Pretreatment, Filter


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Degrémont wins brackish-water contracts in Riyadh

Suez Environnement subsidiary Degrémont has been awarded two contracts worth EUR 40 million to supply reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plants at 14 sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Amiad filters to pretreat Korean steelworks RO feed

Microfibre filters to pretreat a reverse-osmosis (RO) plant are being provided for one of South Korea's largest steel factories by Amiad Water Systems.

Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment

German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.

Amiad disc filters in Chennai desalination pretreatment

Arkal disc filtration technology made by Amiad Filtration Systems has been selected as part of the pretreatment system for the seawater desalination plant currently being built for the Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewage Board on India's east coast.

Ras Az Zawr to have DAF/DMF pretreatment from Enpure

Pretreatment for the reverse osmosis (RO) section of the world's largest seawater desalination plant at Ras Az Zawr (or Ras Azzour) in Saudi Arabia is to be by dissolved air flotation (DAF) and dual-media filtration (DMF).

Amiad filters provide pretreatment in Brazilian UF reuse project

Disc filters are to be supplied by Amiad Filtration Systems Ltd to protect ultrafiltration membranes in the Aquapolo tertiary wastewater treatment and reuse project in São Paulo, Brazil.

New LG Chem filter plant to drive market leadership bid

South Korean chemical firm, LG Chem, has claimed its recently completed construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) water filter production plant in Korea will springboard its drive for global market leadership.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

Hurley appointed president/CEO of Parkson

Florida-based Parkson Corporation announced the appointment on 24 April 2012 of Shamus M Hurley as its new president and CEO. Hurley, who served for the last five years as CEO of Kinetico - a leading manufacturer of residential and commercial water treatment systems - replaces Zain Mahmood.

STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract

Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.

Amiad completes stage 1 of French brine-filtration system

The first stage of a salt-leaching brine-filtration system at an underground liquid hydrocarbon storage facility in France has been completed by Amiad Filtration Systems. Performance testing and operation in real conditions is now under way.

Pentair to acquire Brazilian water-filter maker

Pentair Inc announced on 17 December 2010 an agreement to acquire Hidro Filtros do Brasil, a leading manufacturer of water filters and filtering elements for residential and industrial applications operating in Brazil and neighboring countries.

New Dow factory meets growing particle filter demand

On 3 April 2013 , Dow Water & Process Solutions announced the opening of a commercial-scale manufacturing facility for the Tequatic Plus fine particle filter in Menlo Park, California, which is designed to meet growing demand for its line of F-50, F-75 and F-150 models. The following case studies illustrate its use as pretreatment prior to membrane treatment. This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

New Dow factory meets growing particle filter demand

On 3 April 2013 , Dow Water & Process Solutions announced the opening of a commercial-scale manufacturing facility for the Tequatic Plus fine particle filter in Menlo Park, California, which is designed to meet growing demand for its line of F-50, F‑75 and F‑150 models. This filter can be used in pretreatment before reverse osmosis in wastewater reuse, as the two case-studies in this article illustrate. This article first appeared in the May/June issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

First Degrémont BWRO unit starts up in Saudi Arabia

The first of the 5,000 m³/d modular brackish-water desalination units being supplied to Saudi Arabia's National Water Company (NWC) by Degrémont began producing water on 7 February 2013.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

AMTA's awards recognise individuals for a variety of contributions to the field of membrane technology

AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.

Monterey consultant can't choose between projects

The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.

Amiad disc filters to protect Ashdod ultrafiltration

Amiad Water Systems has won a US$ 1.67 million contract to provide an Arkal Super Galaxy automatic disc filtration system (SpinKlin R) for the protection of ultrafiltration membranes at the Mekorot Group's Ashdod Desalination Plant, which will be one of the largest in Israel.

Amiad provides prefiltration for Australian membrane projects

Two very different contracts for prefiltration equipment prior to membrane water treatment and desalination have been won by Amiad in Australia.

Kuwait plant to get GE membranes

Kuwait's Sulaibiya wastewater treatment and reclamation plant will be upgraded with GE's water reuse technology.

Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi

Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.

Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot

Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.

Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

Doosan acquires UK desalination pretreatment technology

Korean company Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced on 13 November 2012 that it had completed its acquisition of key assets of the water/wastewater treatment engineering company Enpure, based in the UK.

Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant

A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

Veolia sells boiler-feed pretreatment to 3 US refineries

Pretreatment for high-purity boiler feedwater is to be supplied to three refineries on the Gulf of Mexico in the USA by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.

Florida RO chemical pretreatment workshop for SEDA

A technology-transfer workshop on Chemical Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Technology is to be held in Dunedin, Florida, by the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA).

