Pretreatment, Namibia


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Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant

A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).

Namibia nears deal on Areva desalination plant

The Namibian government has claimed to be close to completing its acquisition of a N$ 3 billion (US$ 220 million) desalination plant owned by French engineering giant, Areva. Negotiations over the deal started in 2014. Local newspapers have reported that both parties were expected to conclude their offers by the end of this month.

Mine wants state desalination plant despite OK for own project

Namibian mining company, Rössing Uranium, has restated its preference for procuring water from national water utility, Namwater, despite having completed a feasibility study of its planned desalination plant north of Swakopmund.

Rio Tinto mine mulls building Namibian desalination plant

Rio Tinto's Rossing Uranium mine in Namibia is planning an environmental impact study for its proposed water desalination plant.

Areva insists Namibian desalination plant is for sale

Areva Resources has denied recent reports that it plans to give, free of charge, its desalination plant at Wlotzkabaken in Namibia to the south-west African country's government. The Paris-based infrastructure company insisted it intended to sell the N$ 3 billion (US$ 250 million) desalination plant to Namibia.

Areva set to hand over desalination plant to Namibia

French nuclear group, Areva, is poised to hand over a desalination plant to the Namibian government, for an undisclosed sum according to the south west African country's chamber of mines.

Namibian mines get mixed messages

Namibian uranium mines have received mixed news on the prospects for an end to their struggle to secure cheaper and secure water supplies through new desalination facilities.

Namibia moves to buy Areva desalination plant

Namibia has moved on its declared intention to offer to buy Areva's 20 million m³/d water desalination plant in the country.

WABAG completes Namibia reclamation plant

Austria-based water engineering group, WABAG, has completed a water reclamation plant in Namibia's capital Windhoek.

Namibian government poised to table offer for Areva desalination plant

Namibia's government is poised to table an offer to buy Areva's seawater desalination plant at Trekkopje and to use the 20 million m³-a-year facility to supply the country's semi-arid Erongo region.

Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project

Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.

Papers deadline stretched for IWA reuse conference

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of outline papers for the 9th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse.

Mining slump threatens Nambia's desalination

Investments in desalination and electricity generation in Namibia could be in jeopardy following a dramatic slowdown in mining output in 2008, according to a new report published on 5 May 2009 by the International Monetary Fund.

Namibia wants to develop four desalination plants to meet the country's water demands

Namibia looks to finance four new desal plants, as row develops over price of existing supplies: reports

The Namibian government is seeking private investors to finance the development of four desalination plants on the west coast of Namibia, reports Bloomberg.

Namibia considers new-build desalination

Namibia is pondering a desalination programme to address water shortages and to supply irrigation schemes that consume annually some 430 million m³ of water.

The desalination plant is located north of the desert town Wlotzkasbaken, on the South Atlantic

NamWater seeks consultants to advise on desal deal

Namibia Water Corporation (NamWater) is seeking consultants to help with a possible acquisition of Areva Desalination Plant at Swakopmund.

Namibia wants to expand its desalination capacity to ensure food security

Israeli private investors eye Namibia desalination project

Officials from the Erongo region in Namibia and Israeli private investors are in advance stage talks over a second desalination plant in the county, reports New Era.

Swakopmund, capital city of Erongo region, is among the localities that faced water shortages during three years of drought

Namibia's desal ambitions are aired again

Officials in Namibia's Erongo region have again spoken of their ambition to acquire a local desal facility owned by French firm Areva, as they repeat aims to build a second desal plant.

The pier at Swakopmund, capital city of Erongo Region, Namibia, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean

Namibia plans feasibility study to underpin PPP desal project

Namibia is looking to build a new 70,000 m3/d desalination plant in Erongo Region under a public-private partnership (PPP), as the country gets close to finalising PPP legislation, reports New Era.

