Qatar, greenhouse gas, Energy, Water Treatment, greenhouse gas, China,renewable- Energy


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China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

Australian wave-energy desalination pilot to get funding

Australia's Carnegie Wave Energy announced on 28 February 2013 that it had received a government grant of Aus$ 1.27 million (US$ 1.30 million) to support a wave-powered seawater desalination demonstration project.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

Water Corporation cooperates on wave-energy desalination

Western Australia's Water Corporation has signed a cooperation agreement to support the wave-powered seawater desalination pilot project proposed by Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Doosan bags order from Samsung for Qatar treatment plant

Doosan Hydro Technology has won an order from South Korean engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contractor, Samsung Construction and Trading, for the water and wastewater treatment system on the Qatar Facility D integrated water and power production project.

Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants

Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).

Location of the Carlsbad desalination plant by the Encina power station.

Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead

Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).

Japanese duo bags Qatar power and water contract

Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) has selected a Japanese consortium of Mitsubishi Corporation and Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco), named K1 Energy, to build an electricity and water plant comprising a 590,000 m³/d desalination facility and a 2.4 GW gas-fired power station at Umm Al Houl, 20km south of the city of Doha.

Prince launches Ras Girtas desalination construction

Crown prince Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani of Qatar took part in a ceremony on 4 May 2009 to mark the start of construction of the Ras Girtas Power & Water Project in the Ras Laffan industrial zone.

Ras Laffan desalination plant sold to Qatar water company

The 40 MIGD (180,000 m³/d) Ras Laffan desalination plant in Qatar is to be owned in future by the Qatar Electricity & Water Company (QEWC).

Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia

Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

"Significant" impacts from Monterey desalination says draft report

Whichever of the three desalination-based proposals for future water supply on the Monterey peninsula in California is eventually implemented, there would be "significant and unavoidable" environmental impacts.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Mitsubishi contracts Hitachi for Qatar desalination plant

Qatar Electricity & Water Company has contracted a consortium of Mitsubishi Corporation and Toyo Thai Corporation Public Company Limited (TTCL), to build the Ras Abu Fontas (RAF) A2 seawater desalination plant.

Qatar ups desalination capacity

Qatar has upped its desalination capacity by 144 Ml/d after Qatar Electricity and Water's (QEWC's) inauguration of its US$ 504 million, Ras Abu Fontas multi-stage flash distillation plant A2. And QEWC has commenced construction work on its Ras Abu Fontas A3 desalination plant at Ras Abu Fontas, near Al Wakra.

Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant

Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA™ ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

California county mulls tapping into nuclear plant desalination

As part of its plans to combat ongoing severe drought, California's San Luis Obispo County (SLO) is considering the construction of a 10 km pipeline to tap into the spare capacity of a desalination plant currently providing only the needs of a nuclear power plant.

Qatar to set up US$ 500 million reverse osmosis desalination plant

Qatar utility, Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) is set to establish a US$ 500-million, reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant that will produce freshwater at 136 Ml/d.



Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Degremont-Marubeni JV wins Doha wastewater reuse extension

Qatar's Public Works Authority has awarded a € 65 million contract for expanding the Doha West membrane-based wastewater treatment and recycling plant to a joint venture of France's Degrémont and Japan's Marubeni Corporation.

Carlsbad project plan for green SWRO

The largest and most advanced seawater desalination project under development in the USA today is the 189,000 m³/d plant in Carlsbad in southern California. This project is collocated with the Encina coastal power generation station, which currently uses seawater for once-through cooling. The Carlsbad seawater desalination project is developed as a public-private partnership between Poseidon Resources and eight utilities and municipalities in San Diego County. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with production of desalinated seawater at the Carlsbad project are planned to be mitigated by a portfolio of alternative technologies and measures: from the use of CO2 for water production, green building design and of state-of-the-art technology; to the development of on-site and off-site green energy projects and CO2 sequestration by reforestation and new coastal wetlands. The mix of GHG reduction alternatives will be prioritized and implemented under a Carbon Action Plan which defines a roadmap for carbon-neutral seawater desalination. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine

Part of the Ras Laffan C desalination plant.

MED/TVC desalination plant inaugurated in Qatar

The Ras Laffan C power and desalination plant in Qatar was officially opened on 31 May 2011 in the presence of the emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, and Gérard Mestrallet, chairman and CEO of GDF Suez.

Large wastewater expansion in Qatar to use UF

Indian engineering and construction company Larsen & Toubro announced on 11 May 2010 that its business unit had secured a contract for Doha South Sewage Treatment Works, Qatar, involving ultrafiltration technology.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July

The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.

Abengoa takes stake in Beijing-based GreenTech

Spanish desalination and energy contractor Abengoa has acquired 25% of the Beijing-based water company GreenTech.

Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway

The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?

Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Qatar prepared for soaring water demand

Requirements for water and power in Qatar are expected to soar by more than 50% by 2022 according to estimates from the state owned utility the Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa).

