Pretreatment, Renewable Energy, Desalination, Arizona
Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale
Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.
Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University
Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.
Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system
A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.
Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost
The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.
Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power
Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.
Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now
An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.
Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech
Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.
Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears
Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.
Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run
Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.
FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up
Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem membrane technology for industrial applications.
July abstract deadline for joint AWWA/AMTA conference
A deadline of 22 July 2011 has been set for abstracts for the joint Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held in Arizona, USA, next year by the American Water Works Association and the Membrane Technology Association.
AMTA lists tech transfer and AWWA events
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has fixed dates for technology-transfer workshops this year including a joint event with the South West Membrane Operators Association (SWMOA),
IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway
The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.
Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity
The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.
Puretec acquires Layne Christensen's DI assets
California-based Puretec Industrial Water announced at the end of March 2013 that it had acquired the assets of Layne Christensen's Arizona-based deionization water purification and water system maintenance services as from 1 April 2013.
Large RO membranes at heart of Scottsdale expansion
The 7.1 MGD (26,900 m³/d) expansion of the City of Scottsdale's Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) plant in Arizona, USA, is now fully operational creating a total of 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) of reused wastewater.
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations
More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.
Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot
Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.
Desalination/reuse in UK/Israel water agreement
Desalination, water reuse and use of renewable energy in desalination and water reclamation were included in an agreement signed on 21 December 2011 between British Water, which represents the UK water industry supply chain, and MATIMOP, the Israeli Industry Centre for Research & Development.
Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant
The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.
Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants
Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).
EDS promotes learning on desalination and renewable energy
The European Desalination Society is promoting two sets of courses looking at desalination using renewable energies.
Renewable-energy desalination community seeks to start association
The renewable-energy (RE) desalination community should organize itself into a body that will represent the sector and lobby for its interests, says a new report.
Siemens signs wind desalination MoU in Australia
Siemens Australia has announced a partnership with Windesal, a South Australia company using technology designed in Denmark, to develop clean technologies and wind-powered desalination plants.
New South Wales premier switches on Sydney desalination plant
Sydney's seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was switched on by New South Wales premier Kristina Keneally on 28 January 2008, providing water to meet up to 15% of Sydney's water needs.
Acuamed desalination plants to use renewable energy
All the desalination plants owned by Acuamed, the Spanish water supplier, as well as distribution networks and company offices, will be run on renewable energy, the company announced on 22 December 2009.
European desalination conference program published
The full programme for the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Baden Baden, Germany, on 17-20 May 2009 is now available.
Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project
Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Fifth project enters the Masdar trial
An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.
Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot
Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.
EDS publishes June solar desalination course program
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published the program for its three-day intensive course on Desalination With Solar Energy to be held in Almeria, Spain, on 11‑13 June 2014.
Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.
EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy
The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.
Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use
The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.
Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination
The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.
RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch
A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.
Oman funds renewable desalination research
Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.
Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?
Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.
Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report
Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.
Masdar green desalination competition kicks off
All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference
Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.
Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.
Four-stage RO for London desalination plant
The UK's 150,000 m³/d Thames Gateway brackish-water reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plant, which was opened by Queen Elizabeth's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, on 2 June 2010, has a four-stage RO process.
EDS launches 2014 desalination courses with Rome event
The European Desalination Society (EDS) kicks off a list of six events in its series of Master Courses with a three-day course in Rome, Italy, on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design on 3‑5 March 2014.
"We are selecting the best presentations from 323 abstracts"
Miguel Sanz, chair of the technical program for IDA World Congress 2017, introduces the main themes and highlights to look forward to at this year's event in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer
The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.
AWWA launches Desalination Community web page
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) announced on 27 February 2012 that it had launched a Desalination Community, a page on its website for networking and exchanging ideas.
AMTA receives US$ 150,000 from ADC dissolution
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) revealed on 28 February 2012 how it was going to use the US$ 151,000 donated to it by the Affordable Desalination Consortium (ADC) on its dissolution.
VSEP NF system used at Brazilian ethanol plant
A full-scale vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system has been commissioned successfully by New Logic Research at a Brazilian ethanol plant.
Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding
The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.
Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen
The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.
Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully
The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.
Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team
Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
CaribDA pretreatment workshop set for Antigua
A workshop on pretreatment for seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is being held by the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) on the island of Antigua on 7-8 April 2011.
Wabag JV lands Oman port desalination contract
Chennai-based Wabag Ltd, in joint venture with fellow Indian contractor Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), has been awarded a contract for the completion of a seawater treatment plant, which will supply desalinated water to various industrial production plants in the Sohar International Port Complex.
