Pretreatment, Municipal, Water Scarcity, Alabama, Ultrafiltration, Desalination, Alabama


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IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

The ultrafiltration treatment system at High Point water treatment plant

Clarifier brings quality increase to UF treatment plant

Alabama is not a US state that immediately springs to mind in connection with membrane water treatment, which is why a poster paper at the recent AWWA/AMTA conference in Arizona caught the eye of D&WR. Opened in January 2011, the High Point Water Treatment Plant has used a solids contact clarifier and ultrafiltration to improve its overall water quality by reducing turbidity, removing pathogens, and meeting secondary standards.This article first appeared in the May/June 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Desalitech teams up with Pall

High-efficiency reverse osmosis (RO) system specialist, Desalitech, has entered into a non- exclusive partnership with filtration, separation and purification technology firm Pall Corporation. The  agreement will enable the companies to offer integrated microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and RO solutions for water treatment applications worldwide.

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination

The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.

X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO

Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment

Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.

Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE

The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.

The ultrafiltration system in Abu Dhabi supplied by inge watertechnologies AG will treat 80,000 m³/d.

UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment

Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

The Ikusasa membrane plant

First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May

The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.

Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya

Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.

CH2M Hill poised for Kalba desalination mobilization

Civil work on the 3.0 MIGD (13,368 m³/d) Kalba seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates has almost been completed by the Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA).

Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned

The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010

The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.

VWS buys inge UF modules for oil rig

VWS Westgarth has awarded a contract to BASF subsidiary inge GmbH for 600 dizzer® ultrafiltration (UF) modules for an oil rig.

Oil sands UF water treatment won by H2O Innovation

A Can$ 9.4 million (US$ 9.6 million) contract for a membrane-based water treatment package has been awarded to H2O Innovation Inc by Fort Hills Energy LP for the Fort Hills Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada.

UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants

Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.

Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Amiad filters provide pretreatment in Brazilian UF reuse project

Disc filters are to be supplied by Amiad Filtration Systems Ltd to protect ultrafiltration membranes in the Aquapolo tertiary wastewater treatment and reuse project in São Paulo, Brazil.

'It is extremely important to manage water better, through viable technologies.' Renato Ramos, Dow Water & Process Solutions

Q&A: Dow's Renato Ramos on how water tech can support Latin America

Renato Ramos, commercial director for Latin America at Dow Water & Process Solutions explains how intelligent use of water technology can support prosperity in Latin America

Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant

A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).

AMTA visiting Des Moines for tech transfer workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Des Moines, Iowa.

Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report

The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.

Workshop on membrane water technologies set for March

A workshop on alternative water resources, such as brackish-water desalination and wastewater reuse is being organised in Thessaloniki, Greece on 5 March 2009 by the Center for Research and Technology Hellas and the Berlin Centre of Competence for Water.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

The RO hall at the Thames Gateway desalination plant east of London.

Four-stage RO for London desalination plant

The UK's 150,000 m³/d Thames Gateway brackish-water reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plant, which was opened by Queen Elizabeth's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, on 2 June 2010, has a four-stage RO process.

Dr Krishnamurthy Rao

IDA announces death of InDA founder

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has reported the death of India's "water man" and founder of the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Dr CH Krishnamurthy Rao.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Aquatech awarded SWRO plant in Ras Al Kaimah

Aquatech is to build a 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility at Ghalilah for the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

EDS publishes details of membrane design course

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.

Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance

Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.

Cadagua to get 75,800 m³/d Moroccan desalination plant

Spain's Cadagua has been given a letter of intent for award of a 75,800 m³/d desalination plant in the Jorf Lasfar industrial complex in Morocco, 100km south of Casablanca.

Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant

The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.

Algerian worldbeater has UF pretreatment

The President of Algeria, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, presided over the on-site ground-breaking ceremony for what will be the world's largest reverse-osmosis desalination plant with a capacity of 500,000 m³/d in Magtaa in Oran province, western Algeria, on 16 December 2008.

Vizualization of Singapore's new desalination plant

Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant

PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.

EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014

The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.

Pentair X-Flow wins Jubail ultrafiltration order

Pentair X-Flow announced on 4 April 2012 an order from Al Fatah Water & Power to supply its Seaguard ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids to the Jubail Phase 2 seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination project in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Evoqua bags municipal deals worth US$ 20 million

Water treatment firm, Evoqua, has won contracts worth more than US$ 20 million supplying its Memcor microfiltration and ultrafiltration product line to six US and Canadian municipalities. The deals were for filtration, water reuse, drinking water treatment, and reverse-osmosis pre-treatment applications.

EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011

The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination

Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.

Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit

Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.

Amiad disc filters to protect Ashdod ultrafiltration

Amiad Water Systems has won a US$ 1.67 million contract to provide an Arkal Super Galaxy automatic disc filtration system (SpinKlin R) for the protection of ultrafiltration membranes at the Mekorot Group's Ashdod Desalination Plant, which will be one of the largest in Israel.

H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO

The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).

Toray UF membranes online in North Dakota

An ultrafiltration UF system in North Dakota, USA, has become the first large municipal drinking-water system in the US to use Toray HFS-2020 UF membrane modules.

District backs out of California's GRIP water-reuse project

One of the three main partners in a US$ 210 million indirect potable water-reuse scheme in California's San Gabriel Valley has walked away from the project.

Go-ahead for Maharashtra UF reuse project

The deputy chief minister of the Maharashtra state government in India has directed the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) and the Maharashtra Industries & Development Corporation to prepare a feasibility study for the PCMC water recycling project.