Doosan Enpure secures Escondida pretreatment contract

Doosan Enpure has secured a US$ 17 million contract to design, procure and supply the pretreatment plant for the desalination part of the Escondida Water Supply Project at the world's largest copper mine in Chile's Atacama desert.

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

VWS buys inge UF modules for oil rig

VWS Westgarth has awarded a contract to BASF subsidiary inge GmbH for 600 dizzer® ultrafiltration (UF) modules for an oil rig.

UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants

Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Pentair X-Flow UF pretreatment for Ashdod desalination

The giant Ashdod seawater reverse-osmosis desalination (SWRO) plant under construction in Israel is to have ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment supplied by Pentair X-Flow.

X-Flow UF pretreatment chosen for Al Zawrah SWRO

Cadagua SA has chosen ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment from Pentair X-Flow for the Al Zawrah seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

SEDA to hold workshop on pretreatment for RO/NF

The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop on 12 February 2014 at the Town of Jupiter Water Treatment Plant in Florida on Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF).

Biwater wins RO job at Jacksonville treatment plant

Three 1 MGD (3,875 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) trains are to be delivered by Biwater as part of a contract in Jacksonville, North Carolina, USA, from TA Loving Company.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

The reverse-osmosis hall at Tuaspring

Tuaspring SWRO desalination plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's second large seawater desalination plant was officially opened on 18 September 2013 by the prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong.

SEDA to hold chemicals workshop in November

The Southeast Desalination Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Coral Springs Florida on 14 November 2013.

Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1

Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.

CaribDA pretreatment workshop set for Antigua

A workshop on pretreatment for seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is being held by the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) on the island of Antigua on 7-8 April 2011.

Wabag JV lands Oman port desalination contract

Chennai-based Wabag Ltd, in joint venture with fellow Indian contractor Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), has been awarded a contract for the completion of a seawater treatment plant, which will supply desalinated water to various industrial production plants in the Sohar International Port Complex.

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker

Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.

Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE

The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.

Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination

Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.

The ultrafiltration system in Abu Dhabi supplied by inge watertechnologies AG will treat 80,000 m³/d.

UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment

Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Siemens wins OC membrane system contract

A hollow-fiber membrane pretreatment system is to be supplied to Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) system expansion under a US$ 14 million contract won by Siemens in California, USA.

The Ikusasa membrane plant

First indigenous UF plant to open in South Africa in May

The first large drinking water purification demonstration plant in South Africa based on locally manufactured membranes, an 800,000 L/d plant, is currently under construction for Overberg Water in the Western Cape and due to start up in May 2010.

Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010

The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.

Hyflux may build two large desalination plants in Libya

Hyflux Ltd of Singapore and General Desalination Company (GDC) of Libya signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on 24 June 2009 giving Hyflux the rights to work with GDC to jointly invest into and develop two reverse-osmosis desalination plants in Libya.

CH2M Hill poised for Kalba desalination mobilization

Civil work on the 3.0 MIGD (13,368 m³/d) Kalba seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates has almost been completed by the Sharjah Electricity & Water Authority (SEWA).

Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract

A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.

Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia

A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.

TEP expert dies in Galapagos fall

Professor Tom Berman, best known in the desalination world for his work on transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs), died last week after a fall during a vacation in the Galapagos Islands.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Abilene wastewater overhaul uses GE pretreatment

The city of Abilene, Texas has completed its installation of GE's LEAPmbr wastewater pretreatment system as part of a major upgrade to the city's Hamby wastewater treatment plant.

Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned

The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Denver, the most populous municipality in Colorado, will be served by the State Water Plan which proposes reducing the amount of water diverted from rivers and streams in order to extend water supplies in a sustainable and efficient way

Denver Water selects Xylem for unique direct potable reuse demo

Denver Water, Colorado, has selected Xylem as its technology partner on a new direct potable reuse demonstration project that eschews reverse osmosis.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be used to capture salt and ions in seawater

MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers

The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Lake Manatee Water Treatment Plant in Florida, US, is upgrading its ageing processes

GE to retrofit Florida plant with membranes over media filtration

GE Water & Process Technologies is to retrofit Lake Manatee Water Treatment Plant in Florida, US, with its ZeeWeed 1000 ultrafiltration membranes.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

AquaVenture shares have sailed upward since they began trading on October 6, 2016

AquaVenture shares jump 28 per cent in first week of trading

Shares in AquaVenture opened at $23.10 today (October 12, 2016), 28 per cent higher than they were priced a week ago for their initial public offering.

