Multiple Effect Distillation, Reverse Osmosis, Egypt


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Aquatech awarded a 10,000 m³/d MED plant in Egypt

Aquatech is to design and supply a multiple-effect distillation (MED) seawater desalination system for the Abu Qir Thermal Power Plant near Alexandria, Egypt.

Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant

Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.

Aquatech signs for Egypt's first ZLD plant

Egypt's first integrated zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant is to be built by Aquatech, under a contract from the Egyptian Ethylene & Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) to provide a water treatment facility.

Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers

Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.

Shivsu supplies desalination plants in Oman and Egypt

Indian OEM Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has become the first Indian company to successfully install desalination water plants, worth Rs 50 crore (US$ 11 million), for the Oman and Egypt governments.

Aqua Engineering wins seawater desalination orders

Two major seawater desalination orders for the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have been won by Austria's Aqua Engineering GmbH, part of the Christ Water Technology Group.

Metito collects Egypt deals worth US$ 8.5 million

Water management firm, Metito, has won contracts for four projects worth EGP 65 million (US$ 8.5 million) on the back of moves to support the revival of Egypt's local tourism economy.

Metito Overseas appoints senior process engineer

Desalination and water treatment specialist Metito Overseas Ltd, based in Sharjah, UAE, has appointed Sagi Essam El-Din A Ghafour as senior process engineer from September 2011.

Fujairah F2 desalination plant inaugurated

The Fujairah F2 Power & Seawater Desalination plant was inaugurated in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on 9 May 2011.

Hyflux bags Suez Canal desalination deal

Singapore's Hyflux has secured a letter of intent for an engineering procurement and construction contract for a 150,000 m³/d desalination plant in Egypt's Suez Canal Economic Zone.

Far East trio size up Suez Canal zone for desalination

Singaporean company Hyflux, along with Japanese industrial giants, Mitsubishi Matoto, and Toyota Tsusho have started feasibility studies for power plants and water desalination facilities in East Port Said, Egypt.

Egypt opts to grow desalination plant

Egypt's cabinet economic committee, under prime minister Sherif Ismail, has agreed to provide the funds required to complete expansion in works and production capacity at a seawater desalination plant in Hurghada.

EBRD in talks with Egypt on desalination finance

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is negotiating with the public private partnership (PPP) unit of Egypt's ministry of finance over possible private sector involvement in the unit's infrastructure projects including a desalination facility.

Egypt unveils three public/private desalination deals for 2016

Egypt has unveiled plans for at least three desalination public private partnerships in 2016 among a dozen infrastructure projects in various sectors.

RWL Water unveils desalination deal Egypt

RWL Water and Orascom Construction have signed a memorandum of understanding with the Egyptian government to proceed with a feasibility study for building, financing and operating the first large desalination plant in Egypt for the supply of potable water.

Solar mobile desalination plant inaugurated in Egypt

The Egyptian State Information Service reported that a mobile water desalination plant powered by solar energy was inaugurated in Marsa Matrouh governorate on 18 April 2014.

Egyptian solar desalination

The Egyptian Gazette reported on 22 September 2011 that Egypt's scientists have developed a solar-power based technology to reduce the cost of water desalination from LE 10 (US$ 1.67) to LE 4 ($0 67) per cubic metre.

Egypt and Bahrain seek joint desalination projects

Egypt and Bahrain are looking to develop joint water desalination projects between the two countries.

Egypt to step up seawater desalination efforts

Egypt's president Hosni Mubarak has instructed the government to expand its seawater desalination initiatives and step up efforts to discover additional sources of groundwater, according to the Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm.

Egyptian power station seeks desalination plant

A tender has been issued for water treatment and desalination systems for Egypt's Ain Sokha Power Project with a deadline of 17 August 2009.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Kuwait invites bids for Doha desalination plant as Az-Zour is 65% finished

Kuwait's ministry of electricity and water plans to invite bids for the first phase of a new desalination plant at Doha. Separately, construction of the first phase of a US$ 1.4 billion power and water plant at Az-Zour is close to twp-thirds complete.

Prince launches Ras Girtas desalination construction

Crown prince Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani of Qatar took part in a ceremony on 4 May 2009 to mark the start of construction of the Ras Girtas Power & Water Project in the Ras Laffan industrial zone.

Entropie wins Algerian MED desalination units

Sidem subsidiary Entropie has been awarded a contract by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the supply of three multiple-effect distillation (MED) desalination units with a net capacity of 3,600 m³/d each.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Aquatech wins Oman MED deal

Water and wastewater technology firm, Aquatech, has won a contract to design and supply a multiple effect distillation (MED) seawater desalination system for Oman's Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company (Orpic).