Field results in Namibia and Brazil from new solar desalination system

Aimed at rural and coastal zones, a new thermal desalination system with heat recovery has been developed and tested in different countries. The system has a desalination tower with multiple stages and a set of solar thermal collectors. This article presents the field results of two systems tested in Brazil, and the numerical results of a design installation for Namibia. For Namibia, six systems are planned with capacity of 400-500 L/d. In Brazil, two systems with a 35-40 L/d capacity were tested. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Trekkopje SWRO opened at Namibian uranium mine

The 55,000 m³/d Trekkopje seawater desalination plant in Nambia was opened opened on 16 August 2010 in the presence of Namibia's minister of agriculture, water and forestry, John Mutorwa, and former president, Same Nujom

Namibia's goal is to build a desalination plant on the west coast

Namibia in a water "predicament" says minister

The Namibian government has passed up the chance to acquire a desalination plant because the N$3 billion ($216 million) asking price from French multinational Areva is too high, reports New Era.

Trekkopje SWRO opened at Namibian uranium mine

The 55,000 m /d Trekkopje seawater desalination plant in Nambia was opened on 16 April 2010 in the presence of Namibia's minister of agriculture, water and forestry, John Mutorwa, and former president, Same Nujom. Designed and constructed by Keyplan, a South African specialist water treatment subsidiary of the Aveng Group, the Trekkopje seawater reverse-osmosis plant, in the heart of the Namib desert, turns Atlantic seawater into high quality potable water for use at the Trekkopje uranium mine operated by Areva Resources Namibia. The plant is currently being commissioned and has already produced high quality water. This followed a detailed environmental impact assessment, taking into account specific aspects of the coastline and potential carbon footprint of the operation. This article was originally published in the May/June 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Florida RO chemical pretreatment workshop for SEDA

A technology-transfer workshop on Chemical Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Technology is to be held in Dunedin, Florida, by the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA).

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

VWS buys inge UF modules for oil rig

VWS Westgarth has awarded a contract to BASF subsidiary inge GmbH for 600 dizzer® ultrafiltration (UF) modules for an oil rig.

UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants

Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination

The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.

X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO

Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Amiad filters to pretreat Korean steelworks RO feed

Microfibre filters to pretreat a reverse-osmosis (RO) plant are being provided for one of South Korea's largest steel factories by Amiad Water Systems.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

Amiad filters provide pretreatment in Brazilian UF reuse project

Disc filters are to be supplied by Amiad Filtration Systems Ltd to protect ultrafiltration membranes in the Aquapolo tertiary wastewater treatment and reuse project in São Paulo, Brazil.

Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment

Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.

Ras Az Zawr to have DAF/DMF pretreatment from Enpure

Pretreatment for the reverse osmosis (RO) section of the world's largest seawater desalination plant at Ras Az Zawr (or Ras Azzour) in Saudi Arabia is to be by dissolved air flotation (DAF) and dual-media filtration (DMF).

Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment

German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.

CaribDA pretreatment workshop set for Antigua

A workshop on pretreatment for seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is being held by the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) on the island of Antigua on 7-8 April 2011.

Wabag JV lands Oman port desalination contract

Chennai-based Wabag Ltd, in joint venture with fellow Indian contractor Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), has been awarded a contract for the completion of a seawater treatment plant, which will supply desalinated water to various industrial production plants in the Sohar International Port Complex.

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker

Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.

Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE

The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.

Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination

Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.

The ultrafiltration system in Abu Dhabi supplied by inge watertechnologies AG will treat 80,000 m³/d.

UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment

Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Siemens wins OC membrane system contract

A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.

The Ikusasa membrane plant

First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May

The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.

Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010

The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.

Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya

Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.

CH2M Hill poised for Kalba desalination mobilization

Civil work on the 3.0 MIGD (13,368 m³/d) Kalba seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates has almost been completed by the Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA).

Abilene wastewater overhaul uses GE pretreatment

The city of Abilene, Texas has completed its installation of GE's LEAPmbr wastewater pretreatment system as part of a major upgrade to the city's Hamby wastewater treatment plant.

Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract

A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Doosan Enpure secures Escondida pretreatment contract

Doosan Enpure has secured a US$ 17 million contract to design, procure and supply the pretreatment plant for the desalination part of the Escondida Water Supply Project at the world's largest copper mine in Chile's Atacama desert.

SEDA to hold workshop on pretreatment for RO/NF

The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop on 12 February 2014 at the Town of Jupiter Water Treatment Plant in Florida on Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF).

