to supply Göteborg, Sweden's second largest city, is to use ultrafiltration (UF) technology supplied by Norit X-Flow of the Netherlands.

GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor

GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.

Qatar and Sweden will hold technical workshops on a project to fuel desalination entirely by solar and wind power

Qatar and Sweden plot renewables-fuelled desalination project

A renewables-fuelled desalination project aiming to produce water for $1/m3 is to be jointly developed by Qatar and Sweden, reports The Peninsular.

MD developer seeking US powerplant partners

Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Degremont-Marubeni JV wins Doha wastewater reuse extension

Qatar's Public Works Authority has awarded a € 65 million contract for expanding the Doha West membrane-based wastewater treatment and recycling plant to a joint venture of France's Degrémont and Japan's Marubeni Corporation.

Part of the Ras Laffan C desalination plant.

MED/TVC desalination plant inaugurated in Qatar

The Ras Laffan C power and desalination plant in Qatar was officially opened on 31 May 2011 in the presence of the emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, and Gérard Mestrallet, chairman and CEO of GDF Suez.

Large wastewater expansion in Qatar to use UF

Indian engineering and construction company Larsen & Toubro announced on 11 May 2010 that its business unit had secured a contract for Doha South Sewage Treatment Works, Qatar, involving ultrafiltration technology.

Ras Laffan desalination plant sold to Qatar water company

The 40 MIGD (180,000 m³/d) Ras Laffan desalination plant in Qatar is to be owned in future by the Qatar Electricity & Water Company (QEWC).

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

Prince launches Ras Girtas desalination construction

Crown prince Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani of Qatar took part in a ceremony on 4 May 2009 to mark the start of construction of the Ras Girtas Power & Water Project in the Ras Laffan industrial zone.

Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant

Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA™ ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.

Japanese duo bags Qatar power and water contract

Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) has selected a Japanese consortium of Mitsubishi Corporation and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco), named K1 Energy, to build an electricity and water plant comprising a 590,000 m³/d desalination facility and a 2.4 GW gas-fired power station at Umm Al Houl, 20km south of the city of Doha.

Doosan bags order from Samsung for Qatar treatment plant

Doosan Hydro Technology has won an order from South Korean engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contractor, Samsung Construction and Trading, for the water and wastewater treatment system on the Qatar Facility D integrated water and power production project.

Qatar agrees funding for Ras Abu Fontas MSF plant

A financing package worth US$ 450 million for the A2 desalination plant at Ras Abu Fontas has been finalized by the Qatar Electricity & Water Co, the company announced on 26 September 2013.

Mitsubishi contracts Hitachi for Qatar desalination plant

Qatar Electricity & Water Company has contracted a consortium of Mitsubishi Corporation and Toyo Thai Corporation Public Company Limited (TTCL), to build the Ras Abu Fontas (RAF) A2 seawater desalination plant.

Qatar prepared for soaring water demand

Requirements for water and power in Qatar are expected to soar by more than 50% by 2022 according to estimates from the state owned utility the Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa).

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution

A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

Locations of the Toray contracts.

Toray wins Gulf quartet

Toray Industries Inc announced in September that its reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane business had won orders from four seawater desalination plants with a total capacity of 332,000 m³/d in the Gulf.

Qatari research aims to

The Qatar Electricity and Water Company (QEWC) and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop two pilot projects that could 'radically reduce the cost and energy use' of desalination.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

Acciona venture wins Qatar deals

Spanish desalination firm, Acciona Agua, has won two major desalination contracts in Qatar worth US$ 525 million as part of a joint venture with Mitsubishi Corporation and Toyo Thai Corporation.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Fredrik Östbye has a brief to effect a digital transformation at Grundfos

Pumps-as-a-service: the future beckons

On 1 May 2017, Fredrik Ostbye, a Swedish entrepreneur with a track record of digital product development, joined the 72-year old Danish pumps manufacturer Grundfos in the newly created role of group vice president and head of digital transformation.

CH2M Hill hires UK engineer as water operations chief

CH2M Hill announced on 4 August 2009 that British civil engineer Neil Reynolds has joined the Denver-based firm as international operations director for the Water Business Group.

Swedish pumps for Adelaide desalination plant

The Wastewater Technology Solutions division of Swedish company Cardo AB has signed a contract to supply and install pumps for the Adelaide seawater desalination plant in Australia.

B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling

Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.

Securing Water for Food is backed by four global governments to develop innovations at the meeting point of water and agriculture

Call for innovations in water, women and agriculture

The US, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden have again joined forces to offer millions of dollars to innovators who enhance food productivity by improving water efficiency in agriculture.

Xylem to distribute GE membrane filtration products

Xylem Inc, the ITT water technology spin-off officially launched on 1 November 2011, has signed up to be GE's distribution partner into the public utilities market for its advanced membrane filtration products.

