Pretreatment, Greece, Groundwater, Space, Microfiltration, Graphene, Graphene, Research


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Masdar graphene study bags Abu Dhabi research prize

A graphene desalination membrane research project was among six proposals from Abu Dhabi's sustainable technology-focused university, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, that each won a AED 2 million (US$ 500,000) Abu Dhabi Education Council Award for Research Excellence.

'I am halfway between the lab and the boardroom on this,' Tim Harper, CEO, G2O Water Technologies

Q&A: Tim Harper, G20 Water Technologies

Former European Space Agency scientist Tim Harper, now chief executive of G2O Water Technologies, talks graphene-coated membranes

Workshop on membrane water technologies set for March

A workshop on alternative water resources, such as brackish-water desalination and wastewater reuse is being organised in Thessaloniki, Greece on 5 March 2009 by the Center for Research and Technology Hellas and the Berlin Centre of Competence for Water.

Graphene comprises a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice

UK researchers develop graphene membranes for desalination

Researchers at the National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, UK, have developed a new graphene oxide membrane for desalination.

'Project bankability is one of the big challenges,' Miguel Angel Sanz, IDA World Congress 2017 technical program chair

Highlights to watch at IDA World Congress 2017

Technical program chair Miguel Angel Sanz introduces his highlights from the line up at IDA World Congress 2017

Siemens wins OC membrane system contract

A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.

The space station wastewater recycling system

NASA approves space-station wastewater reuse

In a giant leap for wastewater reuse, NASA, the US federal space agency, gave the green light on 20 May 2009 to the Expedition 19 astronauts aboard the International Space Station to drink reused wastewater from the station's new recycling system.

CDI low-energy desalination can supply remote communities

There has been a lot of media fuss recently about the work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on using graphene sheets in membrane desalination. Equally important work is going on in Australia on using graphene sheets as electrodes for capacitive deionisation (CDI). Supported by the National Centre for Excellence in Desalination, Professor Linda Zou has proved that CDI technology offers a viable alternative solution for brackish water treatment, especially in communities in remote areas where building a large and high-maintenance treatment plant is not practical. This article first appeared in the August/September 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Greece ponders desalination for Aegean islands

The Greek government is pondering a strategy to boost desalination on the Aegean islands after a new plant on Hydra cut the price of water there by two thirds.

Mobile BWRO system aids Greek power-station completion

Completion of a power-station water treatment project based on mobile brackish-water reverse-osmosis (BWRO) desalination systems was announced in on 3 February by Swiss-based Ecolutia Services, part of the Stulz/Hager & Elsässer group.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Florida RO chemical pretreatment workshop for SEDA

A technology-transfer workshop on Chemical Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Technology is to be held in Dunedin, Florida, by the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA).

Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker

Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.

Wabag JV lands Oman port desalination contract

Chennai-based Wabag Ltd, in joint venture with fellow Indian contractor Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), has been awarded a contract for the completion of a seawater treatment plant, which will supply desalinated water to various industrial production plants in the Sohar International Port Complex.

Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.

Slimline MBR is first product from LG Electronics

Only two months after announcing it was entering the water membrane business, LG Electronics (LG) unveiled its first wastewater treatment solution, a membrane bioreactor, on 25 November 2010.

New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies

Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

“We are looking at organic growth, and mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures.

Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water

The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010

The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

Conwed in feed spacer study

Plastic netting maker, Conwed, has provided its products for a study into options for developing and testing of feed spacers in reverse osmosis (RO) by numerical modelling, three- dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies.

Evoqua to double production capacity at US plant

Evoqua Water Technologies is to double its capacity to produce its range of water treatment products at one of its main production facilities in the US.

MECO wins US Navy desalination contracts

Louisiana-based MECO has been awarded the design and development of advanced shipboard desalination units for the US Navy under contracts with the Office of Naval Research.

Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water

A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.

Drinks on the International Space Station

NASA, space flight, water recycling and forward osmosis

For manned space vehicles and especially for the International Space Station, America's National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has had to invent and adapt many technologies. Not least among these are those aimed at life support and water supply in particular. In developing these, forward osmosis (FO) is playing a prominent part. NASA Research in FO has demonstrated that it has both spacecraft and terrestrial applications. The terrestrial applications are just now becoming a reality. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

The SAC-D/Aquarius rocket ready for blast-off

Argentine spacecraft to map ocean salinity

An Argentine-built spacecraft is set to blast off on 10 June 2011 from Vandenburg Air Force Base in California carrying instrumentation to measure the saltiness of the world's oceans.