AquaSwiss to market IDE's MED technology in MENA and SE Asia

Desalination system manufacturer IDE Technologies announced on 4 May 2010 that it had signed a technology transfer agreement with AquaSwiss AG, a Switzerland-based provider of advanced water solutions

Germans delivering small MVC/MED units to Saudi Arabia

Medesa GmbH of Germany has delivered a 180 m³/d desalination unit to the Al Marshad Group for the industrial area in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million

LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.

The new Lanxess RO system at fertiliser manufacturer Alexfert, In Alexandria, Egypt, is fed by the River Nile

Lanxess elements tackle difficult Nile river water

Specialty chemicals company Lanxess is providing a new reverse osmosis plant to desalinate and demineralise water from the River Nile in Egypt, for fertiliser manufacturer Alexfert.

IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract

A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.

Sumitomo consortium gets Ras Azzour approval

After complaining about premature announcements of its preferred bidder, Saudi Arabia's Water & Electricity Company (WEC) finally confirmed at the end of October that the consortium of Sumitomo Corporation/Aljomaih Automotive Co/Malakoff International was its First Ranked Bidder for the Ras Azzour independent water & power plant (IWPP).

IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract

IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.

Fluence and partners win $74M desalination contract in Egypt

Fluence Corporation Limited says a partnership between its Egyptian joint venture The International Co. for Water Services & Infrastructure (IWSI) and Hassan Allam EPC has been awarded a $74M EPC contract to design and construct a 40,000 m3/day seawater desalination plant, with capacity for future expansion to 80,000 m3/day.

Piedmont is boosting business globally with new contract wins

Piedmont signs new supply and distribution contracts

Piedmont, a producer of corrosion resistant equipment for desalination plants, has signed a roster of new supply and partner distribution agreements globally.

The planned SWRO plant is to supply water to the growing industrial and domestic populations at Eastern Port Said

Kuwait Fund boosts loan for desal project at Eastern Port Said, Egypt

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) is to provide a further KDW 18.5 million ($61 million) in funding for a 150,000 m3/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Eastern Port Said, Egypt.

Aquatech's new ZLD system is designed to protect the River Nile, Egypt's only life-giving aquifer

Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running

The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.

The loan from Kuwait Fund is for a reverse osmosis desalination plant at Eastern Port Said City, Egypt

Kuwait Fund confirms loan for Port Said desalination project

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development has confirmed a loan of KWD35 million ($115 million) to the government of Egypt for a 150,000 m3/d seawater desalination plant.

The tourist destination of Hurghada, Egypt, will benefit from new desalination capacity

Egypt pledges $51 billion for water projects over 20 years

Egypt is stepping up efforts to address water scarcity, pledging EGP 900 billion ($51 billion) for a national water management plan over 20 years.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

Veolia chief executive for Middle East and North Africa Xavier Joseph is targeting ambitious growth in 2018

Veolia Middle East CEO Xavier Joseph targets significant growth

Veolia has investment capacity of $200 million for power and water projects across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) for 2018, regional chief executive Xavier Joseph has told Emirati news outlet The National.

Egypt anticipates a reduction in Nile river water availability following completion of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Egypt's al-Sisi has a mega desal scheme in his sights

Egypt is to build a mega desalination plant in response to water scarcity concerns, reports news24.com.

Ain Sokhna is a town in Suez Governorate, on the western shore of the Red Sea

EBRD pledges €300 million for Ain Sokhna, Egypt, desalination project

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is to loan €300 million ($354 million) to Egypt for a desalination plant at Ain Sokhna, reports Egypt Today.

The talks between the French conglomerate and Egyptian authorities are being held in capital city Cairo

Scheider Electric and Egypt in talks over desalination plans

Schneider Electric, the French energy management group, is in talks with Egypt's ministry of housing, utilities and urban communities about investing in desalination and wastewater treatment projects, reports Almal News.

New Cairo wastewater treatment plant was delivered by FCC Aqualia and Orascom in 2017, and is a United Nation benchmark case study for water public-private partnerships

FCC Aqualia and Orascom win $320 million Cairo reuse project

FCC Aqualia and Orascom have won a $320 million contract to design, build and operate a wastewater reuse plant in Cairo, Egypt.

The new capacity will supply places such as Hurghada, in Red Sea governorate, Egypt

Egypt to invest in 16 desalination projects

Egypt is to build or upgrade 16 desalination plants across five governorates, reports Daily News Egypt.

Residents of Tobruk, Libya, are facing a severe water crisis following an abrupt halt to supplies of desalinated water

Protests erupt as Libya plant closes on lack of chemicals

Protests have erupted in Tobruk, Libya, following the closure of its desalination plant due to a lack of chemicals, reports SciDev.Net.

Egypt is building up its desalination capacity on the Mediterranean cost

Egypt steps up desalination plant building programme

The Engineering Authority of the Armed Forces (EAAF) of Egypt has unveiled plans for three new desalination plants, as a fourth is approved for Matruh seaport, reports Egyptian business paper Al Mal.

