Nuclear, Reverse Osmosis, Sewerage, Russia


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Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield

Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.

Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem

A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Norit X-Flow Aquaflex membranes

Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes

One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.

NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol

A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).

The coastal region of Bushehr, in the Persian Gulf, is in the south west of Iran

Iran poised to finance nuclear plants with co-located desalination

Iran has begun constructing two nuclear power plants, to be co-located with desalination facilities of 200 million m3/d, reports Iranian government news agency, Islamic Republic News Agency.

Pilot desalination plant to start up soon on Hudson river

United Water is finalizing construction of a pilot desalination plant at Haverstraw on the Hudson river in New York state. If constructed, the full size reverse-osmosis plant would be 7.5 MGD (28,300 m³/d).

Desalination plants part of Palestine agreement

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a statement on 4 February 2011 agreeing to improvements in water, sewerage and electricity in Palestinian areas, following a meeting with Tony Blair, representative of the "Quartet" (USA, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union).

California county mulls tapping into nuclear plant desalination

As part of its plans to combat ongoing severe drought, California's San Luis Obispo County (SLO) is considering the construction of a 10 km pipeline to tap into the spare capacity of a desalination plant currently providing only the needs of a nuclear power plant.

Drought stricken California county looks to nuclear plant desalination plant

California's San Luis Obispo County board of supervisors has approved a sewage reclamation project that could add treated wastewater to an aquifer and the expansion of a desalination facility at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant as emergency water supply options.

Russians award Aqua-Chem SWRO contract

The Russian government has ordered the second phase of a 10,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system from Matrix, a division of Aqua-Chem Inc of Florida, USA.

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan

Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

IDE Technologies will supply RO technology to support industry on the Taman Peninsular, Russia

IDE Technologies sells RO system to Russia's Oteko

IDE Technologies is to provide a reverse osmosis desalination system to Russian oil transporter Oteko for a plant on the shores of the Black Sea.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.

H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant

Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.

Typical plant configuration based on Synwater 500 system

Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology

Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.

Namibian government poised to table offer for Areva desalination plant

Namibia's government is poised to table an offer to buy Areva's seawater desalination plant at Trekkopje and to use the 20 million m³-a-year facility to supply the country's semi-arid Erongo region.

Suez supports a biological treatment system for water reuse at the Bashneft oil refinery, Russia

Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'

Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

Grundfos headquarters in Bjerringbro, Denmark, is the base for a global pumps business

Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market

Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse

OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Ex-USSR water minister promotes desalination for Crimea

Desalination of water from the Azov Sea could be one of the best sources for a water supply to Crimea, recently annexed by the Russian Federation, according to Polad Polad-zade, former USSR minister of water resources and deputy president of the Union of Watermen & Irrigators.

Sanjeev Sharma

Sharma leads IDE's marketing in Indian region

Sanjeev Sharma has been appointed head of marketing for desalination company IDE Technologies Ltd in the Indian region.

Oman water-reuse contract awarded by Haya Water

Oman's Haya Water awarded a RO 26.7 million (US$ 69.6 million) contract on 21 May 2012 to Contractors Union Co to construct the second phase of a water-reuse project in Al Qurum and Madinat Al Ilam areas in Muscat Governorate.

Chennai desalination plant 'will finish in 2009'

The 100,000 m³/d Minjur desalination plant in Chennai, India, will be completed this year, the state government stated on 27 June 2009, despite a warning related to the implementing consortium from the Fitch financial ratings agency.

Funding go-ahead for Chennai desalter

A 100,000m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was approved on 2 January 2009 for the Indian city of Chennai by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.

Hawkes Bay plant still awaiting go-ahead

Though it has signed a contract in June with the Karachi Water & Sewerage Board, Norwegian supplier Aqualyng is still waiting for official steps by the Sindh Provincial Government before it can start the 114,000 m³/d Hawkes Bay reverse-osmosis plant which will supply potable water for Karachi.

Grenada government tries again with RO desalination

The report on the Grenada government's website on 21 May 2014 that it was building reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique might not be quite as good as it sounds.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

The Blue Hills SWRO plant

ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion

High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

The desalination plant is located north of the desert town Wlotzkasbaken, on the South Atlantic

NamWater seeks consultants to advise on desal deal

Namibia Water Corporation (NamWater) is seeking consultants to help with a possible acquisition of Areva Desalination Plant at Swakopmund.

Consultants sought for Chennai III desalination plant

Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) has called for tenders for consultancy services for a third seawater desalination plant for the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.

Israeli group to build desalination plants in Dar-es-Salaam

Water authorities in Dar-es-Salaam are planning to work with an Israeli consortium in constructing two reverse osmosis desalination plants to alleviate water shortage in the Tanzanian commercial capital.

Chennai desalination plant inaugurated at last

India's largest desalination plant, the much-delayed 100,000 m³/d Minjur plant serving Chennai, was inaugurated by Tami Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi on 31 July 2010.

