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Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.

Community water-reuse manual published

The WateReuse Association announced on 22 October 2009 a new publication designed to help communities create a sustainable, drought-proof reclaimed water supply, while protecting public health and the environment.

Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

The new manual, Harmful Algal Blooms and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring, and Management, synthesizes knowledge from multiple case studies

First guide to harmful algal blooms launches at IDA World Congress 2017

UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) introduced the world's first guide to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on Tuesday 17 October 2017, at IDA World Congress.

UN gives EIA guidance for desalination

In September 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme released a new guidance document entitled Desalination - Resource and Guidance Manual for Environmental Impact Assessments.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation

The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.

Sydney's desalination plant

Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water

The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water

The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.

China is fast-tracking legislation to expand the use of seawater for industrial and domestic purposes

China publishes details of country's desalination capacity

A new report on seawater usage in China published by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) has revealed that the country produces 1.18 million m3/d of desalinated water, reports Xinhuanet.com.

Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader

South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.

IDA Newsletter goes electronic

The International Desalination Association has just published the first issue of its IDA Newsletter, the March/April 2011 issue, in electronic format. This version will be sent to IDA members directly every two months.

Mexican desalination plant to tender soon

Comision Estadal Del Agua De Baja California (CEA) in Mexico is to build a 21,600 m³/d desalination plant in the city of Ensenada, to be tendered with a 40% federal contribution towards its estimated cost of Peso 351.900 million (US$ 28.8 million). The successful tenderer will contribute the remaining 60%.

Second Singapore desalination plant to be launched soon

Singapore will soon be unveiling plans for a second desalination plant, Teo Chee Hean, deputy prime minister and minister for defence, said at the opening ceremony for the Singapore International Water Week on 28 June 2010.

The coastal city of Ashdod, Israel, is home to the desalination plant that was intended to supply 100,000 m3/d of potable water

Mekorot could sell plants as it looks to restructure

Israel's national water company Mekorot is restructuring and may sell off parts of its portfolio after running into financial difficulty, reports Israeli business publication, TheMarker.

The global desalination journal known as 'the quarterly' gets a smart new look in print and online.

'The quarterly' rebrands as Water. desalination + reuse

The magazine Desalination and Water Reuse -- affectionately known as 'the quarterly', its website desalination.biz, and social channels, today rebrand as Water. desalination + reuse, bringing a refreshed business intelligence offer to desalination professionals worldwide.

Ethanol production water warning from US researchers

Desalination practitioners struggling to reduce the energy consumption of their plants and water engineers fighting shortages might be interested in the following table showing how much water is consumed producing various forms of energy in the USA.

Fresh blow to planned Marin plant

Plans for a desalination plant in Marin, California, suffered a further setback this week, with the publication of an official report suggesting the district has enough water to meet its needs until 2040.

New desalination journal is private publication

The new peer-reviewed journal, Desalination & Water Treatment: Science and Engineering, is being published privately by Miriam Balaban, secretary-general of the European Desalination Society, and not by EDS as previously reported by D&WR.

IDA Journal to debut at Dubai desalination conference

The IDA Journal, a new publication that will include peer-reviewed articles on the technical and scientific aspects of desalination, will debut at the 2009 World Congress of the Internatioanal Desalination Association in Dubai.

Mekorot looking for Ashdod investors

Private investors are being sought by the Israeli national water company Mekorot to take a 40% stake in the planned 274,000 m³/d Ashdod desalination plant, for which it has just been given full responsibility by the Israeli government.

IDE among top twenty smartest companies

In its 50th year in business Israel-based desalination company, IDE Technologies, has been ranked by the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) Technology Review as among the top 20 smartest companies.

