Prize, Research, Sweden, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality


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Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars

Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.

MD developer seeking US powerplant partners

Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.

Researchers share industry prize for fouling research

Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.

GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor

GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.

Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

Norit UF membranes for Swedish water treatment

A surface-water treatment plant that will be used to supply Göteborg, Sweden's second largest city, is to use ultrafiltration (UF) technology supplied by Norit X-Flow of the Netherlands.

GE and Saudi Aramco launch $200k technology competition

General Electric and Saudi Aramco have launched a $200,000 challenge to improve the energy efficiency of seawater desalination.

Nominations called for Singapore water prize

Singapore International Water Week issued a call for nominations for the Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize 2010 on 18 September 2009.

World Water Day 2017 was the occasion for many new initiatives from desal, reuse, and water industry specialists

Best of World Water Day 2017

Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.

CH2M reuse promotion drive picks up Stockholm prize

Colorado-based service and engineering company, CH2M, has won the 2015 Stockholm International Water Institute's (SIWI's) Stockholm Industry Water Award, for developing and advancing methods to clean water and increasing public acceptance of recycled water.

B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling

Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution

A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

Masdar graphene study bags Abu Dhabi research prize

A graphene desalination membrane research project was among six proposals from Abu Dhabi's sustainable technology-focused university, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, that each won a AED 2 million (US$ 500,000) Abu Dhabi Education Council Award for Research Excellence.

Ras Al Khair bags best desalination plant prize

The Ras Al Khair project in Saudi Arabia has won the "Desalination Plant of the Year" award at the 2015 Global Water Awards.



IDA awards 2015 fellowship to environmental researcher

The IDA has awarded its prestigious 2014-15 Fellowship to Dr Raed AI Bashitialshaaer, of Lund University, Sweden.

The DoE's new Energy-Water Desalination Hub will have $100 million to invest in early-stage research and development

US DoE announces $100 million for Energy-Water Desalination Hub

The US Department of Energy (DoE) has announced $100 million in funding to establish an Energy-Water Desalination Hub.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.

A slew of special awards were awarded at the close of IDA World Congress 2017

IDA World Congress 2017 award winners in full

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has recognised the best technical papers and other contributions at IDA World Congress 2017 with a roster of special awards.

West Basin desalination demo could begin next year

Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.

Vote for desalination in the £10 million Longitude Prize!

Desalination has been chosen as the challenge in the Water section of the newly revived Longitude Prize with a prize of £10 million for whoever can create a cheap, environmentally sustainable desalination technology.

GE and Aramco launch desalination energy challenge

GE ecomagination and Aramco Entrepreneurship launched a worldwide open technology challenge on 15 April 2014 to speed up efforts to improve the energy-efficiency of seawater desalination.

Dr Mike Dixon

Mike Dixon awarded IDA 2012 Fellowship Award

Dr Mike Dixon, research and development (R&D) engineer for South Australian (SA) Water Corporation's Adelaide Desalination Project has been named by the International Desalination Association's 2012 Fellowship Award.

Sir Richard Branson

Branson to address IDA Perth congress in September

Sir Richard Branson, famous for his achievements as an entrepreneur and founder of the international brand Virgin, is to be keynote speaker at the World Congress of the International Desalination Association in Perth.

Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system

Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.

Singapore signals more water co-operation with the Dutch

The Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) and PUB, the national water agency of Singapore, signed a letter of intent on 22 October 2009 to boost collaborations undertaken by businesses and research institutions in the fields of science, technology and innovations in Singapore's water sector.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

The reverse osmosis pilot plant at Ras Abu Jarjur

Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur

Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.

Securing Water for Food is backed by four global governments to develop innovations at the meeting point of water and agriculture

Call for innovations in water, women and agriculture

The US, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden have again joined forces to offer millions of dollars to innovators who enhance food productivity by improving water efficiency in agriculture.

CH2M Hill hires UK engineer as water operations chief

CH2M Hill announced on 4 August 2009 that British civil engineer Neil Reynolds has joined the Denver-based firm as international operations director for the Water Business Group.

Swedish pumps for Adelaide desalination plant

The Wastewater Technology Solutions division of Swedish company Cardo AB has signed a contract to supply and install pumps for the Adelaide seawater desalination plant in Australia.

South Africa looks to the sea

South Africa's Department of Water and Sanitation is considering desalinating seawater to help ease the country's water problems as it struggles amid its worst drought in more than 20 years.