Caribbean successes for Seven Seas Water

The US Virgin Islands Water & Power Authority (WAPA) voted on 24 May 2010 to outsource all its desalination water supply to Seven Seas Water Corporation in a move intended to cut its water production costs in half.

Chennai II desalination to have Norit UF pretreatment

Norit X-Flow is to supply, install, commission and start up the ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment package for the Nemmeli seawater reverse osmosis plant in Chennai, India. It will be the first advanced membrane desalination pretreatment system in the country.

The signing of the Maldives contract

Biwater to build six SWRO plants in Maldives

Six seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants with a total capacity of 3,000 m³/d are to built built in the Southern Province of the Maldive Islands by Biwater International Limited.

Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility

Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.

The hyper-saline Dead Sea would receive brine from the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination scheme

Jordan and Saudi join forces for atomic-fuelled desalination

Saudi Arabia and Jordan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for a feasibility study on two nuclear reactors in Jordan, to generate electricity and for desalination, reports Zawya.

The site of the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station is ripe for redevelopment as a solar desalination plant, says SolRio

SolRio proposes solar desal for old nuclear power site

SolRio, a US non-profit that supports solar-powered desalination, has proposed turning the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station, California, into a desalination plant.

Regulator blocks New York desalination proposal

A US regional regulator recently dashed a bid by utility, United Water New York to build a desalination plant after customers rejected the water firm's proposed up-front price hikes to meet the cost of the plant. 

MECO wins US Navy desalination contracts

Louisiana-based MECO has been awarded the design and development of advanced shipboard desalination units for the US Navy under contracts with the Office of Naval Research.

The new adsorption-based facility will use solar energy to power the desalination process

Saudi Arabia to build solar-powered, adsorption desalination plant

Saudi Arabia is building a solar-powered desalination plant using adsoprtion technology, in one of seven strategic projects that include the nation's first nuclear research reactor.

Who will buy GE Water & Process Technologies?

The news that GE wants to sell its Water & Process Technologies business sent a ripple of surprise through the global desalination industry last week, with many at first asking: "Why?"

San Luis county pledges US$ 900,000 for plans tap into nuclear plant desalination

The San Luis Obispo County Board of Supervisors has committed US$ 900,000 to planning and permitting for a proposal to expand Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant's reverse osmosis desalination plant to supply South County residents.

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

Kalpakkam Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant, India

Water scarcity can make nuclear option attractive to some countries

Nuclear power and desalination have been seen as symbiotic technologies for a long time. The combination is viewed as an attractive option for countries that have nuclear capability but which also lack sufficient potable water. The author reviews recent advances in IAEA member states to improve reactors with regard to desalination. He also looks at major recent nuclear desalination studies and projects around the globe This article first appeared in the November/December 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine. It has already appeared on this site, but was accidentally deleted.

Saudi and Chinese state-owned entities are collaborating on nuclear desalination

Saudi Arabia and China to develop nuclear desalination projects

Saudi Arabia and China have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on developing desalination projects using gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

The new joint venture enterprise led by China National Nuclear Power will be based in Shanghai

China to sell off-the-shelf floating nuclear desalination units

Chinese state-owned China National Nuclear Power (CNNP) has formed a new joint venture company to build floating nuclear power and seawater desalination plants.

French loan for two desalination evaporators in Kazakhstan

France is to loan Kazakhstan US$ 32 million to build two desalination plants to help supply water for the west of the country.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

South Africa's Cape ponders desalination as water crisis grips

The provincial government of South Africa's Western Cape is looking to water reclamation and seawater desalination as it considers its options for securing water amid a serious crisis.

IDA-GWI conference to be held in Paris in 2010

The annual conference held jointly by the International Desalination Association and Global Water Intelligence is to be held next year in Paris on 26-27 April 2010.

Tapping into Table Mountain aquifer is among the measures proposed to beat the drought

Western Cape looks to desal, as Eksom issues RFP

Western Cape, South Africa, is to expedite an environmental impact assessment for a mobile desalination plant, as the area is officially declared a disaster zone due to water scarcity.

Chennai venue for InDACON 2010 desalination conference

Next year's InDACON-APDA conference will be in Chennai on 10-12 March 2010, the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) announced on 16 September 2009.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

China ups daily desalt capacity by a billion cubic metres

China built 112 seawater desalination plants in 2014, with a total output of 927 Ml/d the State Oceanic Administration revealed recently in a report on seawater use during last year.

CaribDA board backs Trinidad conference

The board of the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced in December its full support for a regional desalination and water reuse conference in Trinidad & Tobago in May 2010.

The site of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, north of Cape Town, South Africa, may host a project to pilot desalination for municipal use

South Africa nuclear plant to install desal unit amid worsening water crisis

South Africa's electricity utility Eskom is to install a desalination unit at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, as water shortages in Cape Town hit crisis levels, reports South Africa's News24.com.

