Netherlands, Nanofiltration, Beach wells, Beach wells, Recovery, Monitoring, Reverse Osmosis, Malta
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.
El Salitral desalination bids to close in July
The Comisión Estatal del Agua (CEA) in the state of Baja California, Mexico, is expecting between five and eight firm offers when tenders close on 22 July 2011 for the El Salitral seawater desalination plant in Ensenada.
Environmentalists challenge Cambria desalination test wells
Environmental group LandWatch San Luis Obispo County is challenging in the courts the decision of the California Coastal Commission to allow the US Army Corps of Engineers and other local agencies to construct test beach wells for the proposed Cambria desalination project.
Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit
Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Voltea gets funding for two desalination applications
Dutch desalination innovator Voltea BV announced on 21 February 2012 that it had completed a € 4.5 million funding round to support the commercial rollout of its Capacitive Deionization (CapDI) technology.
Monterey desalination plant moves forward
Desalinated water could come to the Monterey coast of California "as soon as 2012", according to the Marina Coast Water District.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
New contracts end H2O Innovation's year strongly
Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is to supply membrane nanofiltration (NF) water supply systems to two municipalities in Canada and expand an existing system in a third, among contracts totaling Can$ 8 million (US$ 8.25 million) announced on 6 July 2011.
Veolia wins 24,000 m³/d desalination plant in Aruba
A 24,000 m³/d desalination facility is to be designed and built on the Caribbean island of Aruba by two Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (VWS) companies: NA Water Systems and OTV.
Proposals sought for membrane-integrity test method
The WateReuse Research Foundation has issued a Request for Proposals to create a method for testing the integrity of high-pressure membranes used for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in water treatment and desalination.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Intensive short desalination course from UNESCO-IHE
An intensive short course on Membrane Technology in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment has been announced by UNESCO-IHE).
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Dutch government funding CapDI development for reuse
The development of the Capacitive Deionisation (CapDI) desalination system for wastewater recycling is to be funded specifically for agricultural use by a € 1.2 million order for Voltea BV awarded on 26 May 2011 by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & the Environment (MIE).
OC desalination slant-well testing to start
Testing of Phase 3 of the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in Southern California will begin in the next few weeks, according to the Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC), which held a public open day at the test site on Doheny State Beach on 12 May 2010.
Rotec's flow reversal scoops Rising Star Award at TechXchange
Flow reversal firm Rotec has won the Rising Star Award at TechXchange at Singapore International Water Week 2018.
Western Cape food producer adopts desalination
Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.
"Significant" impacts from Monterey desalination says draft report
Whichever of the three desalination-based proposals for future water supply on the Monterey peninsula in California is eventually implemented, there would be "significant and unavoidable" environmental impacts.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
Cambria desalination study fails consistency test
The California Coastal Commission has called into question the future of the Cambria desalination project near San Luis Opispo by ruling that a US Army Corps of Engineers project to test soil and water near the proposed intake/outfall site is inconsistent with its habitat and coastline rules.
Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities
Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
EDS publishes details of membrane design course
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.
H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract
A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.
STW fires up Salttech reclamation demonstration in US
US water reclamation company STW Resources has started operation of a Salttech zero liquid discharge water reclamation system demonstration in Fort Stockton, Texas.
SWMOA seeks papers for 2013 San Diego symposium
The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has made a call for papers for its 2013 Annual Symposium in San Diego, California, on 22-24 April 2013.
H2O Innovation wins Canadian and US contracts
A 5,000 m³/d nanofiltration water treatment plant is to be provided for the city of Saint-Tite, Quebec, Canada, by H2O Innovation Inc.
AMTA/WEF workshop set for Seattle in May
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it will be holding a Technology Transfer Workshop in Seattle, Oregon, in May in cooperation with the Water Environment Federation (WEF).
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech
Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
Woongjin opens all-Americas headquarters and factory
A new American headquarters and membrane manufacturing facility was opened on 5 April 2011 in Anaheim, California, by Woongjin Chemical America Inc, manufacturer of CSM reverse-osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for desalination and water treatment.
Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base
Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011
The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Pretreatment course scheduled by EDS for May 2010
The European Desalination Society (EDS) on 15 January 2010 announced a four-day course on Pretreatment, membrane fouling and scaling to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 31 May - 3 June 2010.