Fredrik Östbye has a brief to effect a digital transformation at Grundfos

Pumps-as-a-service: the future beckons

On 1 May 2017, Fredrik Ostbye, a Swedish entrepreneur with a track record of digital product development, joined the 72-year old Danish pumps manufacturer Grundfos in the newly created role of group vice president and head of digital transformation.

Qatar and Sweden will hold technical workshops on a project to fuel desalination entirely by solar and wind power

Qatar and Sweden plot renewables-fuelled desalination project

A renewables-fuelled desalination project aiming to produce water for $1/m3 is to be jointly developed by Qatar and Sweden, reports The Peninsular.

Xylem to distribute GE membrane filtration products

Xylem Inc, the ITT water technology spin-off officially launched on 1 November 2011, has signed up to be GE's distribution partner into the public utilities market for its advanced membrane filtration products.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality

The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year

Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.

Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California

The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'

The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.

USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.

The new Waves to Water Prize aims to use the power of competition to drive innovation

Waves to Water Prize targets ocean-powered desal

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has introduced the Waves to Water Prize for wave-powered desalination technologies and is seeking feedback on the initiative.

The AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018 opened in Florida, US, on 13 March

MTC18 hot topics are ZLD, and public outreach

The Membrane Technology Conference 2018 kicked off in Florida, US, with a panel debate on the pros and cons of membrane treatment technologies.

Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute

In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Global membrane market growth nears 11%

The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.

US DoE announces solar thermal desalination prize

The US Department of Energy has announced a multi-stage prize competition designed to accelerate the development of low-cost desalination systems that use solar-thermal power to produce clean drinking water.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test

Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant

The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit

High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.

Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India

Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia

Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.

IDA to be knowledge partner at the International Water Summit for third year in a row

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has been appointed as a 'knowledge partner' for the International Water Summit for the third consecutive year.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit

The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.

First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant

The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

Orange County loses widely respected lab director

Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.

IDA 2011 fellowship award seeks applications by April

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is now accepting applications for its 2011 IDA Fellowship Award. The host agency this year is the US Bureau of Reclamation in the United States.

Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders

Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations

Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.

NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination

Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).

Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three

The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti

Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.

Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant

The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.

Clockwise from top left: Stan Williams, Jonathan Loveland and Chris Costello.

Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director

Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.

San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue

San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.

Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months

The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.

Aerial view of the Yuma desalting plant, Arizona

Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears

Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.

Neil Palmer

Palmer set to lead Australian desalination centre

Neil Palmer, currently general manager of technical services at Australia's Osmoflo, will take over late in October as the CEO of the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED).

3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju

The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.

Solar desalination champion teams with university

Louisiana, engineer and solar powered desalination entrepreneur, Hill Kemp, has teamed up with University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP) to market the technology to industrial customers.

PolyCera could

Water Planet introduces "revolutionary" new polymeric membranes

Water Planet has launched its new membrane filtration product, PolyCera, which it claims outpaces the current range of polymeric membranes, and costs less.

The Colorado School of Mines MBR pilot plant

AQWATEC opens onsite MBR wastewater reuse plant

The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Advanced Water Treatment Center (AQWATEC) has opened a pilot-scale wastewater reuse facility in February 2009 on the US school's campus in Golden.

MIT team share insights in Reddit AskScience AMA (Ask Me Anything)

MIT researchers host Reddit Ask Me Anything session on photovoltaic EDR system

Researchers at MIT have developed a solar-powered electrodialysis system that could "provide 250 million people in India with safe and affordable water," MIT News reports.

IDA president calls for environmental consideration

The historical symbiotic relationship between money, water and environment is now out of balance, the president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) told a conference in Zurich on 27 April 2009.

Proposals sought for membrane-integrity test method

The WateReuse Research Foundation has issued a Request for Proposals to create a method for testing the integrity of high-pressure membranes used for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in water treatment and desalination.

UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC

The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.


Michael Morillon

Morillon to direct MEDRC training

Michel Morillon, former CEO and CTO of the 80,000 m³/d Sur seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant project in Oman, has joined the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) as director of training.

Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

New US Navy RO units 'will use 65% less energy'

The United States Office of Naval Research (ONR) is planning to build prototype desalination units that will use 65% less energy and be 40% smaller by weight than current Navy reverse-osmosis (RO) units, an ONR release on 23 September 2009 predicted.

ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project

A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.

Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant

The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.


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