New Zealand, Wastewater Treatment, Singapore, UAE, Pacific, greenhouse gas, China, Renewable Energy


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memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs

A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.

Sembcorp to build Chinese chemical wastewater plant

Sembcorp announced on 19 December 2013 that it would be developing a new industrial wastewater treatment plant in the Caofeidian Chemical Industrial Park in Hebei province, China.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China

A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).

Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech

Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

United Envirotech to acquire Singapore membrane-maker

Singapore's United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) is to acquire its own membrane manufacturing capability by spending S$ 293.4 million (US$ 231 million) on a 100% stake in Memstar Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Memstar Technology Ltd, also of Singapore, plus certain assets.

Solar power installed soon for Nauru desalination plant

Singapore's Hitachi-Aquatech has awarded a contract to two New Zealand companies for a 131 kWp solar system to power a desalination plant for the Pacific island of Nauru.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

Masdar steps up ties with China

Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.

Iqbal Ahmad

Ahmad takes charge of inge sales for Asia/Pacific

Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane specialist inge GmbH has taken the decision to appoint a dedicated representative to reinforce its local presence in the Asia-Pacific region and boost its regional activities.

Hydranautics to collaborate with Singapore's Memstar

Membrane manufacturer Nitto Denko/Hydranautics has agreed business collaboration with Memstar Technology Ltd, the Singapore-based manufacturer of high-performance hollow-fiber membranes.


JGC and Hyflux to collaborate on water and desalination projects

Hydrocarbon engineering company JGC Corporation of Japan and NewSpring Utility Pte Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Singapore-based membrane technology company Hyflux Ltd, signed a joint venture agreement on 22 December 2009 to develop greenfield water projects including desalination in China.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Artist impression’s of the wastewater treatment plant in Guangzhou city

Singapore firm wins large MBR contract in China

United Envirotech Ltd of Singapore announced on 3 November 2009 an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract worth RMB 264 million (US$ 38.7 million) to build a 100,000 m³/d membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment plant in Guangzhou, China.

Chinese membrane wastewater firm gets big investment

Global investor KKR has entered into an agreement with United Envirotech Limited (UEL), a water treatment and recycling company in China, for a US$ 40 million common equity investment. KKR subscribed US$ 113.8 million convertible bonds issued by UEL in October 2011 to support the company's business expansion.

Xylem appoints new emerging markets head

Water technology firm, Xylem, has appointed Steven Leung as senior vice president and president, emerging markets, In this newly created position, Leung will lead the company's commercial operations in China, greater Asia, India, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, as well as Australia and New Zealand.

United Envirotech buys Xinmin wastewater concession

Membrane treatment specialist United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) announced on 3 October 2011 that the group has exercised a call option to acquire the entire equity interest of Tongji Environmental (China) Pte Ltd, the holding company for Aton Environmental (Shenyang) Co Ltd, for RMB 34.03 million (US$ 5.34 million).

STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract

Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

Koch MBR system chosen by Chinese city

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes supplied by Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) has been chosen for a wastewater treatment plant operated by Zhangjiagang JinGang Sewage Treatment, a state-owned entity which looks after all municipal plants for the Chinese city of Zhangjiagang.

Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China

Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

Chinese visitors for West Basin water-reuse plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water district announced on 26 April 2013 that earlier in the month it had received a visit from a group of public and private administrators from China interested to learn about water recycling facilities and the management experiences of US enterprises in wastewater treatment.

Siemens MBR contracted for Chinese industry park

An underground membrane bioreactor (MBR) system worth several million US dollars is to be provided by Siemens (Tianjin) Water Technology Engineering Co Ltd to Shenzhen Zhongying Precious Metal Co Ltd.

Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore

The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

Black & Veatch picks up deals in Hong Kong and Singapore

Consultant, Black & Veatch, has won contracts to provide key roles in two planned desalination projects in Hong Kong and Singapore. Both projects, according to Black & Veatch, will set new design and energy-use benchmarks for water treatment plants.

Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore

A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.

Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal

Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

WRI publishes country chart of water-stress exposure

A ranked list of countries showing their exposure to water-stress was released on 12 December 2012 by the World Resources Institute (WRI).

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

Acciona to build Sembcorp's Fujairah 1 expansion

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries has signed a 20‑year water purchase agreement with the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC) which will enable it to expand its Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) by 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

IDA and PUB to cooperate on water training/education

The International Desalination Association (IDA) and PUB, Singapore's national water agency, signed an agreement on 2 July 2012 to explore opportunities for mutual cooperation in promising areas of training and education regarding water.

Ravichandran Subramanian

KMS hires Subramanian to develop Southeast Asia markets

US membrane manufacturer Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) has hired Ravichandran Subramanian as regional commercial manager for Southeast Asia.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

First IDA Young Leaders tour completed

The International Desalination Association (IDA) Young Leaders Program (YLP) recently concluded its first global Educational Tour, reaching out to more than 2,000 potential future desalters in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the USA.