Sir Richard Branson

Branson to address IDA Perth congress in September

Sir Richard Branson, famous for his achievements as an entrepreneur and founder of the international brand Virgin, is to be keynote speaker at the World Congress of the International Desalination Association in Perth.

Melbourne researchers' anti fouling membrane claim

Researchers from the Melbourne School of Engineering at the University of Melbourne have developed what they claim to be an anti fouling microfiltration system that outstrips existing technology on energy efficiency with negligible compromise on performance.

EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014

The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.

EDS publishes details of membrane design course

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

Evoqua wins Los Angeles expansion contract

Evoqua Water Technologies has won a contract with the Department of Public Works for Los Angeles Sanitation to supply its microfiltration packaged system as part of the expansion of the Terminal Island Water Reclamation Plant Advanced Water Treatment Facility in San Pedro, Los Angeles County.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

The tourist destination of Hurghada, Egypt, will benefit from new desalination capacity

Egypt pledges $51 billion for water projects over 20 years

Egypt is stepping up efforts to address water scarcity, pledging EGP 900 billion ($51 billion) for a national water management plan over 20 years.

The new desalination plant will be largely below ground, with parkland on the roof at ground level

Keppel unveils designs for Marina East Desalination Plant

Keppel has shared design details of its Marina East Desalination Plant project in Singapore, as it broke ground on 29 June 2017.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia

A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Conwed joins European Desalination Society

Plastic netting manufacturer, Conwed, has joined the desalination, water reuse and water technology development trade body, the European Desalination Society (EDS).

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

Texas city advances on reuse

The Texas, USA city of Weatherford is progressing with plans to reuse treated wastewater, which would save the city significant sums of money according to the Weatherford utility board.

Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China

Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.

Osmoflo wins US$ 15m wastewater reuse contract

Water and wastewater firm, Osmoflo, has won a US$ 15 million contract for the design, construction and commissioning of a wastewater treatment plant in northern Western Australia to produce reclaimed water for use in irrigation.

IDA accepting bids to stage 2017 World Congress

The International Desalination Association will be accepting formal bids to host its 2017 World Congress from 20 April 2014.

Randy Truby joins board of Neo-Tech Aqua Solutions

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection specialist NeoTech Aqua Solutions Inc announced on 10 March 2014 the addition of Randy Truby, a past president of the International Desalination Association, to its board of directors.

FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center

Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.

Aerial view of Sorek desalination plant

World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational

The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

IDA publishes new World Congress information

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued its Second Announcement for its World Congress 2013 on Desalination & Water Reuse which will take place in Tianjin, China, during 20-25 October 2013.

Aquaporin eyes commercial membrane sales in 2013

Danish membrane treatment startup Aquaporin A/S is preparing for commercial sales of its Aquaporin Inside™ membranes by the end of 2013.

Details released for September SWMOA courses

Details have been released by the Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) for its two California membrane-plant operator training courses in September 2012.

IDA Congress exhibition floorplan available online

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has made the exhibition floorplan and online exhibitor application for the IDA World Congress 2013 available online.

IDA World Congress exhibition booking open online

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced on 11 June 2012 that the IDA World Congress 2013 exhibition application form and floor plan is now online.

AMTA workshop to look at SCADA and PLCs

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) is to hold a technology transfer workshop on SCADA/Instrumentation & Controls for Membrane Facilities in Fairfax, Virginia, on 17‑18 July 2012.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

New San Francisco wastewater reuse project relocated

San Francisco's Westside Recycled Water Project, which will reuse up to 4 MGD (15,140 m³/d) of secondary effluent, will no longer be built in the city's historic Golden Gate Park.

AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.

H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant

Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.

Four SEDA events posted for 2012

The Southeast Desalting Association has posted four events on its website for 2012, including its Spring Symposium in Bonita Springs, Florida, and a workshop in North Carolina.