South Africa looks to the sea

South Africa's Department of Water and Sanitation is considering desalinating seawater to help ease the country's water problems as it struggles amid its worst drought in more than 20 years.



IDA awards 2015 fellowship to environmental researcher

The IDA has awarded its prestigious 2014-15 Fellowship to Dr Raed AI Bashitialshaaer, of Lund University, Sweden.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality

The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year

Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.

Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California

The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'

The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.

USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

Ras Abu Fontas A3 seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant will supply a million inhabitants including in Qatar's capital city, Doha

Qatar's first big seawater RO plant is nearly complete

The first large scale seawater RO plant in Qatar, Ras Abu Fontas A3, is to complete by the end of March 2017, reports Gulf Times.

Suez's international business helped to drive group performance in 2016

Suez buoyed by strong International division

Suez has reported organic revenue growth of 1.1 per cent for the year ended December 2016, driven by a 4.7 per cent rise at its International division.

Qatar wants to build new water facilities to support development works ahead of the 2022 World Cup

Qatar looks to boost capacity ahead of 2022 World Cup

Qatar is to expand its desalination capacity to support construction works ahead of the 2022 World Cup, and in line with the country's transformation plan Vision 2030, Qatari newspaper Al Sharq reports.

EDS urges knowledge sharing at Rome conference

The European Desalination Society (EDS) conference opened on Monday (23 May) with calls for greater collaboration among desalination professionals to address the rising gap between water supply and demand worldwide.

Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test

Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.

Researchers share industry prize for fouling research

Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.

AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant

The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit

High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.

Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India

Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force

The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit

The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.

First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant

The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

Orange County loses widely respected lab director

Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.

Qatar power firm to launch desalination plants

Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) is set to launch two giant desalination plants.

Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders

Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.

ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor

Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations

Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.

Developing membrane distillation for desalination brines

Membrane distillation is the subject of a great deal of research and development around the world, as D&WR has often reported. In Qatar, the emphasis is on using it to produce a high-quality distillate from high-salinity brines rejected from thermal desalination. The team has proved the viability of the process and is now testing it under real field conditions This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three

The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti

Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.

Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant

The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.

West Basin desalination demo could begin next year

Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.

Clockwise from top left: Stan Williams, Jonathan Loveland and Chris Costello.

Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director

Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.

San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue

San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.

Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months

The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

The stories that dominated Water. desal + reuse's headlines in 2017

Water. desal + reuse: Top 20 stories for 2017

Water. desal + reuse presents the stories that caught the industry's collective interest in 2017.

Qatar backs Palestinian water projects

The Qatar Development Fund has signed up to back Middle East Desalination Research Center (MERDC) projects in Palestine and Jordan.

Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

Qatar researchers trial membrane distillation system

Researchers at Qatar University College of Engineering, in collaboration with a team from petrochemical giant, ConocoPhillips' Global Water Sustainability Centre, have developed low- carbon desalination technology, membrane distillation.

Cosin calls for better water education, warns of project delays

CEO of Almar Water Solutions Carlos Cosin has warned of potential delays to projects owing to a skills shortage in the water industry, and has proposed creating a new Masters in Water degree to plug the skills gap.

The Resource Watch platform from the World Resources Institute used global horizontal irradiance (GHI), a proxy for the strength and concentration of star energy hitting a PV panel, to create the ranking

Top 20 water-stressed countries with solar potential

The World Resources Institute (WRI) has named the world's top 20 most water-stressed countries which have the most solar energy potential.

Israel to join top ten water stressed by 2040

The US-based World Resources Institute has forecast that Israel will be among the world's ten most water stressed regions by 2040. Almost half of those regions will be in the Middle East according to recent report by the institute.

Texas wastewater plant includes GE pre treatment

The city of Abilene, Texas has completed its installation of GE's membrane bioreactor technology, the LEAPmbr wastewater treatment system, as part of a major upgrade to the city's Hamby Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Qala village is at the eastern most point of Gozo Island, close to the main Maltese archipelago

Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project

The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant

The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.

Aerial view of the Yuma desalting plant, Arizona

Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears

Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.

USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants

Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.

Matt Jones (left) of Desalitech, and American Water Chemicals’ Mo Malki present the new closed-circuit modelling within the Proton anti-scaling software, at the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018

Proton compares closed-circuit versus conventional RO

Proton anti-scaling software from Amercian Water Chemicals was first introduced at the AMTA Conference in 2014. The platform's innovative approach to modelling membrane treatment systems which, unlike other anti-scalant predictors, accounts for ion complexes and ion activity in water, and differentiates between nano-filtration and reverse osmosis membranes, enabled it to improve on the accuracy of predicting water quality and chemical dosing requirements.


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