Leveraging nanotechnology for next generation seawater desalination

NanoH2O advanced membranes for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination represent a new material that enhances current polymer-based membranes with the benefits of nanotechnology. These nanocomposite RO membranes represent a step-change in productivity through improved permeability while maintaining requisite salt and contaminant rejection. Since the original publication of this concept, further development and optimization of this membrane technology for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has resulted in an enhanced flux of more than double that of a 22.7 m /d (6,000 gpd) commercial baseline with 99.7% salt rejection. Recent seawater field testing of an industry-standard spiral-wound element module including the TFN material combined with a fabric support base topped with a microporous polysulfone layer has supported current laboratory research findings. This article appeared in the May/June issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine

'I see great opportunities in the water utility and building services segment in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.' Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

Five Minutes With: Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

The 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi are among the Grundfos projects to inspire newly-appointed East Asia managing director Hideo Shirakawa

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

'The industry's tendency to evaluate technology on capital cost, as opposed to total lifecycle cost, impedes the application of new technologies,' Joe Gifford, Nanostone

Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development

Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

The IDA International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018 will feature two days of plenary, panel and technical sessions

IDA unveils lineup of speakers for water reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has secured a stellar lineup of keynote speakers for its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018, led by Spain's secretary of state for the environment, Maria Garcia Rodriguez.

The city of Mombasa on the Indian Ocean has an estimated population of 1.2 million

Reports: Mombasa awards desalination contract

Mombasa County, Keyna, has awarded a design, build and operate contract for new desalination capacity, reports Daily Nation.

IDA is seeking original work for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling

IDA issues final call for papers for upcoming reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a final call for abstracts for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling, 24 to 27 June, in Valencia, Spain.

The new desalination plant will provide clean drinking water to two million people in Gaza, Palestine

Gaza large scale desal project secures €456 million funding

The European Investment Bank (EIB) is to issue a tender for Gaza Central Desalination Plant and Associated Works Project, after the scheme received pledges amounting to €456 million ($560 million).

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

Water crises are considered high impact by the World Economic Forum 2018 global risks report

Water crises among top 10 world risks, says Davos report

Water crises are ranked the fifth biggest world risk by impact, before cyberattacks, involuntary migration, and infectious diseases, in the latest global risks report from the World Economic Forum in Davos.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

The island of Gozo, part of Malta, currently relies on groundwater extraction for its water supply

Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island

A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.

WHO's guidance includes case studies on potable reuse from around the world

WHO issues guidance on potable reuse

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has issued guidance on potable reuse for drinking water suppliers and regulators.

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

World Water Day 2017 was the occasion for many new initiatives from desal, reuse, and water industry specialists

Best of World Water Day 2017

Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

Ras Al Khaimah Municipality discovered water impurities and unsafe water bottles across nine desalination stations

Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing

Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.

The site of the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station is ripe for redevelopment as a solar desalination plant, says SolRio

SolRio proposes solar desal for old nuclear power site

SolRio, a US non-profit that supports solar-powered desalination, has proposed turning the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station, California, into a desalination plant.

Gwadar on Pakistan's southwest coast is a key location on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

Pakistan grants approval for SWRO plant in Gwadar

Pakistan has approved plans for a five million gallons a day (23,000 m3/d) seawater reverse osmosis plant in Gwadar, a port city in the southwest, reports Express Tribune.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

Sue Murphy, chief executive of Water Corporation of Western Australia, is finalising plans for the region's next big water source

'We're among the hardest hit by a drying climate,' Sue Murphy, Water Corporation

"The Water Corporation of Western Australia supplies water to two million people connected to the integrated water supply scheme covering our capital city, Perth, the local government area of Mandurah, parts of the South west of the state of Western Australia, and the Goldfields and Agricultural region.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

GE wants to be a leader in data and predictive capabilities for water companies

GE bids to be market leader in digital services for water companies

GE has unveiled a new suite of software as it moves to establish a leading position within digital services for the water industry.

US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops

Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.

Israeli researchers find heart disease link with desalinated water

Researchers at Israel's Bar Ilan University and the Tel HaShomer Hospital have concluded that consumption of desalinated water has upped the incidence of heart disease and increased death rates as a consequence.

Global membrane market growth nears 11%

The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.

Washington state floats new rule to boost water relclamation

A new Washington state draft rule could streamline regulations to encourage reclaimed water use.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

Israel aids Pacific island with mobile desalinator

Israel's ministry of foreign affairs is supplying a truck-mounted desalination facility to the Marshall islands in the Pacific ocean to help tackle the islands' severe water shortage.