Qatar agrees funding for Ras Abu Fontas MSF plant

A financing package worth US$ 450 million for the A2 desalination plant at Ras Abu Fontas has been finalized by the Qatar Electricity & Water Co, the company announced on 26 September 2013.

Renewable-energy desalination community seeks to start association

The renewable-energy (RE) desalination community should organize itself into a body that will represent the sector and lobby for its interests, says a new report.

Acuamed desalination plants to use renewable energy

All the desalination plants owned by Acuamed, the Spanish water supplier, as well as distribution networks and company offices, will be run on renewable energy, the company announced on 22 December 2009.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost

The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Hydranautics commits to Climate Registry

Hydranautics/Nitto Denko of California, USA, has become the first US-based desalination membrane manufacturer to join the Climate Registry and commit itself to reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.

Masdar green desalination competition kicks off

All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

The new power and water facility is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at EGA's smelter by 10 per cent

EGA plans $272 million power and water plant at Jebel Ali

Mubadala and Dubal Holding are developing a new power and desalination facility at Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA)'s smelter in Jebel Ali, Dubai.

California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.

EDS publishes June solar desalination course program

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published the program for its three-day intensive course on Desalination With Solar Energy to be held in Almeria, Spain, on 11‑13 June 2014.

Desalination/reuse in UK/Israel water agreement

Desalination, water reuse and use of renewable energy in desalination and water reclamation were included in an agreement signed on 21 December 2011 between British Water, which represents the UK water industry supply chain, and MATIMOP, the Israeli Industry Centre for Research & Development.

Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.

California approves bond issue for Carlsbad desalination

Poseidon Resources has submitted and had approved an application for US$ 780 million in tax-exempt bonds for the Carlsbad seawater desalination project.

EDS promotes learning on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society is promoting two sets of courses looking at desalination using renewable energies.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Siemens signs wind desalination MoU in Australia

Siemens Australia has announced a partnership with Windesal, a South Australia company using technology designed in Denmark, to develop clean technologies and wind-powered desalination plants.

New South Wales premier switches on Sydney desalination plant

Sydney's seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was switched on by New South Wales premier Kristina Keneally on 28 January 2008, providing water to meet up to 15% of Sydney's water needs.

EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

IWA schedules nanotechnology symposium for China

The International Water Association is to hold a regional symposium on Nanotechnology And Water Treatment in China in 2013.

IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions

Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.

Tri-Tech to expand large UF/NF plant in China

The City of Ordos in China is to build what will be the largest water treatment plant in the world using ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) when it expands its existing plant to 148,000 m³/d.

Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base

Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Memcor 150,000m³/d UF system for Wuxi, China

Wuxi Water Supply General Company in China's Jiangsu Province has awarded a contract to Siemens Water Technologies to supply a turnkey water treatment solution for Wuxi Zhongqiao Water Supply Co Ltd. Centerpiece of the solution will be a Memcor ultrafiltration membrane system.

China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development

A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."

Aquatech implementing ZLD for Chinese fertilizer plant

A concentrated brine treatment plant for a Chinese fertilizer is to be provided by Aquatech in the city of Ordos in the Inner Mongolia region.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner

UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.

The Aqualyng Recuperator energy-recovery device.

Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant

Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Consultant launches water-energy advice service

Sacramento-based GEI Consultants Inc announced on16 July 2012 the launch of a national water-energy advisory service to complement its well-established water resources consulting services.

Saltworks test rig with evaporation pond surrounded by windbreak.

Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost

Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).

Suez's international business helped to drive group performance in 2016

Suez buoyed by strong International division

Suez has reported organic revenue growth of 1.1 per cent for the year ended December 2016, driven by a 4.7 per cent rise at its International division.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Chinese website and new director for Modern Water

UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Desalitech wins zero liquid deal in China

Desalitech has won a deal to supply a high-efficiency, ultrapure water treatment system for Novelis' aluminium production facility in Changzhou, China to help comply with a regulatory requirement for zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) in applicable process wastewaters. 

Aquatech wins China deal with zero liquid discharge

Industrial and infrastructure water purification technology firm, Aquatech, has won a contract to provide water treatment with zero liquid discharge (ZLD) for a coal to liquid fuels (CTL) conversion project in China.

Quindao desalination event gets IDA support

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced its support for the 2012 Qingdao International Desalination Conference, jointly organized by China Desalination Association (CDA) and other groups, and supported by Asia-Pacific Desalination Association and related countries.

Major Chinese desalination week in Guangzhou

The China Desalination Association (CDA) is cooperating with the Qingdao International Desalination Center and the China Foreign Trade Exhibition Corp to organize the China (Guangzhou) Water Week on 23‑25 February 2012.

United Envirotech buys Xinmin wastewater concession

Membrane treatment specialist United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) announced on 3 October 2011 that the group has exercised a call option to acquire the entire equity interest of Tongji Environmental (China) Pte Ltd, the holding company for Aton Environmental (Shenyang) Co Ltd, for RMB 34.03 million (US$ 5.34 million).

IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project

Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.


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