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.

Singapore's Changi wastewater reclamation plant.

Tender later this year for Changi expansion

A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.

Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial

Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.

 L to R: Heiner Markhoff, GE Water CEO and president, Dr Tony Yan, chairman, National Research Foundation of Singapore, Prof Dr Chorh Chuan, president, NUS.

New Singapore center will develop desalination/reuse solutions

GE and the National University of Singapore (NUS) are investing US$ 100 million in the Singapore Water Technology Center, which will seek new solutions for low-energy seawater desalination, water reclamation and more efficient water reuse.

Hyflux bucks recession with 79% profits jump

Hyflux, the Singapore-based water treatment and desalination company, reported record earnings for the financial year ending December 2008.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

Masdar green desalination competition kicks off

All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination

Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

(from left) PUB assistant chief executive Harry Seah, PUB chief executive Ng Joo Hee, Danish ambassador to Singapore Dorte Bech Vizard, Grundfos managing director Asia Pacific Kim Jensen, and Grundfos head of innovation Gao Xin

PUB and Grundfos deepen water research partnership

Singapore's national water utility PUB and global pumps firm Grundfos, of Denmark, have unveiled a strategic partnership that is developing new capabilities in water quality monitoring, among other initiatives.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

New Grundfos director seeks to double Asia Pacific revenue

Pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has charged newly appointed Asia Pacific regional managing director Okay Barutçu with doubling the company's revenue in the region.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

Wastewater reuse plant nears completion in Hegang, China

United Envirotech of Singapore expects to complete construction of a 30,000 m³/d wastewater reuse facility for China's Hegang municipal government by the end of December 2010.

Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE

Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Five newcomers voted onto IDA board

Five new faces were elected directly to the board of the International Desalination Association (IDA) for 2013‑15.

Chinese lead water-reuse positivity in GE survey

GE announced on 5 June 2013 the final part of the results from its three-country 3,000-sample consumer water-reuse survey.

Pipeline could rein in Emirates' desalination investment

A giant pipeline between Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) could stem the Middle Eastern states' investment in desalination according to an Emirates businessman.

Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November

A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.

IDA publishes new World Congress information

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued its Second Announcement for its World Congress 2013 on Desalination & Water Reuse which will take place in Tianjin, China, during 20-25 October 2013.

Asia Pacific countries will host 22 mega cities by 2030, driving water demand

Analysis claims 29 Asia Pacific countries lack water security

Asia and the Pacific is a "global hot spot for water insecurity", a new report from the Asian Development Bank claims.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

IDA opens online 2013 Congress paper submission

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is now accepting papers for its World Congress in Tianjin, China, in October 2013.

Grundfos reforms in bid to double Asia Pacific revenues

Danish pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has unveiled an organisational restructure in its Asia Pacific operations where it is looking to "double revenues over the next five years." The reshuffle will "improve customer service, enhance organisational efficiency, and drive the next phase of growth in the Asia Pacific."

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

Papers called for IDA's 2013 World Congress

A call for papers was issued on 14 May 2012 by the International Desalination Association (IDA) for its 2013 World Congress Desalination: A Promise for the Future.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Xylem to distribute GE membrane filtration products

Xylem Inc, the ITT water technology spin-off officially launched on 1 November 2011, has signed up to be GE's distribution partner into the public utilities market for its advanced membrane filtration products.

Olympics facilities manager appointed as Tri-Tech VP

Former Siemens engineer, Weidong Bi, who managed membrane-bioreactor and reverse-osmosis plants for the Olympic Games in China, is one of three senior executive appointments announced by Tri-Tech Holding Inc on 3 June 2010.

Bermuda-based group acquires 50% of Aqualyng China

Beijing Enterprises Water Group Limited (BEWGL) announced on 9 April 2010 that it had acquired a 50% equity interest in Aqualyng China Limited. Norway-based Aqualyng Holding AS, which has many years of experience in design, construction and installation of seawater desalination facilities, holds the other 50%.

Chinese MBR reuse plant to be built by BTO contract

A membrane bioreactor wastewater reuse plant is to be built by Tri-Tech Holding Inc under a $2 million build-transfer-operate (BTO) contract for the Dongli Economic Development Area in Tianjin Municipality in northern China.

Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA

Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.

Oasys furthers advance in China

US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.

Abengoa takes stake in Beijing-based GreenTech

Spanish desalination and energy contractor Abengoa has acquired 25% of the Beijing-based water company GreenTech.

Chinese visitors are shown the MBR plant at Al Ansab.

Chinese delegation visits Oman's Al Ansab MBR plant

A Chinese delegation led by the deputy minister of water resources, Lee Joieeing, visited Oman's Al Ansab submerged membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant in Muscat on 24 October 2011 (featured in D&WR, November/December 2011).


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