The Egypt-Spain forum was intended to help promote private investment in Egypt, including in the water sector

Spanish firms visit Egypt on project-led trade mission

Desalination was on the agenda at the Egypt-Spain Multilateral Partnership 2017 Forum, held in Cairo, 6 to 7 March 2017.

Ain Sokhna integrated water and power project in the Suez Canal Economic Zone will be powered by a 457MW gas-fired station, with surplus energy going to the grid

Hyflux to deliver Suez Canal project as BOO not EPC

Hyflux is to develop the Ain Sokhna integrated water and power plant project in Egypt's Suez Canal Economic Zone on a build own operate basis.

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development is supporting the development of the Sina Peninsula

Sinai development continues with plans for new desalination capacity

Egypt's Ministry of International Co-operation and the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development have signed a deal to build a new desalination plant in East Port Said.

Expansion of rural wastewater treatment capacity is key to Egypt's water woes

Significant new rural wastewater treatment capacity will be needed if Egypt is to secure its water supply over the next decade, according to a new report, Suitable Technologies for Egypt's Wastewater Treatment Upgrade.

Egypt plans five desalination plants by 2019

Egypt is to build five new desalination plants to serve the drinking water needs of residents in the Sinai Peninsular.

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

Low-grade waste heat holds promise for desalination

Low-grade, waste heat produced by industry may be applicable to distillation desalination to make fresh water where revere osmosis is not suitable according to findings by the University of Western Australia (UWA).

Fund pledges US$ 200 million desalination loan to Egypt

The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) has pledged to lend US$ 200 million this year, to Egypt to finance drilling wells and building desalination projects in Sinai.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Egypt signs MOU with AquaSwiss

An Egyptian government organisation has signed an MOU with the Swiss desalination specialist, according to Egypt Today.

Egypt is anticipating a reduction in Nile river water flows when Ethiopia completes construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Egypt expedites 16 desalination projects

Egypt is developing 35 desalination plants of which 16 are marked urgent, reports Al Borsa.

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

Energy Recovery doubles up

Pressure technology firm, Energy Recovery, has won orders totalling US$ 2 million for two separate projects in France and Egypt.

The new desalination plants will serve communities including those of the tourist resorts at Sharm el-Sheikh

Kuwait Fund finances four desalination plants in Egypt

Kuwait Fund is to loan Egypt KWD 15 million ($49 million) to construct four desalination plants in South Sinai governorate.

World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse

Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.

The new plants will supply sites in Northern Egypt, on the Mediterranean coast

Fluence wins Egyptian desalination works through new joint venture

Fluence has won $7.6 million of contracts to supply three Nirobox smart packaged desalination plants to projects owned by Egypt's Ministry of Housing.

The project to develop Sinai peninsular is to support economic and social growth

Egypt eyes four desalination plants in Sinai development project

Egypt is to build four desalination plants by 2022, as part of its EGP 275 billion ($15.6 billion) scheme to develop Sinai peninsula, reports Haaretz.

Egypt is building desalination capacity in Sinai to support economic development

Egypt finalises finance for south Sinai desal plants

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) is to loan $100 million to the government of Egypt, completing the finance for five desalination plans in south Sinai.

Christ boards recommend takeover acceptance

The management and supervisory boards of Austria's Christ Water Technology AG recommended on 23 October 2009 that shareholders accept the offer of takeover from GLV Inc of Quebec, Canada, following an extensive evaluation of the offer document and all individual arguments.

CH2M Hill hires UK engineer as water operations chief

CH2M Hill announced on 4 August 2009 that British civil engineer Neil Reynolds has joined the Denver-based firm as international operations director for the Water Business Group.

Misrata has a population of 280,000, and is the third largest city in Libya, behind Tripoli, and Benghazi

Libya moves to build new desalination plant in Misrata

Authorities in Libya are to build a new desalination plant in Misrata, reports Libya Observer.

Sidem to build Kuwait's Az-Zour MED desalination plant

A consortium of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) of South Korea and Sidem, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, has announced the signing on 12 December 2013 of a US$ 1.4 billion engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract with Shamal Az-Zour Al-Oula to build the first phase of the Az-Zour North Independent Water & Power Project (IWPP) in Kuwait.

Solar desalination plant to serve California's Central Valley

Solar desalinatetion specialist, HydroRevolution, is raising funding to construct a solar-powered multi-effect distillation desalination plant in the Panoche Water and Drainage District in the Central Valley.

SWCC Governor Dr Abdulrahman bin Mohammed Al-Ibrahim, Doosan  president and COO Keysun Han with SWCC and Doosan executives at the Yanbu Phase 2 Expansion MED  Seawater Desalination Plant.

