Municipal, Seawater, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst
Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.
Redondo Beach go-ahead for desalination demonstration plant
The California Coastal Commission approved on 9 April 2009 a seawater desalination project to be undertaken by the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD) at Redondo Beach.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check
Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities
Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
Work on Carlsbad should start early in 2013
Work on the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant is expected to start early in 2013, following approval by the board of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) on 29 November 2012 of the water-purchase agreement between SDCWA and Poseidon Resources, developers of the desalination plant.
Mumbai set for two 100,000 m³/d desalination plants
The Maharashtra government committee looking into desalination for Mumbai, India, has decided on two 100,000 m³/d plants using the reverse-osmosis plants in Chennai as a blueprint, although it is acknowledged that seawater conditions are different.
Marin voters could decide desalination future
Marin Municipal Water District in California will have to seek the permission of consumers to proceed any further with its investigations into the possibility of desalination, if a ballot later this year is successful.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
Morillon to direct MEDRC training
Michel Morillon, former CEO and CTO of the 80,000 m³/d Sur seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant project in Oman, has joined the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) as director of training.
Marin MWD wins but desalination EIR challenge looms
Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD) won a ruling in March 2011 by a Marin superior court judge which keeps its option of a seawater desalination plant on track.
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead
The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.
Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.
Advantages of Polyethersulfone (PESU) membranes for pretreatment for SWRO applications
Membrane pretreatment for large-scale seawater desalination has grown rapidly in the last few years. Existing examples seem to show that the additional cost can be more than recouped in reduced chemical costs alone, but there are also environmental advantages. This article is the first of two discussing the advantages of polyethersulfone (PESU) membranes for filtration duties in water treatment. This article will start by considering general advantages of membrane use together with the reference and experience position, and then examine the particular benefits of PESU in terms of treated water quality. The final sections include a review of membrane pretreatment costs and environmental impact in comparison with conventional pretreatment technology. The second article, to be published at the beginning of 2010, will consider the advantages in using PESU membranes in municipal water applications.
San Francisco study proves impaired source still feasible
The Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD), near San Francisco, USA, has been exploring seawater desalination to provide a drought-proof supplement to its over-extended water supply. Desalination of San Francisco Bay water presents challenges for pretreatment due to the frequent changes in water quality from the ebb and flow of the tides and winds, seasonal changes in the flows of two major rivers (Sacramento and San Joaquin), and impacts from stormwater and industrial discharges. It also presents technical and sociological challenges to convince customers that high quality drinking water can be produced from an impaired water source. A 12-month desalination pilot program was carried out to achieve the following main objectives: Test different pretreatment processes and membrane performance to determine which ones perform best to process SF Bay source water. Perform studies to address environmental concerns to facilitate permit applications and support an environmental impact report. Demonstrate that SWRO can reliably produce high-quality drinking water through comprehensive water-quality testing, tours and public outreach This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge
Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.
Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy
Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy
Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle
Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju
The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.
Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'
Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
Cascal buys Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia
Cascal NV, a subsidiary of the UK-based Biwater water and wastewater group, announced on 15 December 2009 the acquisition of three Caribbean desalination businesses from Veolia Water North America.
Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test
Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
Orange County issues RFP for desalination pilot-plant operation
The Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) in California, USA, issued a request for proposals on 23 October 2009 for professional engineering services for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project - Phase 3. Deadline is 19 November 2009.
IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.
Marin MWD to appeal desalination EIR judgement
The Marin Municipal Water District voted on 16 November 2011 to appeal a judicial ruling that an environmental impact report (EIR) for its possible seawater desalination project was flawed, which effectively stopped the project.
US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water
Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.
Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant
A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.
First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant
The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Wastewater reuse set for 61% growth by 2015
Market researcher, Bluefield, has forecast 61% growth in the US market for wastewater reuse in municipal utilities over the next ten years with potable reuse increasing from 15% of the total capacity to 19% by 2025.
STS Apliclor to open new Madrid office
Barcelona-based Severn Trent Services - Apliclor, a leading supplier of water and wastewater solutions in Spain, has announced a range of strategic initiatives to expand the scope and geographic range of its business.
A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth
One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.
AMTA names 10 new board directors
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has named 10 new board directors who will serve for two years from 2017 to 2019.
Municipal desalination plant planned for Chile's Copiapó
Construction of a municipal desalination plant will form part of urgent measures to address water shortages in the region around the Chilean city of Copiapó.
