Morocco, Salinity, Water Management, Water Treatment, Japan, Temperature, Cape Verde, Tanks


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Desalination part of new Algeria-Morocco cooperation

A meeting on issues related to water management and purification and seawater desalination is to be held in Algiers on 18 April 2011 between officials from the relevant ministries in Algeria and Morocco.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Japanese giants buy Metito stake

Japanese companies Mitsubishi Corporation (MC), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, (MHI), have acquired a joint 38.4% stake in United Arab Emirates-based water management company Metito for an undisclosed sum.

Japanese funds sought for Cape Verde desalination plant

Cape Verde is reported to be looking to Japan for funding for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant on the island of Santiago.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.

Indian desalination conference set for February

The Indian Desalination Society (InDA) has published a brochure for its National Conference on Water Purification Technologies & Management (InDACON 2012).

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

Kuwait launches its largest desalination management project

Kuwait University's faculty of engineering has launched the Gulf state's largest ever water desalination and management project.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan

This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use

Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

No pure-play desalination investments in top 20 contractors

Of the top 20 construction contractors in desalination, only Singapore company, Hyflux, provides investors with exposure to desalination, unalloyed with other industry risks according to market analyst, Nanalyse.

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

Reclamation funds reuse in California and New Mexico

Five congressionally authorized water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico, USA, will receive cost-shared funding for planning, design and construction of their projects, following a Bureau of Reclamation announcement on 21 May 2013.

Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

IFC to support large Moroccan desalination project

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, signed an agreement on 4 May 2010 with the government of Morocco to support private investment in a new desalination and irrigation plant that will help improve the water supply to a vital agricultural region.

Abengoa wins contract for Morocco desalination plant

Morocco's National Power and Drinking Water Office (ONEE) has contracted Spanish desalination company, Abengoa, to construct a 100,000 m³/d plant, some 45 km from the city of Agadir.

BASF industrial water business transfered to Degrémont

German chemical giant BASF announced on 30 September 2013 the successful closing of the transaction to divest its subsidiary Industrial Water Management France SAS, headquartered in Lyon, France, to Degrémont, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement.

BASF water business combined with other sectors

German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.

Morocco seeks private investors for US$ 27 billion water plan

Morocco's water minster, Charafat Afilal, has unveiled plans to let private capital take the lead in developing desalination and irrigation projects as part of a US$ 27 billion programme to ease the burden on the country's water resources.

Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco

UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.



Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Indonesian govt still to approve Jakarta UF plants

Five ultrafiltration water treatment plants scheduled to be started in Jakarta, Indonesia, by the end of 2011 have not yet been approved by the Indonesian government.

Aquatech buys majority stake in Indian chemical provider

Desalination and water-treatment specialist Aquatech International, based in Pennsylvania, has made a majority strategic investment in India's WEX Technologies Private Ltd, a provider of performance water-treatment chemicals and services.

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.

Innovation conference part of new Amsterdam water week

Amsterdam's biennial Aquatech exhibition, the leading water exhibition in Europe, has been subsumed into an International Water Week like those in Stockholm and Singapore.

South Florida funds 19 alternative water projects

Desalination and water reclamation plants were among 19 alternative water supply projects for which South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) approved funding assistance worth US$ 3.45 million on 10 November 2010.

VA Tech bags Indian power water treatment contract

VA Tech Wabag Limited, based in Chennai, India, has received an order for total water management of the Kakatiya and Rayalaseema thermal power projects under a balance of plants package as part of a consortium with APGENCO. The Wabag portion involves around INR 2900 million (€ 47 million).

IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

Saudi deal gives Toray fourth membrane‑making base

A new joint venture to sell desalination and water treatment membranes in the Middle East has been set up between Toray Industries of Japan and Abunayyan Holding, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

New headquarters for Kurita Water Industries

Japanese water-treatment chemical supplier Kurita Water Industries has moved to a new headquarters in Tokyo.

LG Electronics forms water treatment JV with Hitachi

South Korea's LG Electronics and Japan's Hitachi are to establish a joint venture in October 2011 to expand into the water and wastewater treatment industries initially in Korea.

IDA on road to Morocco in March 2012

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the first event of its kind in the North Africa region, a conference on desalination and sustainability in partnership with the Societé Marocaine des Membranes et de Dessalement (SMMD).

Energy Recovery announces deal duo

Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.

Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine

A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.

Cadagua to get 75,800 m³/d Moroccan desalination plant

Spain's Cadagua has been given a letter of intent for award of a 75,800 m³/d desalination plant in the Jorf Lasfar industrial complex in Morocco, 100km south of Casablanca.

Asia Pacific countries will host 22 mega cities by 2030, driving water demand

Analysis claims 29 Asia Pacific countries lack water security

Asia and the Pacific is a "global hot spot for water insecurity", a new report from the Asian Development Bank claims.

EDR plant at Abrera

Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain

GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.

'I see great opportunities in the water utility and building services segment in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.' Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

Five Minutes With: Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

The 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi are among the Grundfos projects to inspire newly-appointed East Asia managing director Hideo Shirakawa

US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes

The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

STW opens up Texas brackish source project

Water management firm, STW Water Process and Technologies, has started to develop a newly acquired brackish water lease in the Imperial, Texas area. The move is part of STW's West Texas Water Project to discover new brackish water sources.