Split-flow process highlight of Brightwater MBR wastewater reuse plant

Brightwater, the newest regional wastewater treatment facility owned and operated by the King County Wastewater Treatment Division in the US Pacific Northwest was officially dedicated on 24 September 2011. It features a 36 MGD (136,000 m /d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) used to capacity in a split-flow process which copes with peak hourly flows of up to 130 MGD (492,000 m /d). Without this split flow, the cost of the MBR would be prohibitive. The plant also produces biosolids for compost and agricultural use, and uses digester gas for process and space heating. This article first appeared in the November/December 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Desalination "too expensive" as Pacific island solution

A UN aid coordinator for the Pacific region said on 2 November 2011 that desalination was probably not a future solution for drought prevention in island groups like Tuvalu and Tokelau.

Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants

Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.

Orange County loses widely respected lab director

Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.

Fourth session track added to IDA World Congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has added a fourth track to the technical program for its World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse in Perth, Australia, on 4-9 September 2011.

Reuse plant eases Melbourne's water demand

The Aus$ 48 million (US$ 52.6 million) recycled water plant in Altona, Australia, was commissioned on 19 April 2011 by Victoria state's minister for water, Peter Walsh.

Aquatech to build SBR/UF/RO reuse plant for Mumbai airport

A complete turnkey engineering, procurement and construction contract for a 10,000 m³/d waste and sewage treatment and recycle project for the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport at Mumbai, India, has been awarded to Aquatech. Aquatech will also subsequently operate and maintain the facility.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

SEDA spring symposium brochure available

Back To The Basics will be the theme for the Spring Symposium of the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) which will be held in Captiva, Florida, on 13-16 June 2010.

The Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility

US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water

Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.

UK seawater desalination may become necessary, says IMechE report

Seawater desalination may become necessary in the United Kingdom if precipitation does not provide sufficient water, according to a report Climate change: adapting to the inevitable published in February 2009 by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Pratt & Witney to validate PEI equipment

US space and aero engine-builder Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Inc (PWR) is to provide engineering and development services for Pump Engineering Inc (PEI), manufacturer of desalination pumping and energy-recovery equipment.

Gold Coast's twin intake/outfall tunnels save space and environment

A key part of the anti-drought strategy in Queensland, Australia, has been the construction of a 125,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant, located at Tugun on the Gold Coast, due to start producing water in November 2008. This plant will supply up to 20% of the average demand for the Brisbane/Gold Coast Region. The Gold Coast Desalination Project is an excellent example of the delivery of a complex project in a very fast timeframe through the use of innovation and teamwork. The blueprint for this outcome was set very early in the project by the adoption of an alliance-style contract for the project. The plant also features twin segmentally lined intake and outfall tunnels, each 2.8 m internal diameter. The tunnels extend approximately 1.5 km offshore, into 20 m water depth. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.

Membrane market growth to run until 2020

The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.

Pall grabs another naval water-generator contract

Membrane-based freshwater generators are to be supplied to the UK's Royal Navy by Pall Corporation after successful sea trials.

Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report

The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.

Australia's CSIRO demonstrations indirect stormwater reuse

Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have bottled recycled stormwater as pure drinking water titled "Recharge", CSIRO announced on 17 September 2009.

The Aquatech process

Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine

The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.

The Ikusasa membrane plant

First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May

The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.

Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

Brownsville pilot study published

Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.

Cyprus mobile desalination dismantled

A €30 million (US$ 33 million) mobile desalination unit constructed to supply the city of Paphos on Cyprus's southwest coast is being disassembled after years of near idleness, according to local press.

The new resort in Corfu will include a marina, infrastructure works, and a desalination plant

New luxury Corfu resort to include desalination plant

A project to build a new luxury resort on the Greek island of Corfu is to move ahead after seven years of delay, and will include a dedicated desalination plant, reports Greek Reporter.

The remote island of Kastellorizo will use desalination to reduce its dependence on imported water

Greece invests in desalination for remote Dodecanese island

Greece's General Secretariat for the Aegean and Island Policy and the country's shipping industry have signed a €870,000 ($1 million) contract to build a desalination plant on Kastellorizo island, reports Kathimerini.

Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge

The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.

The port city of Larnaca, Cyprus, hosts one of the country's largest desalination facilities

Mekorot signals intention to pursue Cyprus for alleged damages

Mekorot National Water Company, the Israeli government-owned water projects developer, has signalled its intention to sue the Cypriot government for E50 million in alleged damages, reports Israeli business news outlet, Globes.

EDS desalination course dates for 2012 published

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published dates for its series of courses for 2012, which will take place in February, April and June.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.


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