California US$ 687 million drought relief bill calls for more reuse

California governor, Jerry Brown, has signed a US$ 687 million drought relief bill that calls on the State Water Resources Control Board and Department of Public Health to devise additional measures to bring on the use of recycled water.

Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China

Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

Biwater bags California reuse contract

UK water technology group Biwater has been awarded a contract to design, supply and commission all process, mechanical, electrical and control components for a planned wastewater reuse demonstration project in California, USA.

Brussels seeks options on how to up water reuse

A European Union (EU) public consultation on "policy options to optimise water reuse in the EU" is approaching its close as the bloc seeks to exploit a "significant potential for further development of water reuse" among member states.

Researchers share industry prize for fouling research

Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.

Solar electrodialysis brings water to off-grid villages

A simple set of solar panels and a battery system connected to an electrodialysis desalination unit could provide fresh water for a typical Indian village according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.

Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant

Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.

Purification plant donation may slow Sri Lankan kidney disease spread

A recently commissioned reverse osmosis water purification plant donated by water treatment company Puritas will help to curb the spread of chronic kidney disease in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka according to the plant owner. Some 400,000 people in the region are understood to be currently affected with the disease.

Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding

US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.

Osmoflo wins US$ 15m wastewater reuse contract

Water and wastewater firm, Osmoflo, has won a US$ 15 million contract for the design, construction and commissioning of a wastewater treatment plant in northern Western Australia to produce reclaimed water for use in irrigation.

San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge

The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.

Florida legislates in favor of water reuse expansion

The state legislature of Florida, USA, on 2 May 2014 passed a bill (SB 536), which directs the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), in coordination with stakeholders, to conduct a comprehensive study and submit a report on the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater and excess surface water in Florida.

Algae biomass membrane order for Denmark's LiqTech

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc has received a purchase order of around US$ 300,000 for a prototype filtration system to be used in an algae biomass project.

Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.

NWMOA Annual Symposium brochure available

The Northwest Membrane Operator Association has published full details of its September 2013 Annual Symposium to be held in Vancouver, Washington, USA.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

MottMac buys up South African engineering firm

Johannesburg-based engineering specialist PD Naidoo & Associates has been acquired by global engineering firm Mott MacDonald.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

Water-reuse bill to be debated in California assembly

A bill to completely revise California's water-reuse legislation was passed for its third reading on 25 May 2012 and will come up on the floor of the state assembly this week.

Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published

The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.

NRDC report urges control and reuse of fracking wastewater

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states should ban or more strictly regulate the discharge of shale gas wastewater (SGW) from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). They should also update pollution control standards for centralised waste treatment facilities (CWTs) that accept SGW.

NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol

A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

UCLA water summit will look at desalination/reuse

Seawater desalination and wastewater reuse will be key topics at a one-day summit on the Future of Water in Southern California to be held by the University of California, Los Angeles, on 27 January 2012.

Kuwait invites bids for Doha desalination plant as Az-Zour is 65% finished

Kuwait's ministry of electricity and water plans to invite bids for the first phase of a new desalination plant at Doha. Separately, construction of the first phase of a US$ 1.4 billion power and water plant at Az-Zour is close to twp-thirds complete.

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

D&WR has bonus August/September issue in Chinese

The bi-annual IDA World Congress is one of the industry's most important events and takes place in Tianjin, China on 20-25 October 2013.

Dr Corrado Sommariva

Sommariva secures International Desalination Association presidency

Dr Corrado Sommariva, managing director of ILF Consultants Middle East, was elected president of the International Desalination Association on 5 September 2011, the first day of the IDA's World Congress in Perth, Australia.

Toray UF membranes online in North Dakota

An ultrafiltration UF system in North Dakota, USA, has become the first large municipal drinking-water system in the US to use Toray HFS-2020 UF membrane modules.

Minton to lead WRRF research programs

Julie Minton has been appointed director of research programs by the WateReuse Research Foundation (WRRF), which conducts and promotes applied research on water reuse and desalination.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).


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