Providers of ballast water treatment systems are anticipating a rush ahead of new rules

Evoqua upgrades production of ballast water systems

Evoqua Water Technologies is upgrading its UK production facility for SeaCURE ballast water treatment systems ahead of new regulations for shipowners coming in September 2017.

Dutch consultants merge into significant water-sector player

Leading Dutch consulting engineers DHV and Royal Haskoning signed a letter of intent on 27 February 2012 to merge.

Analyst forecasts near doubling of water reuse in fracking industry by 2020

Only 2% the US fracking industry's US$ 6 billion plus outlay on water management in 2014 was spent on treatment of the 70,000 Ml of contaminated water the industry produced according to a report by market analyst Bluefield Research. But the volume of reuse will almost double by 2020.

STW and Sunstone join to market zero discharge technology

Water management firm, STW Water Process and Technologies, has expanded its role in its exclusive agreement with Sunstone Water Group to commercialize Sunstone's patented wastewater effluent treatment technology to provide direct potable reuse (DPR) in municipal markets.

US Bureau of Reclamation seeks proposals for US$ 1.4 million funds

The US Bureau of Reclamation is seeking proposals under two funding opportunities totalling up to US$ 1.4 million to improve water treatment technologies aimed at increasing water management flexibility. The first opportunity is for research, laboratory studies and the second is for pilot projects.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

IDA calls for abstracts for New Horizons for Desalination conference

Authors who wish to submit an extended abstract for IDA's upcoming conference on New Horizons for Desalination have until 20 January 2015 to do so. The conference is centred on social responsibility in water management and the need for innovation to generate new and more environmentally friendly options to support water needs.

Tuas planning area in the west of Singapore will host the new water reclamation plant

PUB picks CH2M Hill to develop detailed designs for Tuas project

Singapore's PUB has appointed CH2M Hill Singapore as detailed design consultant for the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant, after a pre-qualification exercise.

Delayed Tarpon Springs reverse osmosis plant nears completion

Construction of a long-awaited US$ 45 million brackish water reverse-osmosis plant at the US city of Tarpon Springs, Florida is close to completion a few weeks behind schedule.

The WateReuse Association awards are designed to recognise leadership in advancing water reuse in the US

Winners of awards for water reuse projects unveiled

America's WateReuse Association has unveiled the winners of this year's awards for leadership in water reuse.

EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011

The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.

Clockwise from top left: Stan Williams, Jonathan Loveland and Chris Costello.

Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director

Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.

Korean-led venture strikes Tunisian desalination plant deal

South Korean-owned, water treatment company GS Inima Environment has secured a €69.4 million ($93.9 million) deal to build a desalination plant in Tunisia.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Israel Desalination Society conference scheduled for March

This year's annual conference of the Israel Desalination Society will be a joint event with the Israeli Water Association and and the Israeli Water Works Association.

The new partnerships reflect the theme of SIWW 2017, ‘Forging Alliances Amongst Global Water Utility Leaders’

PUB partners with SWCC and Water Corporation on shared challenges

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has formed two new knowledge sharing partnerships with key international water utilities through memorandums of understanding (MOUs) signed at Singapore International Water Week, 8 to 12 July 2017.

Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market

Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.

Toray takeover of Korea's Woongjin Chemical agreed

Japan's Toray Industries Inc announced on 6 November 2013 that Toray Advanced Materials Korea Inc (TAK), its Korean subsidiary, had agreed the same day with Woongjin Holdings Co Ltd and others to purchase a 56.2% stake in Woongjin Chemical Co Ltd for Won 430 billion (US$ 406 million).

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

2015 World Water Forum will be held in South Korea

The World Water Council has announced that the next World Water Forum will be held in Daegu - Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

Japanese desalination forum program announced

The program has been announced for the Japan Desalination Association (JDA) 2011 Forum in Tokyo on 16 February 2011.

Sumitomo allies with VA Tech Wabag

Japan's Sumitomo Corp announced on 7 December 2010 an alliance agreement with India-based VA Tech Wabag Ltd, under which the two companies will strategically cooperate in multiple areas within the water infrastructure industry

JGC and Hyflux to collaborate on water and desalination projects

Hydrocarbon engineering company JGC Corporation of Japan and NewSpring Utility Pte Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Singapore-based membrane technology company Hyflux Ltd, signed a joint venture agreement on 22 December 2009 to develop greenfield water projects including desalination in China.

The groundbreaking ceremony in Beijing

Toray sets up membrane JV in Beijing

A groundbreaking ceremony for a large membrane production facility was held in the industrial development area of Shunyi Airport, Beijing, China, on 24 August 2009.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources

Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.

Don't let climate uncertainty stymie desalination investment says risk expert

Water and wastewater utilities must view climate change as a "disruptive opportunity" and not allow uncertainty to stymie investments in desalination and other resilience measures according to a UK risk management expert. Climate change created a business opportunity where "the most resilient will have an implicit lead over their competitors," the expert told a recent international forum.

Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference

There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.

IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.

Another patent for Aquaporin in China

Danish company Aquaporin A/S has received a Notification of Allowance from the Chinese government's State Intellectual Property Office for its patent application titled Methods for Production of Salinity Power.

Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract

A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

Italmach acquires Compass, adds manufacturing base in North America

Italmach Chemicals has acquired Compass Chemical International, adding a strategically important site in Texas that it hopes will support its growth in the oil and gas industry.

Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard

Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.

Saltworks test rig with evaporation pond surrounded by windbreak.

Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost

Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).

EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events

The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.


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