Nevada, Desalination, Health, Water Treatment, Safety


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Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

New AMTA/AWWA convention set for Las Vegas in 2014

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it has reached an interim agreement with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) to renew their combined desalination and water treatment membrane event for 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada.

US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops

Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.

SWMOA announces dates for 2013-14

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced additional workshop dates for desalination and water / wastewater treatment membrane operators for 2013 and the date and venue for its 2014 annual symposium.

PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation

The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

SWMOA calls for papers for Vegas in February 2011

The South West Membrane Operator Association has scheduled its 2011 Annual Symposium for Las Vegas, Nevada, on 7-9 February 2011.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

Ras Al Khaimah Municipality discovered water impurities and unsafe water bottles across nine desalination stations

Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing

Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.

Sydney's desalination plant

Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water

The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water

The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

Brussels seeks options on how to up water reuse

A European Union (EU) public consultation on "policy options to optimise water reuse in the EU" is approaching its close as the bloc seeks to exploit a "significant potential for further development of water reuse" among member states.

IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater

California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.

Antiscalant removes need for acid in wastewater RO

Field trials of a new scale-inhibiting chemical for use with reverse-osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse plants show that, at a low dose rate, it can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times, obviating the need for using dangerous and costly acid. Current design practices for large effluent reuse projects are focused on a combination of removing phosphate by precipitation prior to the RO plant and acid dosing to reduce pH to 6.0 and hence increase calcium phosphate solubility to prevent fouling. Conventional antiscalants are ineffective at high phosphate and high recovery rates, and the only other option has been to dose large quantities of acid to reduce feed pH to below 6.2. Reducing the pH from 7.5 to 6.0 on a 2,700 m /day plant would require 0.5 to 1 ton of 95% sulphuric acid per day. Handling this quantity of acid is an environmental, health, safety and logistical problem that many plant operators would like to move away from. The results from the field trials show that using a highly active threshold inhibiting antiscalant such as Genesys PHO at a low dose rate of 2 -5 mg/L can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

ITT donates five RO-based treatment units to Haiti

ITT Corporation announced on 22 February 2010 that, through its partnership with Mercy Corps, the company is donating five portable water treatment systems in Haiti, providing enough potable water each day for up to 200,000 victims of the 12 January 2010 earthquake.

Dow gets NF start in Saudi Arabia at Ha'il

The Dow Chemical Company has been chosen to supply water nanofiltration technology to the Ha'il nanofiltration (NF) plant by the Ministry of Water & Electricity in Saudi Arabia.

High-flow cartridges provide safety filter solution for RO

In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in membrane technology in China. It has been widely used in many fields, including seawater desalination, power plants, metallurgic, petrochemical, and municipal and wastewater reuse. This article looks at the use of safety filters for RO systems and how a high-flow filter can avoid build-up of microorganisms and consequent frequent filter change. A paper factory project provides a case study. Significant advantages including high flow-rate and long service-time help Horizon's RZ filter cartridge to occupy an important position in safety filtration for the membrane water-treatment market in China. It displays superior applicability to those large-scale and super large-scale plants operated in recent years. At the same time, RZ filter cartridges have shown fine performance when handling raw water with complicated quality or large fluctuations. Compared with regular cartridges, RZ filter cartridges provide an excellent solution to safety filtration of membrane water treatment because of their longer service life, smaller investment and lower change-out cost. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Israel aids Pacific island with mobile desalinator

Israel's ministry of foreign affairs is supplying a truck-mounted desalination facility to the Marshall islands in the Pacific ocean to help tackle the islands' severe water shortage.

IDA issues call for papers for Portofino conference

The International Desalination Association is seeking presentations from industry and related NGOs on how the organization and the desalination community, as a whole, can be more responsive to human needs for clean and affordable potable water.

GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor

GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.

IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site

IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.

SEDA announces certification school in April 2014

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a membrane operator certification short school on Introduction to Membrane Systems in Florida in April 2014.

Nine projects get Reclamation feasibility funding

The Camp Pendleton desalination project in California is one of nine advanced water treatment and reuse projects in three US states selected for feasibility-study funding by the Bureau of Reclamation.

EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification

California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

'The industry's tendency to evaluate technology on capital cost, as opposed to total lifecycle cost, impedes the application of new technologies,' Joe Gifford, Nanostone

Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development

Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development

IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project

Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal

The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

Biwater bags California reuse contract

UK water technology group Biwater has been awarded a contract to design, supply and commission all process, mechanical, electrical and control components for a planned wastewater reuse demonstration project in California, USA.

Guinea desalination project changes hands

Nevada-based Dhanoa Minerals Ltd is to acquire a 75% majority interest in a 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) seawater desalination project in the Republic of Guinea in West Africa.

San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge

The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published

The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.

NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol

A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).

A carpet shark

Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant

The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.

Toray UF membranes online in North Dakota

An ultrafiltration UF system in North Dakota, USA, has become the first large municipal drinking-water system in the US to use Toray HFS-2020 UF membrane modules.

Adelaide plant delayed by four months

The Adelaide desalination plant is four months behind schedule, South Australia's minister for water, Paul Caica, announced on 28 August 2010.

MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program

Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.

Floating Saudi desalination barges relaunched

Saudi Arabia's two floating water desalination barges have been moved from Shuquaiq to Yanbu, and the first was relaunched on 7 July 2010 by Fehied F Al-Shareef, governor of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Engineer Nabil Azmaruli, general manager of the General Directorate of Water in Al-Madina.

USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants

Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

The Yuma desalination plant

Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully

The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

Chinese Desalination Society joins unconventional-water seminar

A national seminar on Unconventional Water-Use Technology is to be held in Urumqi in Xinjiang province, China, from 5-9 August 2009 to discuss sea- and brackish-water desalination and use of flood water.

Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test

The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.

The intake at the Adelaide desalination plant during construction.

Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project

Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.

Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run

Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.

Salinity summit set for Las Vegas in February

The Multi-State Salinity Coalition (MSSC), which promotes advancements in desalination-related technologies, salinity control strategies and associated policies in the USA, has announced that its 2013 summit will be in Las Vegas.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

Minton to lead WRRF research programs

Julie Minton has been appointed director of research programs by the WateReuse Research Foundation (WRRF), which conducts and promotes applied research on water reuse and desalination.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Brochure online for SEDA Fall Symposium

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) now has the brochure online for its Fall Symposium, titled Membranes: That's Where Water is Headed, on 23- 25 November 2011 in Clearwater, Florida.

Funds from the US Bureau of Reclamation are targeted to support a total of 23 projects across seven US states

US grants $23.6 million federal funding for reuse and desal projects

The US Bureau of Reclamation has handed sums totalling $23.6 million to seven US states to support water reuse and desalination projects.

Lake Mead is an important water source for Southern Nevada

Southern Nevada Water Authority eyes Pacific desal for long-term supply

The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA), Nevada, US, is likely to acquire a stake in a desalination project in California or Mexico as part of its long-term strategy, general manager John Entsminger has said.

SEDA workshop to look at membrane pilot testing

The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) is to hold a workshop in Florida in April on Pilot Testing of Integrated Membrane Systems.

Adelaide's desalination plant - built because of government subsidy?

Australia has overinvested in desalination says government report

Australia has overinvested in desalination in recent years, says a draft report from the Australian Productivity Commission, published on 13 April 2011. One alternative it recommends is indirect potable reuse.

Japan's Yokogawa is looking to expand its control systems business in the power and water infrastructure market

Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

Japanese funds sought for Cape Verde desalination plant

Cape Verde is reported to be looking to Japan for funding for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant on the island of Santiago.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Solar pond and membrane distillation merger in Nevada University

Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermally driven membrane separation process that involves evaporation of volatile constituents (water in desalination applications) through a hydrophobic, microporous membrane. The vacuum-enhanced MD process recently patented by researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno in the United States has now been coupled with some equally interesting research at the university on solar ponds. The configuration is now being studied using a small-scale indoor pond and new capillary MD membranes. While MD has been studied in the past in conjunction with solar ponds, new membranes, new techniques and new auxiliary technologies are improving MD, solar ponds and their synergistic combination. This article was first published in the February/March 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

The new desalination facility will support production of copper at the mine in northern Chile

IDE to supply desalination for Teck copper mine

IDE is to design and supply a modular desalination plant for Teck Resources' Quebrada Blanca copper mine extension project in northern Chile.

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

4th Membranes & Desalination event set for Gold Coast

The Membranes and Desalination Specialty IV Conference, to be held in Gold Coast on 11-12 February 2011 by the Australian Water Association, has a problem solving focus.

Portofino, Italy

Rotary International joins IDA for Social Responsibility desalination event

A three day international conference in Italy in 2011 on Development of Desalination Technology for Social Responsibility features for the first time a unique cooperation between the International Desalination Association (IDA) and Rotary International.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

Ozwater conference papers due 2 September 2010

Papers have been invited on behalf of the Australian Water Association, an affiliate of the International Desalination Association, for the Ozwater '11 conference on 9-11 May 2011.

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

UCLA water summit will look at desalination/reuse

Seawater desalination and wastewater reuse will be key topics at a one-day summit on the Future of Water in Southern California to be held by the University of California, Los Angeles, on 27 January 2012.

Papers invited for Singapore Water Week

Papers have been invited by 15 November 2009 for the 3-day conference during 29 June - 1 July 2010 that is one of the flagship events for the Singapore International Water Week.

S Australia government questions Billiton desalination EIS

Desalination discharge led the list of concerns raised by the South Australia government in its submission on 24 April 2009 to BHP Billiton's environmental impact statement (EIS) related to its proposed expansion of its Olympic Dam mining operations.

Boron-nitride nanotubes speed desalination, says Australian research

Researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) claim to have discovered a way to speed the desalination of seawater by up to five times using nanotubes made from boron and nitrogen atoms.

SWCC has appointed DuPont Sustainable Solutions in a bid to improve operational efficiency

SWCC to shape up operations as privatisation begins

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has hired DuPont Sustainable Solutions (DSS) to brush up operational performance across the organisation in preparation for privatisation.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding

US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.


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