Produced Water, Coal Seam Gas, Water Treatment, Safety
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant
A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract
Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.
IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site
IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project
Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta
Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.
Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water
A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.
Australia's MAK Water buys Clearmake for expansion
Australian reverse-osmosis desalination manufacturer MAK Industrial Water Systems has acquired Queensland-based Clearmake Water Treatment & Recycling Solutions as part of a national expansion strategy across Australia.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts
H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.
IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.
Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group
Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
New Texas desalination plant could reuse fracking water
A new desalination test facility in Loving County, Texas could be deployed in treating water used in hydraulic fracturing - tracking- for shale gas for reuse in the oil industry.
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Nearly 200 abstracts received for AMTA/AWWA conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) says that 193 abstracts have been received for its joint conference next year with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas.
Joint venture aims to treat Texas frac water
A joint venture to treat brackish/produced water sources has been set up in Texas by STW Resources Holding Corp and CK Investments Energy Company (CKI).
Analyst forecasts near doubling of water reuse in fracking industry by 2020
Only 2% the US fracking industry's US$ 6 billion plus outlay on water management in 2014 was spent on treatment of the 70,000 Ml of contaminated water the industry produced according to a report by market analyst Bluefield Research. But the volume of reuse will almost double by 2020.
GE to supply evaporator/ZLD technology for Italian oilfield
GE's advanced evaporator and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology is to be used to recycle up to 98% of produced water at six Total E&P Italia SpA oilwells in the Tempa Rossa field in the Basilicata region of southern Italy.
Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO
Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.
IDE marks Australian push with new Brisbane and Sydney offices
Israeli water treatment company, IDE Technologies, has marked its bid to expand operations in the Australian water treatment and coal seam gas (CSG) industries with new offices in Sydney and Brisbane.
Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer
Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.
Recycling Flowback and Produced Water in Tight-Oil Development
One of the most lively presentations at the recent International Desalination Association conference in Banff, Canada, came from local consultant Roberta Wasylishen, who described what is was like for a water engineer to get access to oil & gas projects in order to do a water treatment assessment. This article is based on her investigation and includes information on frac, flowback and produced water. This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Amiad provides prefiltration for Australian membrane projects
Two very different contracts for prefiltration equipment prior to membrane water treatment and desalination have been won by Amiad in Australia.
GE forms salt-extraction consortium in Australia
An agreement which brings together GE, Penrice Soda Holdings Ltd, Australia's only manufacturer of soda ash and sodium bicarbonate, and Australian coal-seam gas (CSG) producer QGC Pty Ltd was announced on 24 October 2011.
GE-Osmoflo alliance creates powerful Australian presence
A strategic alliance giving Australian desalination and water recycling company Osmoflo access to products produced by water and process giant GE was unveiled at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 6 September 2011.
Q&A: De Nora group CEO Paolo Dellacha on the acquisition of MIOX
Electrochemical tech company De Nora has acquired water purification firm MIOX. De Nora group chief executive Paolo Dellacha explains the thinking behind the deal and what the future holds
Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry
The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.
Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader
Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?
GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor
GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.
SEDA announces certification school in April 2014
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a membrane operator certification short school on Introduction to Membrane Systems in Florida in April 2014.
IDE/Clean Harbours tie-up aims at oil sands clean-up
Desalination designer and constructor IDE Technologies Ltd and US waste and wastewater specialist Clean Harbors today announced a joint research and development (R&D) program to increase the availability and reliability of mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators for treating oil sands produced water in Alberta, Canada.
Nuverra/Haliburton accord on produced-water treatment
Nuverra Environmental Solutions Inc, which until mid-May 2013 was known as Heckmann Corporation, announced on 15 July 2013 that it has entered into an agreement with Halliburton to advance the treatment and recycling of produced water to be reused in the hydraulic fracturing process.
IDA Conference Report
Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference
There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.
Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told
A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.
High-flow cartridges provide safety filter solution for RO
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in membrane technology in China. It has been widely used in many fields, including seawater desalination, power plants, metallurgic, petrochemical, and municipal and wastewater reuse. This article looks at the use of safety filters for RO systems and how a high-flow filter can avoid build-up of microorganisms and consequent frequent filter change. A paper factory project provides a case study. Significant advantages including high flow-rate and long service-time help Horizon's RZ filter cartridge to occupy an important position in safety filtration for the membrane water-treatment market in China. It displays superior applicability to those large-scale and super large-scale plants operated in recent years. At the same time, RZ filter cartridges have shown fine performance when handling raw water with complicated quality or large fluctuations. Compared with regular cartridges, RZ filter cartridges provide an excellent solution to safety filtration of membrane water treatment because of their longer service life, smaller investment and lower change-out cost. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta
GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
Nanobubble specialist Moleaer raises capital, seeks people
Moleaer, the California, US-based water technology firm that developed the XTB Nanobubble Generator has raised $6 million to support overseas expansion.
Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo
Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.
LiqTech ties up oil & gas agreement with FMC
Denmark's LiqTech International Inc announced on 25 March 2013 that it had entered into an agreement with US oilfield equipment and services company FMC Technologies Inc for the use of LiqTech's silicon-carbide membrane technology for oil & gas applications.
Experts slam economics of seabed intake for giant US desalination project
A 250 Ml/d seawater desalination (SWRO) plant planned for Huntington Beach, California using sub seafloor intake pipes was "not economically viable at the Huntington Beach location within a reasonable time frame" according to a recent expert report. The findings could jeopardise the Huntingdon project because sub seafloor technology was pivotal to regulatory approval.
MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.
DeepWater Desal drives to overturn Monterey County ownership rule
Desalination project developer DeepWater Desal, in California, US, is seeking to overturn the rules of Monterey County that all desalination plants must be publicly owned, reports Monterey Herald.
BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination
Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.
STW puts zero liquid system on show
STW Water Process and Technologies, this week will hold demonstrations in the Texas state capital, Austin, of a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) thermal water processing technology it licences from Salttech under an exclusive agreement.
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Aquatech to supply Oman oilfield water softener
Aquatech announced on 4 April 2012 that it had been awarded a contract to construct a 237 m³/h produced-water softening plant for the Amal Steam Facilities Phase 1B in Oman.
Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO
Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
Veolia installing evaporator in Alberta oil sands
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is currently installing an evaporator/crystallizer system at Southern Pacific Resource Corp's STP-McKay project currently under way in northern Alberta, Canada.
US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards
Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.
MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers
The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.
Bitumen producer using GE evaporation technology
GE's produced-water evaporation technology has been chosen for Phase 1 of the Algar Lake Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, which will produce 5,000-6,000 barrels/d of bitumen.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
Membranes reclaim aggressive produced water from California oilfield
Increasingly, membrane technologies are finding a place in the oil and gas industry, in the USA and Australia in particular, for dealing with the difficult wastewaters that arise from the extraction process. This article describes how, in a Californian oilfield, a reverse-osmosis process has operated for two years at high pH for the removal of dissolved salts and organics - including sodium, silica, boron and TOC. The treated water is then reused for environmental augmentation purposes. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Desalination with distinction
IDE Technologies (IDE) designed and operates three of the largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants in the world each with a cost per cubic metre of produced water among the lowest globally. This it accomplished despite a fourfold variability in the electricity price and demanding regulatory limits on boron, chloride and sodium concentrations. The key to their performance is demonstrated in the extraordinary aspects of the design, operation and personnel at the Hadera plant. This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies
Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.
New Mexico mulls new rules to allow water reuse for oilfield drilling
State environmental regulators in New Mexico are considering a proposed rule that would allow the reuse of produced water in oilfield drilling operations.
Green energy firm plans frack water desalination
Australian renewable energy firm AGL plans to install a 2 Ml/d desalination plant to treat water produced during hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at its Gloucester coal-seam gas project.
Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse
Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.
Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse
OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Sri Lanka issues RfP for desalination PPP at Hambantota
Sri Lanka Ministry of Development Strategies and International Trade has issued a request for proposals (RfP) on a seawater desalination plant at Hambantota, in its Southern Province.
ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor
Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.
Reclamation grant for Sweetwater desalination expansion
The US Bureau of Reclamation is to provide the Sweetwater Authority in California with a US$ 1.5 million grant towards the expansion of the Richard A Reynolds desalination plant.
FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors
FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.
US EPA white paper 're-visioning' oil and gas produced water
The US Environmental Protection Agency and the state of New Mexico has issued a draft white paper on oil and gas wastewater, recycling, and reuse.
Queensland gas desalination project halted
Dalby Regional Council in Queensland, Australia, has decided not to proceed with a previously announced joint venture with Arrow Energy that would have seen an Aus$ 16 million desalination plant begin operations near Dalby before the end of 2009.
GE evaporators chosen for Alberta bitumen project
MEG Energy Corp has selected GE evaporation technology for reusing steam generator water for boiler feed in a bitumen extraction project in Alberta, Canada.
Abengoa to develop Shoaiba III, its largest desal project yet
ACWA Power has signed Abengoa in consortium with Fisia Italimpianti to develop a large scale reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant at Shoaiba III power and desalination complex on Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast.
August Rocky Mountain reuse workshop set for Golden
This year's Rocky Mountain Water Reuse Workshop is to be held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, on 14 August 2014.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
Software checks produced water treatment for farm use
Artificial intelligence-based software developed by Water Planet is being used to evaluate the performance and economics of treating produced water for agricultural reuse in a pilot project in Wasco, California.
Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm
A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.
Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system
In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.
US DOE to harness 'power of competition' in Water Security Grand Challenge
The US Department of Energy has set out ambitions to harness the "power of competition" to drive innovation in water technology through a new programme of activity.
MD+VC succeeds at produced-water disposal site
A new desalination technique of membrane distillation (MD) combined with vapour compression (VC) has been pronounced a success in an effort to reduce produced water disposal costs at a Texas disposal well.
Wind damage prompts Sydney desalination critics to renew calls for closure
Winds topping 200km/h have ripped roofs off Sydney's dormant Kurnell desalination plant. Critics of the plant have called for it to be closed completely but New South Wales' water minister, Niall Blair, said abandonment would break the state's contract obligations.
Venezuelan oil firm ups desalination to offset drought
Amid a persistent severe drought, Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA's Paraguaná refinery has upgraded its desalination facility to increase output by a third following investment in plant of some US$ 250 million.
IDE to supply desalination for Teck copper mine
IDE is to design and supply a modular desalination plant for Teck Resources' Quebrada Blanca copper mine extension project in northern Chile.
De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules
De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.
SWCC to shape up operations as privatisation begins
Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has hired DuPont Sustainable Solutions (DSS) to brush up operational performance across the organisation in preparation for privatisation.
American Chemistry Council wants bigger say on new EPA panel
The American Chemistry Council has called on the US Environmental Protection Agency to expand its new Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals (SACC) to include representatives from the chemicals industry, reports Chemical Watch.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing
Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.
Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE
Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.
"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee
Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.