Nanofiltration, Ozone, Malta, Water Treatment, Ceramic,waste Water Treatment, Tender, Reverse Osmosis, Malta
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Xylem wins US$7.3 million Bahrain wastewater upgrade deal
Switzerland-based water technology company Xylem has signed a US$7.3 million contract with Bahrain's Ministry of Works to upgrade a wastewater treatment facility in the Bahrain capital Manama.
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture
Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Australian SWRO firm signs MoU for Saudi pilot
Australian desalination start-up Water Resources Group (WRG) announced on 4 December 2012 that its subsidiary Water Resources International (WRI) had signed a memorandum of understanding with Knowledge Industry Company (KIC) of Saudi Arabia.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
Membrane pioneer draws new investment
Water treatment membrane and solutions developer, Water Planet, has received a new Series B round of investment for its development and commercialization of its industrial wastewater treatment technologies.
Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement
A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.
US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore
Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
Xylem strikes US$ 1.3 million deal in Vietnam
Water technology firm, Xylem, has won a US$ 1.3 million contract to provide its treatment technology to a Saigon Water Corporation plant in Vietnam's capital, Ho Chi Minh City.
H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO
The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).
H2O Innovation wins North American contracts worth US$ 3.6 million
H2O Innovation has bagged four new contracts worth a total of US$ 3.6 million with two each in the US and Canada. These new deals, the company reported, will maintain its sales backlog for water treatment projects at US$ 38.6 million excluding its Professional Water Technologies, Piedmont and H2O Innovation Maple businesses.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
SEDA Spring Symposium brochure available for download
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has a brochure available for its 2013 Spring Symposium to be held at Delray Beach, Florida.
Proposals sought for membrane-integrity test method
The WateReuse Research Foundation has issued a Request for Proposals to create a method for testing the integrity of high-pressure membranes used for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in water treatment and desalination.
Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes
The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.
Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant
A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.
IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions
Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.
IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled
A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.
H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract
A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.
City of Cape Town to tender three water reuse projects
The City of Cape Town has outlined plans to develop three aquifer recharge projects as part of its ongoing drought response plan.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Tender for Chennai RO water-reuse plant feasibility
Bids are due by 22 February 2012 for a prefeasibility study for a 45,000 m³/d membrane-based tertiary wastewater treatment plant in Chennai, India.
SEDA to hold workshop on pretreatment for RO/NF
The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop on 12 February 2014 at the Town of Jupiter Water Treatment Plant in Florida on Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF).
IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.
H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts
H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base
Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day
EDS holding membrane training week in L'Aquila
The European Desalination Society is holding a membrane training week in L'Aquila, Italy, on 30 September - 4 October 2013 presenting two back-to-back seminars by David Paul.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Can$ 4.7 million new orders for H2O Innovation
A 1.1 MGD (4,200 m³/d) ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water system for a community in British Columbia, Canada, is one of new contracts worth Can$ 4.7 million (US$ 4.6 million) announced on 6 June 2013 by H2O Innovation Inc.
German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment
German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
AMTA/WEF workshop set for Seattle in May
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it will be holding a Technology Transfer Workshop in Seattle, Oregon, in May in cooperation with the Water Environment Federation (WEF).
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects
German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.
Partnership launches ceramic trial
Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA
Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to
demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes
An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.
AMTA and SEDA to hold Chesapeake membrane workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA), which promotes membrane processes for desalination and water / wastewater treatment, is to hold a joint technology transfer workshop with the Southeast Desalting Association in Chesapeake, Virginia, in May 2013.
Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island
A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA
Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.
Singapore trial proves ceramic-ozone synergy
Since September 2011, PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has been testing a new ceramic membrane treatment technology as a filter for removal of suspended matter and biological pathogens. After 18 months of testing, PUB is now exploring whether ceramic membrane filtration can be included as an option in the design to upgrade Choa Chu Kang Waterworks . This article first appeared in the May/June 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Swiss water treatment to use PAC/UF combination
Wabag Water Technology has announced two water-treatment contracts in Switzerland based on ultrafiltration (UF) and worth around € 6 million which were won by the company at the end of 2012.
Ozone improves ceramic membrane use for wastewater reclamation
Ceramic membranes have been used in the industrial production of beer, wine and cheese. One of the reasons for this use is the narrow pore size distribution, where careful separation of different size compounds can be achieved. Outside of Japan, the use of ceramic membranes has been almost non-existent for municipal drinking-water systems. The slow adoption of this technology is largely the result of a perception by many that the costs are significantly higher. While the capital costs may be higher, the whole life cycle costs may not be, due to extended membrane life and more reliable operation. Most water reuse today takes the form of indirect potable reuse. These schemes frequently consist of several steps including physical and chemical disinfection and advanced oxidation. They have the disadvantage of high cost and often poor membrane fluxes due to the nature of the wastewater being treated. The study outlined in this article is preliminary, but shows that ozone in conjunction with ceramic membranes for water-reuse applications has many advantages when disinfection and advanced oxidation is required. As opposed to polymeric membrane systems that cannot tolerate ozone, ceramic membranes in conjunction with ozone can achieve multiple key objectives in one step. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge
The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine
The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.