New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies

Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).

Membrane technology added to Polish power plant

A third demineralization line using membrane and ion-exchange technology is to be added to the extension of the water treatment plant for the Patnów II power station in Poland.

Norit in Chinese wastewater reuse success

A Norit & GreenTech Engineering consortium has been officially awarded the contract for the design, procurement, installation and start-up of the 180,000 m³/d Qinghe Municipal Wastewater Reuse Project in Beijing, China, Norit announced on 18 December 2009

Denis Vial

Vial appointed business development manager by inge

Denis Vial has been appointed business development manager by German ultrafiltration (UF) membrane manufacturer inge GmbH, effective 1 March 2014.

Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

GE signs up for Indian industry wastewater reuse partnership

GE and Ramky Enviro Engineers, the Indian environment and waste management organization, have signed emergency water and industrial wastewater treatment agreements specifically designed to address India's industrial wastewater treatment and recycling needs.

Marc Messerli

Aquasource appoints Marc Messerli as COO

Degrémont subsidiary Aquasource, which specializes in ultrafiltration membranes systems for water treatment, has appointed Marc Messerli as its new chief operating officer (COO) as from 1 January 2013.

Dow UF is sole pretreatment for Chinese cogen plant

China's ShanXi DaTong Co-gen has selected Dow ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for its 300MW heat/electricity cogeneration plant in DaTong in ShanXi province.

H2O Innovation wins North American contracts worth US$ 3.6 million

H2O Innovation has bagged four new contracts worth a total of US$ 3.6 million with two each in the US and Canada. These new deals, the company reported, will maintain its sales backlog for water treatment projects at US$ 38.6 million excluding its Professional Water Technologies, Piedmont and H2O Innovation Maple businesses.

West Basin adds water efficiency to reuse & desalination

West Basin Municipal Water District in southern California recently completed a Water Efficiency Master Plan that will double water savings from to 6 billion gallons (22,710 million m³) in 17 coastal Los Angeles cities by the year 2020.

China halfway to 1 million m³/d seawater desalination

China's seawater desalination capacity now stands at 524,000 m³/d, according to Li Baochun, deputy director of the Tianjin Municipal Commission of Science & Technology, quoted in the People's Daily.

New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems

Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.

Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi

Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.

CONGRESS NEWS Desalination industry embraces conservation as vital ally

Desalination industry leaders this week declared emphatic support for the role of sustainable measures alongside advances in desalination to address growing water scarcity. Opening speakers at the IDA World Congress in San Diego emphasized the importance of conservation and water recycling in meeting an escalating global challenge from water scarcity.

Dow and Veolia system wins ultrafiltration deal for new Total floating oil production unit

Dow Water and Process Solutions and Veolia Water Technologies are to provide ultrafiltration technology for Total's new Moho Nord offshore floating deep water oil production unit off the Republic of the Congo coast.

IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050

By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.

Wade Miller stepping down as WateReuse director

The executive director of the WateReuse Association and the WateReuse Research Foundation, G Wade Miller, announced on 8 August 2013 his resignation from the two organizations effective 31 March 2014.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

IDA issues call for papers for Portofino conference

The International Desalination Association is seeking presentations from industry and related NGOs on how the organization and the desalination community, as a whole, can be more responsive to human needs for clean and affordable potable water.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Municipal desalination plant planned for Chile's Copiapó

Construction of a municipal desalination plant will form part of urgent measures to address water shortages in the region around the Chilean city of Copiapó.

Cost, regulation and water scarcity are driving a shift in mindset toward resource recovery in brine treatment

The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?

As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

LA utility tops US water bond risk says report

A report published on 21 October 2010 by Ceres and Water Asset Management alleges that few participants in the US water and electricity bond market -- including investors, bond rating agencies and the utilities themselves -- are accounting for growing water scarcity, legal conflicts and other threats in their analyses.

Qatari research aims to

The Qatar Electricity and Water Company (QEWC) and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop two pilot projects that could 'radically reduce the cost and energy use' of desalination.

Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities

Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.

Schematic of the MWDOC slant well technology

OC desalination slant-well testing to start

Testing of Phase 3 of the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in Southern California will begin in the next few weeks, according to the Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC), which held a public open day at the test site on Doheny State Beach on 12 May 2010.

West Basin desalination demo could begin next year

Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.

Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants

Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.

Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity

The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.

Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference

There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.

The report, Water Reuse: Drivers, Innovations and Public Perceptions, is available to download from the link below

Top five takeaways on what's shaping water reuse globally

Our survey of Water. desalination + reuse readers was conducted to gauge the industry's perceptions about the factors influencing the growth of water reuse markets globally. We present the top five facts from among the rich set of data collected.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

Food for thought for delegates at EDS conference

The continuously queuing water tankers in the road servicing the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Centre and its four adjacent hotels leave visitors in no doubt that Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world.

IDA on road to Morocco in March 2012

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the first event of its kind in the North Africa region, a conference on desalination and sustainability in partnership with the Societé Marocaine des Membranes et de Dessalement (SMMD).

Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Wastewater reuse set for 61% growth by 2015

Market researcher, Bluefield, has forecast 61% growth in the US market for wastewater reuse in municipal utilities over the next ten years with potable reuse increasing from 15% of the total capacity to 19% by 2025.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Hyflux sells half-share of Singapore membrane R&D firm

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 March 2014 that it had agreed with Marmon Water (Singapore) Pte Ltd (MWS) to sell to MWS its entire 50% equity interest in Hyflux Marmon Development Pte Ltd (HMD), a company devoted to membrane/media filtration research.


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