Figure 1, the feed spacer separates the surfaces of adjacent membrane envelopes

Innovative feed spacer technology leads to enhanced reverse osmosis element performance

Innovations in feed spacer technology can enhance the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, write Dr Carsten Schellenberg and Alan D Sharpe of Conwed Plastics and LAXNESS.

Ashwin Gulati (left) of Spiral Water receives the Innovation Award from BlueTech Research chief executive Paul O'Callaghan

Spiral scoops innovation award for its 'disruptive' automatic self-cleaning filter

Spiral Water has picked up an Innovation Award from BlueTech Research for its automatic self-cleaning water filter, a "disruptive" new filter technology according to Spiral chief executive Ashwin Gulati.

Spiral Water puts in solids performance

Difficult-to-treat water filtration specialist, Spiral Water Technologies, has extended the application of its technology into solids management.

Spiral Water moves house

Specialist in filtration for difficult-to-treat waters, Spiral Water Technologies, has moved its corporate headquarters to a larger facility in San Rafael, California. The Bay Area company, will use the greater space to accommodate its growing operations including research and development, and production, it said.

Xylem gets contract for underdrain at plant retrofit

Water technology firm, Xylem, has won a contract to provide its filtration technology to a water treatment plant in La Verne, California.

Membranes attract LG Chem investment focus

Korean chemical giant, LG Chem, is focusing its investment on its water treatment operation built on its acquisition of NanoH2O as one of three business strands chosen as "more promising" and showing "growth potential".

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

Rejected slant well could work

A water intake system previously rejected for a proposed desalination plant at Huntington Beach could be viable if it is used differently, according to environmental organisation, Orange County Coastkeeper.

LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million

LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.

LG Chem to supply eight desalination projects

LG Chem, has signed an US$ 8 million deal to supply reverse osmosis (RO) filters for eight seawater desalination projects in five nations from its newly constructed plant at Cheongju in South Korea's North Chungcheong province.

Poseidon plays down watchdog's warning

The developer of a giant desalination project at Huntingdon Beach, California has played down a recent notice from the Coastal Commission telling the firm that its application for a development permit was incomplete.

The Aquatech process

Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine

The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.

Scilly proposes floating intake solution to sediment challenge

The Scilly Isles' council has submitted plans to the Marine Management Organisation for a new seawater intake for the islands' St Mary's desalination plant. A novel floating arrangement for the intake is designed to leave the seabed undisturbed to limit filter blockage by sediment.

Neptune Benson buys Sonitec Vortisand

Engineering firm Neptune Benson, has bought Canada-based water filtration company, Sonitec Vortisand, for an undisclosed sum.

Neptune Benson buys Sonitec Vortisand

Engineering firm Neptune Benson, has bought Canada-based water filtration company Sonitec Vortisand.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

Xylem wins major contract at Hong Kong's Tai Po water treatment works

Water technology firm, Xylem has won a contact to provide clarification and filtration systems for an expansion of the Tai Po water treatment works in Hong Kong that will double its capacity to 800 Ml/d.

Asia's largest reverse osmosis plant begins operation

Asia's largest reverse osmosis plant, with a capacity to produce 10 Ml/d, has recently been inaugurated in Pakistan's drought-ridden Sindh province.

'The water business is the biggest business in the world. A lot of people raise their eyebrows when I say that.' Dick Heckmann, PolyCera Membranes

'The water business needs consolidating', Dick Heckmann, PolyCera Membranes, board director

Richard 'Dick' Heckmann, founder in 1990 of US Filter, a business he sold nine years later for $8.2 billion, tells Water. desal + reuse why the water business needs consolidating, why he's backing PolyCera Membranes, and why California is 'the stupidest state on the planet'

Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China

Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.

Pall appoints industrial systems sale manager

Filtration company Pall Corporation has appointed Michael Moll as its manager of industrial systems sales for the western hemisphere.

LG Chem seeks global player status in reverse osmosis membranes

South Korean petrochemicals company LG Chem has unveiled plans to become a global player in the market for reverse osmosis membranes for desalination.

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.

Next IDA Academy course set for Singapore water week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has chosen Operational Aspects of Reverse Osmosis (RO) & Membrane Plants and Mega Projects to be the topics of the next two-day course for the IDA Desalination Academy.

US$ 5 million raised by Israeli membrane developer

Israel's Advanced Mem-Tech, which develops innovative membrane filtration processes used in water treatment, announced on 12 March 2014 the completion of a financing round of close to US$ 5 million.

LG sees NanoH2O takeover as "new growth engine"

LG Chem, part of Korea's LG electronics group, is proposing a takeover of desalination membrane maker NanoH2O for US$ 200 million, according to a filing made to the Korea Exchange on 14 March 2014.


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