Ethanol production water warning from US researchers

Desalination practitioners struggling to reduce the energy consumption of their plants and water engineers fighting shortages might be interested in the following table showing how much water is consumed producing various forms of energy in the USA.

Areva set to hand over desalination plant to Namibia

French nuclear group, Areva, is poised to hand over a desalination plant to the Namibian government, for an undisclosed sum according to the south west African country's chamber of mines.

Studies start for Jordan's first desalination plant

Jordan's first desalination plant is expected to be operational by 2010, supplying the port city of Aqaba with 10 million m³/year, Aqaba Water Company (AWC) announced in August. The AWC has signed an agreement with Bank Muscat to study siting a plant on Aqaba's southern coast to desalinate Red Sea water.

Over-crowding on the island of Male has driven the Maldivian government to develop new island Hulhumale

Hitachi wins $8.8 million desalination project in the Maldives

Hitachi Aqua-Tech Engineering and Hitachi Capital Asia have won a water supply contract from Male Water & Sewerage Company in the Maldives.

The latest desalination project in Nemmeli, Tamil Nadu state, aims to build the third such plant to serve the population of the Chennai metropolitan area

Madras High Court lifts bar on Nemmeli project tender

The Madras High Court has lifted its hold on the Nemmeli desalination plant tender, clearing the path for the project to move ahead.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Chennai is the capital city of Tamil Nadu state, in southeastern India, on the Bay of Bengal

JICA to loan $283 million for Chennai's fourth desalination plant

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to loan JPY 30 billion ($283 million) to build a seawater desalination plant in Chennai, India.

The plant will supply drinking water to inhabitants in the north of Eleuthera island, Bahamas

GE Water to build desalination facility on Eleuthera island, Bahamas

GE Water is to build, own, and operate (BOO) a seawater reverse osmosis plant on the island of Eleuthera, in the Bahamas, on a 15 years contract.

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle

Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

Rishabh Sethi, executive director, SPML Infra, 'proud to be part of making fresh water available'

Rajasthan boosts water supplies with three major reuse projects across 11 cities

SPML Infra and Tata Projects have won three contracts worth a total of INR 1,275 crores ($189 million) to supply sewerage and wastewater reuse systems to 11 cities in Rajasthan, India.

Investment in US water utilities will shift from federal to other sources over the coming decade

Stage set for proliferation of private finance in US utilities

Capital expenditure by US water and wastewater utilities is expected to top $532 billion between 2016 and 2025, but the upturn is unlikely to be funded by federal budgets.

Point Lisas back in action

Trinidad's Point Lisas desalination plant has resumed operation following the completion of extensive planned maintenance work by its owner, the Desalination Company of Trinidad and Tobago.

Trinidad residents struggle as Point Lisas closes for maintenance

Trinidad's water supplies will be placed under stress after the water and sewerage authority temporarily shuts down the Point Lisas desalination plant for maintenance creating a 10% shortfall in output.

Bangalore strategic plan contract goes to CH2M

India's Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) has selected CH2M to develop a strategic plan for the city of Bengaluru to assist in its water and wastewater infrastructure needs to 2050.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Xylem trials pumps with Australia's Unitywater

Water technology company, Xylem, has been working with one of Australia's largest water services and sewerage services providers to reduce significantly energy consumption and eliminate blockages at a number of its wastewater pump stations.

Miami-Dade's US$ 13 billion plans pull in punters for PPP

Miami-Dade County has become the most attractive public private partnership (PPP) opportunity in the US with players chasing US$ 13 billion in water and wastewater projects according to market analyst Bluefield Research.

Trinidad and Tobago remain on dry alert despite desalination upgrade completion

Trinidad and Tobago remain under a dry spell alert as a completed upgrade at the desalination plant in Point Lisas takes up to two months to provide fully its increased capacity.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

The beach at Chennai, in the Bay of Bengal, nearby the site of the new desalination plant at Nemmeli

Suez International seeks to halt work order on Nemmeli project

Madras High Court has ordered Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board not to issue a work order for its proposed Nemmeli desalination plant, following a petition from bidder Suez International.

Chennai III consultant to be chosen this month

India's Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board will choose a consultant in July 2011 to prepare a detailed project report for a 200,000 m³/d desalination plant at Pattipulam, a few kilometres away from the 100,000 m³/d Nemmeli desalination plant due for completion in December.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

Bahamas desalination plant production to be expanded

Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 1 February 2011 that it has entered into a binding letter agreement with its customer, the Water & Sewerage Corporation (WSC), to increase the daily production capacity of its Blue Hill plant in Nassau, Bahamas, by approximately 67% to 12 million GPD (45,000 m³/d) compared with the plant's current capacity of 7.2 million GPD (27,000 m³/d).

Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE

Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.


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