Doosan Enpure secures Escondida pretreatment contract
Doosan Enpure has secured a US$ 17 million contract to design, procure and supply the pretreatment plant for the desalination part of the Escondida Water Supply Project at the world's largest copper mine in Chile's Atacama desert.
Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker
Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.
Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE
The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.
Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination
Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.
UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment
Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.
Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation
Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.
Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment
Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May
The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.
Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018
Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.
AMTA schedules workshops up to 2016 conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published a list of workshops and conferences up to and including its 2016 Membrane Technology Conference, which will be held with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, on 1‑5 February 2016.
Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya
Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.
Hybrid solar energy for Navajo Nation membrane distillation project
The University of Arizona and the US government's Bureau of Reclamation are developing a project combining advanced water treatment in the form of membrane distillation with hybrid solar energy to provide water supplies for the Native-American area, Navajo Nation, in the south-west USA. Installation is currently under way and the system will be tested for a year from March 2013. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
CH2M Hill poised for Kalba desalination mobilization
Civil work on the 3.0 MIGD (13,368 m³/d) Kalba seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates has almost been completed by the Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA).
Clarifier brings quality increase to UF treatment plant
Alabama is not a US state that immediately springs to mind in connection with membrane water treatment, which is why a poster paper at the recent AWWA/AMTA conference in Arizona caught the eye of D&WR. Opened in January 2011, the High Point Water Treatment Plant has used a solids contact clarifier and ultrafiltration to improve its overall water quality by reducing turbidity, removing pathogens, and meeting secondary standards.This article first appeared in the May/June 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'
A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).
Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.
Degrémont wins brackish-water contracts in Riyadh
Suez Environnement subsidiary Degrémont has been awarded two contracts worth EUR 40 million to supply reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plants at 14 sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Doosan acquires UK desalination pretreatment technology
Korean company Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced on 13 November 2012 that it had completed its acquisition of key assets of the water/wastewater treatment engineering company Enpure, based in the UK.
Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant
A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).
Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium
The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
SEDA to hold chemicals workshop in November
The Southeast Desalination Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Coral Springs Florida on 14 November 2013.
Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination
The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.
LA utility tops US water bond risk says report
A report published on 21 October 2010 by Ceres and Water Asset Management alleges that few participants in the US water and electricity bond market -- including investors, bond rating agencies and the utilities themselves -- are accounting for growing water scarcity, legal conflicts and other threats in their analyses.
Abstracts invited for WateReuse Symposium in Arizona
Abstracts have been invited for the 26th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held in Phoenix, Arizona, on 11-14 September 2011.
X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO
Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
Large Diameter RO Desalination Elements
In recent years, increasing the diameter of spiral elements has been studied as a method of lowering the cost of membrane treatment. It has been shown that the installed cost of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant can be reduced by up to 27% using larger diameter elements.Large diameter elements provide savings in footprint and building costs, as well as savings in the number of connections, to reduce the installed cost of a brackish water RO or nanofiltration (NF) system. This article presents case studies where large diameter reverse osmosis (RO) elements were used, including the reasons why large diameter elements were selected for specific projects. Systems desalinating brackish groundwater for potable water supply in the United States include the City of Goodyear, Arizona; the City of Waupun, Wisconsin; and the Tate-Monroe Water Association of Ohio. In Australia, the Bundamba AWT Plant in Queensland treats municipal effluent for reuse. At Joe White Maltings, an integrated membrane system, combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an RO system, allows wastewater from the plant to be recycled. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue.
Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1
Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.
Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia
A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.
Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement
A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.
Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment
Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.
Santa Cruz desalination EIR delayed until fall
The environmental impact report (EIR) for the proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) desalination plant (scwd²) for Santa Cruz, California, will not now be published until fall 2012.
IDA launches Energy Task Force in Marseille
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has formed a global Energy Task Force whose goal is to achieve a 20% reduction in energy consumption in all major seawater desalination processes by 2015.
Australian island rigs up solar powered desalination
Rottnest Island, off the Western Australian coast, is constructing a solar power source for the island's population including its desalination plant.
Almogordo trial for commercial-size solar desalination still
Indiana-based Suns River is nearing completion of a commercial-sized solar still at the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in Almogordo, New Mexico, USA, following the issue of a patent on its process (US #8,088,257) on 3 January 2012.
Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.