Top five takeaways on what's shaping water reuse globally
Our survey of Water. desalination + reuse readers was conducted to gauge the industry's perceptions about the factors influencing the growth of water reuse markets globally. We present the top five facts from among the rich set of data collected.
AMTA and AWWA announce ward winners
The American Membrane Technology Association and the American Water Works Association recently announced the winners of four awards at this year's Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition.
Webcast to present industrial water-reuse successes
A webcast taking a look at three industrial water-reuse success stories demonstrating why recycled water is a viable, sustainable, and necessary option is to be presented by the WateReuse Association (WRA) on 14 November 2012.
Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion
California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
Marin board approves 5-15 MGD desalination plant
The board of the Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD) in California, USA, approved on 19 August 2009 a 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) desalination plant expandable to 15 MGD (57,000 m³/d) as one of its potential future water supply sources.
IDA reuse conference calls for abstracts
The International Desalination Association (IDA) on 1 February will open its call for extended abstract submissions to be considered for presentation at its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling: Turning Vision into Reality. The conference will be held on 25-27 September, 2016 in Nice, France.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality
The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California
The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.
Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment
Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.
Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars
Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.
National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'
The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.
USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.
Outfall and intake problems hit OC desalination
The pilot plant for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in California has been forced to close down due to relocation of its outfall pipe due to heavy storms . The project has also run into problems with its intake water.
Hyflux sells half-share of Singapore membrane R&D firm
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 March 2014 that it had agreed with Marmon Water (Singapore) Pte Ltd (MWS) to sell to MWS its entire 50% equity interest in Hyflux Marmon Development Pte Ltd (HMD), a company devoted to membrane/media filtration research.
Water authority seeks to buy Carlsbad desalination water
The San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) in California voted on 24 June 2010 to work on a contract with Poseidon Resources to purchase water from Poseidon's Carlsbad Desalination Project.
Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report
The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.
Winners of awards for water reuse projects unveiled
America's WateReuse Association has unveiled the winners of this year's awards for leadership in water reuse.
Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run
Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.
Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber
Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.
ACWA Group hires new chief to drive Middle East growth
ACWA Group has appointed Fadey Kassim as chief officer of sales and strategy to drive growth in the Middle East, particularly in the municipal and industrial water reuse segment.
Sembcorp reports net profit drop citing "difficult" market conditions
Sembcorp Industries has reported a fall in net profit of 47 per cent to S$193.5 million ($144.2 million) for the first half of 2016. The decrease partly reflects a gain of S$54.7 million ($40.8 million) on selling UK water business Bournemouth Water in the first half of 2015, as well as a "difficult" current market environment.
Mumbai desalination study deadline extended
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) in India has extended until 15 November 2009 its tender deadline for a techno-economic feasibility study for a desalination plant in Mubai, according to a local website.
Lawsuit filed against Marin County desalination proposal
A lawsuit to protect San Francisco Bay and the citizens of Marin County "from the harmful effects of desalination" was filed in the Marin Superior Court on 21 September 2009 by a number of opponents including an environmental group.
H2O Innovation to buy Piedmont Pacific
Canada's H2O Innovation Inc announced on 25 November 2013 the signing of an agreement to purchase all of the issued and outstanding common stock shares of Piedmont Pacific Corporation, the Oakland-based flexible pipe couplings manufacturer, for a total consideration of approximately Can$ 4.0 million (US$ 3.8 million).
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits
A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.
PWT acquired by H2O Innovation
Canadian water-treatment systems manufacturer H2O Innovation Inc announced on 28 May 2009 the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Professional Water Technologies (PWT) in an arms' length transaction involving H2O subsidiary Membrane Systems Inc.
Chino Desalter expansion to start in late summer
The Western Municipal Water District in California, USA, accepted US$ 4.5 million of federal government funds on 18 May 2009 towards the Chino II Desalter expansion project, which expected to start in late summer.
California DWR publishes mobile desalination guide
The California Department of Water Resources published on 7 May 2009 a 9-page document on its website titled Logistics for Deploying Mobile Desalination Units.
Qatari research aims to
The Qatar Electricity and Water Company (QEWC) and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop two pilot projects that could 'radically reduce the cost and energy use' of desalination.
Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards
Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).
Marin board takes desalination lead from Australia
"Look at Australia. I don't want to be stupid," said Alex Forman, chairman of the Marin Municipal Water District Board of Directors on 11 February 2009 after the board approved continuation of work towards a 5-15 MGD (19,000-57,000 m³/d) desalination plant sourcing San Francisco Bay.