Ceremony marks Yanbu 2 MED desalination completion

The completion ceremony for the Yanbu Phase 2 Expansion seawater desalination plant was held on 19 December 2012 by Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Doosan takes Yanbu 3 MSF plant in Saudi

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build the Yanbu Phase 3 Seawater Desalination Plant under a contract worth US$ 1 billion from the Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia.

IDA backs Abu Dhabi water summit

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced on 12 November 2012 that it would be supporting the 2013 International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi as a Knowledge Partner and would lead sessions on water and energy.

Membrane desalination has grown as a proportion of capacity contracted since 2000

New desalination capacity rises by 16 per cent

Desalination capacity of 3.7 million m3/d was added globally in the year to June 30, 2016, representing a 16 per cent rise on 3.2 million m3/d of new capacity added the previous year.

Japanese-led consortium bags US$ 120 million Saudi desalination deal

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded a US$ 120 million contract for the expansion of the Shuaiba 2 seawater desalination plant to a joint venture including ACWA Holding and Japanese engineering firms Itochu Corporation and Sasakura.

Seokwon Yun (left), executive vice president of Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction and Thamer S Al-Sharhan, president of Marafiq, sign the contract for Yanbu II.

Doosan signs 68,000 m³/d MED desalination contract

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build a 68,000 m³/d multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination plant in the Yanbu region of Saudi Arabia.

Doosan set to build 2 MED plants in Yanbu

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction of South Korea is to receive an engineering, procurement and construction contract for two multi-effect distillation desalination (MED) units from Marafiq, the power and water utility company for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Part of the Ras Laffan C desalination plant.

MED/TVC desalination plant inaugurated in Qatar

The Ras Laffan C power and desalination plant in Qatar was officially opened on 31 May 2011 in the presence of the emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, and Gérard Mestrallet, chairman and CEO of GDF Suez.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Doosan to build world's largest MED desalination unit

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has signed an agreement with the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia to co-build what will be the world's largest single multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination unit.

IDE wins Chinese follow-on order for four MED desalination plants

Four additional multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination units, each with a production capacity of 25,000 m³/day of distilled water, are to be supplied for Tianjin SDIC, China's new electricity- generation megaplant, by IDE Technologies of Israel.

New technology and long-term reliability in process and potable water production

The Rabigh desalination plant in Saudi Arabia has outstripped its design output and water quality for nearly ten years. Designer of the plant s multiple effect distillation heart, Aquatech, sought at the outset to rein in operating costs while maintaining the plant s reliability and resilience. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Veolia wins Az Zour MED desalination plant in Kuwait

Veolia Environnement announced on 13 January 2014 that its Sidem subsidiary had won the contract to build the seawater desalination plant at the Az Zour North complex in Kuwait for € 320 million.

Saudis to build second expansion to Oman desalination plant at Barka

Saudi generation and desalination firm, ACWA Power Barka has won a contract with Oman Power and Water Procurement (OPWP) to build a second seawater reverse osmosis plant at Barka 60km from the Omani capital, Muscat.

Commission approves California American Water test slant well

The California Coastal Commission has approved the application by water utility, California American Water, (Cal Am) to construct a test slant well for its proposed 48 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination project.

Africa's largest desalination plant opens

Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has officially opened its recently completed 500,000 m³/d desalination plant at Magtaa, Algeria. The facility is Africa's biggest and contains the largest ultrafiltration pre-treatment facility in the world according to Hyflux.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

Cal Am strikes deal on test well

Utility, California American Water (Cal Am), has struck a deal with cement maker, Cemex, to allow the water firm to drill slant test wells, and possibly production wells, on Cemex' north Marina sand mining plant site.

RWL wins contract to build desalination plant in Argentina

RWL Water has won a contact to build what it claims will be Argentina's largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.

Belville planning board approves reverse osmosis plant

A request by US local water utility, H2GO (Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer), for an amendment to allow for the building of a reverse osmosis brackish water purification plant has been approved unanimously by the planning authority at Belville, North Carolina.

West Basin declares record year in recycled water output

West Basin Municipal Water District in California has declared fiscal year 2013-14 a record 12 months in recycled water production at its Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility. The plant produced 60,000 Ml of recycled water in the period.

POSCO claims desalination first in Korea

Korean construction company POSCO E&C has completed the construction of what it claims to be the nation's first commercial seawater desalination plant.

Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo

Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.

Oman signs US$ 300 million water project agreement

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company, the sultanate's sole procurer of new power generation and water desalination capacity, has signed water project agreements worth 115 million rial (US$ 300 million).

Researchers uncover new membrane fouling mechanism

Researchers have uncovered "an additional reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling mechanism" arising from organic compounds present in ultrafiltration (UF) permeate during wastewater desalination.


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