Xylem wins US$ 1.3 million water treatment deal in Vietnam
Water technology company, Xylem, has won a US$ 1.3 million deal to provide advanced water treatment technology for a water treatment plant in Vietnam's capital, Ho Chi Minh City.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.
New contracts end H2O Innovation's year strongly
Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is to supply membrane nanofiltration (NF) water supply systems to two municipalities in Canada and expand an existing system in a third, among contracts totaling Can$ 8 million (US$ 8.25 million) announced on 6 July 2011.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Woongjin opens all-Americas headquarters and factory
A new American headquarters and membrane manufacturing facility was opened on 5 April 2011 in Anaheim, California, by Woongjin Chemical America Inc, manufacturer of CSM reverse-osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for desalination and water treatment.
H2O Innovation wins Canadian and US contracts
A 5,000 m³/d nanofiltration water treatment plant is to be provided for the city of Saint-Tite, Quebec, Canada, by H2O Innovation Inc.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
EDS publishes details of membrane design course
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.
Doosan Hydro wins Al Jubail membrane treatment contract
Florida-based Doosan Hydro Technology has been awarded a US$ 10 million contract by Daelim Industrial Co Ltd for the industrial wastewater treatment and reuse package on the Saudi Elastomers Project (SEP) located in Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Desalination drives nanofiltration market growth
Desalination is one of the primary forces behind nearly three quarters of a 15% growth forecast in the nanofiltration (NF) market worldwide that will take it above US$ 445 million by 2019 according to market researcher BCC Research.
EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011
The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
Tender later this year for Changi expansion
A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.
SWMOA announces dates for 2013-14
The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced additional workshop dates for desalination and water / wastewater treatment membrane operators for 2013 and the date and venue for its 2014 annual symposium.
ACWA appoints nanotechnology membrane specialist
UK water and wastewater specialist ACWA Services announced on 6 June 2012 that it has appointed a membrane nanotechnology specialist, Dr Oscar Hernandez-Ramirez as a chemical process engineer.
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
Canadian municipalities buy nanofiltration systems
Nanofiltration drinking water production systems are to be supplied to two Canadian municipalities, Waterville and Eastman in Quebec, by H2O Innovation.
Dow gets NF start in Saudi Arabia at Ha'il
The Dow Chemical Company has been chosen to supply water nanofiltration technology to the Ha'il nanofiltration (NF) plant by the Ministry of Water & Electricity in Saudi Arabia.
Hurley appointed president/CEO of Parkson
Florida-based Parkson Corporation announced the appointment on 24 April 2012 of Shamus M Hurley as its new president and CEO. Hurley, who served for the last five years as CEO of Kinetico - a leading manufacturer of residential and commercial water treatment systems - replaces Zain Mahmood.
SEDA Spring Symposium registration opened
The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) has opened registration for its Spring Symposium to be held in Florida in June 2014.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
Nirosoft owner makes European acquisition
RWL Water LLC, which owns Israeli desalination and water treatment company Nirosoft, announced on 16 November 2011 that it had acquired a controlling interest in Eurotec WTT, a leading European manufacturer of wastewater treatment systems.
LG Electronics forms water treatment JV with Hitachi
South Korea's LG Electronics and Japan's Hitachi are to establish a joint venture in October 2011 to expand into the water and wastewater treatment industries initially in Korea.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
New quartet joins RWL's Aeromix and Nirosoft
RWL Water has recently added four new staff to its group companies Aeromix and Nirosoft.
Xylem gets contract for underdrain at plant retrofit
Water technology firm, Xylem, has won a contract to provide its filtration technology to a water treatment plant in La Verne, California.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
United Envirotech to acquire Singapore membrane-maker
Singapore's United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) is to acquire its own membrane manufacturing capability by spending S$ 293.4 million (US$ 231 million) on a 100% stake in Memstar Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Memstar Technology Ltd, also of Singapore, plus certain assets.
AMTA webinar to look at Florida nanofiltration plant
The American Membrane Technology Association's next webinar on 28 October 2010 will look at the split-feed nanofiltration plant in Jupiter, Florida.
ZWT wins oil-camp replacement RO plant order in Libya
Three turnkey reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment plants are to be provided by Zulal Water Technology (ZWT) for the Gialo, Waha and Essider oil camps operated in Libya by Waha Oil Company.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
IWA extends deadline for Toronto membrane papers
The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of papers for the 7th IWA Specialised Membrane Technology Conference & Exhibition for Water & Wastewater Treatment & Reuse.
Tri-Tech to expand large UF/NF plant in China
The City of Ordos in China is to build what will be the largest water treatment plant in the world using ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) when it expands its existing plant to 148,000 m³/d.
Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon
Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.
Oman's Sur desalination plant seeks large expansion
The owner and operator of Oman's Sur seawater desalination plant, Sharqiyah Desalination Company (SDC), has filed a bid with the Oman Tender Board for approval of a proposed expansion of 10.6 MIGD (48,000 m³/d) to the plant.
Consultants sought for Ajman SWRO desalination
The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) in the UAE has issued a tender (19W/2013) for consultancy services for a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at Al Zawra, Ajman.
OPWP seeks consultant for two desalination projects
The Oman Power and Water Procurement Company SAOC (OPWP) has invited specialized companies to submit offers for supervisory consultancy services for the Ghubrah IWP and Barka I water projects, both of which involve desalination plants.
Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders
Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).