Biwater wins RO job at Jacksonville treatment plant

Three 1 MGD (3,875 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) trains are to be delivered by Biwater as part of a contract in Jacksonville, North Carolina, USA, from TA Loving Company.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

SEDA to hold chemicals workshop in November

The Southeast Desalination Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Coral Springs Florida on 14 November 2013.

Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1

Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.

Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia

A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.

TEP expert dies in Galapagos fall

Professor Tom Berman, best known in the desalination world for his work on transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), died last week after a fall during a vacation in the Galapagos Islands.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned

The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot

Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.

Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.

Degrémont wins brackish-water contracts in Riyadh

Suez Environnement subsidiary Degrémont has been awarded two contracts worth EUR 40 million to supply reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plants at 14 sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Doosan acquires UK desalination pretreatment technology

Korean company Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced on 13 November 2012 that it had completed its acquisition of key assets of the water/wastewater treatment engineering company Enpure, based in the UK.

Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

Veolia sells boiler-feed pretreatment to 3 US refineries

Pretreatment for high-purity boiler feedwater is to be supplied to three refineries on the Gulf of Mexico in the USA by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.

EDS publishes details of membrane design course

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Evoqua wins Los Angeles expansion contract

Evoqua Water Technologies has won a contract with the Department of Public Works for Los Angeles Sanitation to supply its microfiltration packaged system as part of the expansion of the Terminal Island Water Reclamation Plant Advanced Water Treatment Facility in San Pedro, Los Angeles County.

Nirosoft to build small SWRO plant in Chile

Chilean regional water utility Aguas De Altiplano has awarded a contract to Nirosoft Industries for a small seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.

Melbourne researchers' anti fouling membrane claim

Researchers from the Melbourne School of Engineering at the University of Melbourne have developed what they claim to be an anti fouling microfiltration system that outstrips existing technology on energy efficiency with negligible compromise on performance.

Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield

Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.

Membrane technology added to Polish power plant

A third demineralization line using membrane and ion-exchange technology is to be added to the extension of the water treatment plant for the Patnów II power station in Poland.

EDS publishes desalination courses line-up for 2013

Five courses for the first half of 2013 have been announced by the European Desalination Society (EDS). All except one will be staged in Genoa, Italy.

Kuwait plant to get GE membranes

Kuwait's Sulaibiya wastewater treatment and reclamation plant will be upgraded with GE's water reuse technology.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Monterey consultant can't choose between projects

The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.

Using UF to pretreat Chile's SWRO mining desalination plants

Two desalination plants are described in this article to illustrate the use of ultrafiltration (UF) as pretreatment to seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination in Chile. One plant (Gas Atacama) was commissioned in June 2011 and has since been operated successfully. A second plant is currently under construction. This article first appeared in the August/September 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Membrane troubleshooting workshop announced by SEDA

The Southeast Desalting Association has announced a workshop on Operating & Troubleshooting Membrane Systems to be held in Florida in October 2012.

IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds

Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.

New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems

Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.

Caribbean desalination expansion completes tests

The Desalination company of Trinidad and Tobago (Desalcott) has recently completed a performance test of its expanded Point Lisas seawater reverse osmosis plant.

China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development

A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."

Amiad disc filters to protect Ashdod ultrafiltration

Amiad Water Systems has won a US$ 1.67 million contract to provide an Arkal Super Galaxy automatic disc filtration system (SpinKlin R) for the protection of ultrafiltration membranes at the Mekorot Group's Ashdod Desalination Plant, which will be one of the largest in Israel.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

AMTA's awards recognise individuals for a variety of contributions to the field of membrane technology

AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.

H2O Innovation wins Canadian and US contracts

A 5,000 m³/d nanofiltration water treatment plant is to be provided for the city of Saint-Tite, Quebec, Canada, by H2O Innovation Inc.

Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi

Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Pentair X-Flow wins Jubail ultrafiltration order

Pentair X-Flow announced on 4 April 2012 an order from Al Fatah Water & Power to supply its Seaguard ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids to the Jubail Phase 2 seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination project in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.


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