EDS announces new desalination course
The European Desalination Society is to hold a course on Membrane Technology, Process and System Design in Genoa, Italy, on 3-5 March 2010.
Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress
Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled
A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.
UNESCO-IHE announces membrane course in October
The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, Netherlands, is holding a short course on Membrane technology in drinking and industrial water treatment in October 2012.
Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes
One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.
CaribDA opens registration for Aruba conference
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has opened registration for its 2012 Conference & Exposition 80 Years Of Desalination Makes For One Happy Island.
Aquatech unveils Dutch subsidiary
Aquatech, US provider of desalination, water reuse and zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) sytems, announced on 15 April 2010 the establishment of Aquatech BV, a fully owned subsidiary in Leiden, the Netherlands.
Singapore signals more water co-operation with the Dutch
The Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) and PUB, the national water agency of Singapore, signed a letter of intent on 22 October 2009 to boost collaborations undertaken by businesses and research institutions in the fields of science, technology and innovations in Singapore's water sector.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
Dutch consultants merge into significant water-sector player
Leading Dutch consulting engineers DHV and Royal Haskoning signed a letter of intent on 27 February 2012 to merge.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
SEDA to hold workshop on pretreatment for RO/NF
The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop on 12 February 2014 at the Town of Jupiter Water Treatment Plant in Florida on Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF).
EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014
The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.
AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
CaribDA, ERI and Dow back operator training
In co-operation with Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) and Dow Water & Process Solutions, the Caribbean Desalination Association is organising a two-day operator training program at the Westin Dawn Beach Resort in St Maarten on 17-18 September 2009.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Some Gold Coast desalination issues still unresolved
A large number of non-compliance issues relating to the Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, have been listed in a letter sent on 2 July 2009 by Keith Davies, CEO of WaterSecure, who are taking over the project, to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure & Planning.
EDS holding membrane training week in L'Aquila
The European Desalination Society is holding a membrane training week in L'Aquila, Italy, on 30 September - 4 October 2013 presenting two back-to-back seminars by David Paul.
Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur
Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.
Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant
Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).
Can$ 4.7 million new orders for H2O Innovation
A 1.1 MGD (4,200 m³/d) ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water system for a community in British Columbia, Canada, is one of new contracts worth Can$ 4.7 million (US$ 4.6 million) announced on 6 June 2013 by H2O Innovation Inc.
IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO
The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).
Desalination drives nanofiltration market growth
Desalination is one of the primary forces behind nearly three quarters of a 15% growth forecast in the nanofiltration (NF) market worldwide that will take it above US$ 445 million by 2019 according to market researcher BCC Research.
Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions
California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
Brazilian offshore SRP system awarded to VWS Westgarth
VWS Westgarth has been awarded a multi-million dollar contract by SBM Atlantia for of a seawater sulphate-reduction package (SRP), using Dow FilmTec membranes, in a Brazilian offshore oil and gas field.
Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.
B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations
Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'
Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.
Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant
A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.
Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination
Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.
World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational
The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.
SWRO corrosion pre-conference workshop for CaribDA
A workshop on Understanding and Preventing Corrosion in Caribbean SWRO Plants will take place in Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, on 19 May 2012, prior to the 2012 Conference of the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA).
ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion
Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.
Al Ghubrah desalination to use ERI energy-recovery devices
Energy Recover Inc is to supply its PX Q300 Pressure Exchanger® technology for the Al Ghubrah seawater desalination plant in Oman.
ERI lands Al-Jubail contract in Saudi Arabia
Acciona Agua has awarded a contract to Energy Recovery Inc for PX Pressure Exchanger energy‑recovery equipment for the SWRO‑4 desalination plant in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
ERI to provide pressure-exchangers for Carlsbad SWRO
IDE Technologies has selected pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in California, USA.
Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit
Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.
Desalitech secures another US$ 5 million funding
Desalitech, provider of Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination technology, announced on 11 June 2013 that it secured an additional US$ 5 million equity funding from Liberation Capital and its institutional investors.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Desalitech wins US golf-course desalination contract
Reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech Inc has won a competitive bid to supply a water purification system using its Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) system to the Kittansett Club golf course in Marion, Massachusetts, USA.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant
A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).
Turks & Caicos SWRO goes to Aqua‑Chem
A contract for the supply and installation of a 300,000 GPD (1,135 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant the Turks Caicos Islands in the Caribbean has been awarded to Aqua‑Chem Inc.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.